Popular in Course
Popular in History
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Reed Champlin on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST103 at University of Delaware taught by MichaelFrassetto in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/207083/hist103-university-of-delaware in History at University of Delaware.
Reviews for WorldHistoryI
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/19/15
Identifications Carolingian Renaissance Fredegund Montezuma ruler in Aztec civilization was murdered and defeated by Cortes from Spain Huitzilopochtli Ezana Inca Guptas Song Dynasty Solomonid Tenochitlan Han Dynasty Tang Dynasty Clovis Empress Wu Yuan Dynasty Zagwe Mansa Musa Charlemagne Mali Santa Claus Sunni Ali Timbuktu Ghana Zara Yakob Bhakti practice of devotion with the understanding of the practice towards God Chandra Gupta founder of the Gupta Dynasty 320 515 CE unified India was a great warrior forged a series of marriage alliances preceded his son and grandson Teotihuacan Axum Essay You should be able to discuss developments in Latin Christian Europe during the Middle Ages from the fall of Rome to the early 11th century You should know the major figures Clovis Charlemagne Augustine Gregory 1 Benedict and others You should know about the church cultural developments monasticism the Carolingian Renaissance and the emergence of medieval culture out of ancient Roman Christian and German traditions 1 The Middle Ages were from 500 1500 CE In 576 CE the Roman empire fell After that everything had changed in Europe The Germanic people made many kingdoms throughout Europe and North Africa The Muslims of the 7th and 8th centuries invaded Europe at that time influencing the religion in Spain Southern Europe and North Africa Be sure to know about the important kingdoms of Africa The nature of African society and geography the nature of African religion and the influence of Christianity and Islam in Africa You should know about Aksum the Zagwe Solomonids Mansu Musa Sunni Ali and other leading figures of African history and culture What was the nature of the great African kingdoms Relationship with Europe and the Islamic world Trade and social structures 1 Ethiopia became a great kingdom in Northeast Africa It was benefited with its location that shaped its political and economic power It had important contacts with the Arabian World Asia South and Eastern Asia and Africa Mediterranean World Ethiopia became a Christian community between 4th 6th C CE and a Muslim community in 7th C CE 2 The Kingdom of AksumAxum emerged in the lst C CE It had two main centers Axum and Adulis They were key trade hubs from South and East Asia where they traded slaves gold spices sugar Ivory and wine The people of Axum were very traditional in their religious practices They had commercial contacts with the Arabian world In the 4th C CE Ezana ruled from 320 350 CE Ezana was a great effective ruler conquerer and builder of Ethiopian architecture He was known as the Ehtiopian Constantine because he converted to Monophysite Christianity which means there is only 1 nature of Christ Ezana was a coptic Christian He made the Axum state convert to Christianity appointed bishops and had the Bible translated into the native language of Ethiopia During the 4th C CE Axum had its greatest success It extended its borders and trade powers to the North and the East During the 6th 7th C CE the people of Axum remained the great political military economic power During the 7th C CE Islamic Ummah spread into North Africa Islamic civilization conquered Mediterranean civilization Axum is a Christian island in an Islamic sea Ethiopia did not have access to trade except for coffee which led to the decrease in political economic power Axum remained Christians until the 12th C CE 3 During the 12th C CE there was the Zagwe Dynasty It replaced the Axumites because they claimed to be descendants of Moses Lalibela ruled from 1185 1225 CE He had a vision of Jerusalem to establish a new Jerusalem He constructed Rock Churches which were carved out of rock in the shape of a cross They were influenced by Byzantine Churches Zagwe Dynasty restructured the nature of government in Ethiopia for 100 years A dependency formed where the ruler granted the nobles land and prominence The peasants offered labor service and food 4 During the mid 12th C CE the Solomonid Dynasty rose to power The Zagwes were overruled in 1270 CE They were the descendants of Moses The Solomonids were the descendants of Solomon king of Israel During the 15th C CE there was a revival and expansion of Ethiopia into East Africa In the Solomonid Kingdom service and loyalty traded for land to local nobles soldiers etc They expanded their power There was a new court system legal powersinstitutions etc They also promoted Christianity in the region Monasteries were important centers of religion learning study and book production There were building of new churches 5 Mansa Musa was the 10th King of Mali Mali was a kingdom where trade expanded its power It was an Islamic kingdom Mansa Musa constructed mosques shrines and welcomed Islamic merchants and scholars He was a highly effective ruler who was assisted by a bureaucracy Mansa Musa oversaw the administration of the big trade cities and collected taxes for the king that funded to grow the military that grew the power of Mali He undertook a pilgrimage to Mecca On his way to Mecca he made a stop in Cairo Egypt There he gave out so much goldmoney that it hyperinflated the economy of Cairo During the late 14th late 16th C CE a new dynasty rose the Songhai Dynasty ruled by Sunni Ali Sunni Ali built an army military and navy He promoted the interest of the trade cities and took steps to cultivate good relations with the trade cities Sunni Ali defeated neighboring kingdoms Also he practiced and promoted Islam Sunni Ali recognized that it was important to extend the hand to the rest of the population outside the cities where there were other traditionsrelig ions being practiced in Africa He even welcomed African native priests in court as respect of bringing everyone together He gathered farmers as well Eventually he died in 1492 and was followed by Muhammad al Tori Native American civilization Olmec Toltec and Mayan civilization Montezuma Huitzilopochtli Quetzacoatl Aztecs Human sacrifice Tenochitlan Things to consider nature of Aztec government and religion history of Aztec settlement and conquest cultural achievements Nature of Incan government society and religion 1 2 4 5 Olmec civilization occurred in central parts of Mexico It emerged in 1500 BCE until 400 BCE There was growth out of the previously small Neolithic villages into cities of good size La Venta was a major capital that emerged in 1200 BCE It consisted of 350000 and had a large stone pyramid La Venta was a large center of trade where clay salt and rubber were traded People traded in obsidian a commodity it was a hard volcanic glass used for cutting tools and weapons for military These people were highly skilled in making tools out of obsidian La Venta was a center of agriculture artisans and stone carvers The artisans made crafts and the stone carvers made La Venta structures The religion was interesting The gods were half human half animal Some gods were an eagle alligator and a jaguar There were ball games at ball courts where losing teams were ritually sacrificed There was an emergence of cities and culturalreligious traditions During 400 BCE Olmec civilization fell when there were military defeats Teotihuacan civilization emerged it consisted of 20000 people and was 30 miles north of Mexico City There were ball courts and great pyramids Teotihuacan was a large wealthy prosperous city where obsidian was produced It was run by nobles warriors and a class of priests It was a center of worship of a feathered serpent Sacrificed victims were brought to this feathered serpent Until the 6th C CE it was the center of religion and commerce Later trade began to decline military demand increased and undermined the success By 800 CE the city was abandoned By 900 CE Teotihuacan civilization had come to an end and a new power emerged Mayan civilization came about during 300 CE It was a classical civilization where they arrived in parts of Mexico and Central America They settled in small agricultural villages growing crops such as corn Tikal was a trade capital with a population of 70000 people It was an administrative center that established a relationship with neighboring cities and villages The Mayans were a class of noble warriors They built pyramids and a calendar Their mathematics and astronomy were sophisticated The Mayans understood the concept of zero They had 2 calendars a 365 day calendar and a 260 day calendar The 365 day calendar was the solar calendar The 260 day calendar was the religious calendar that identified the holy days It had auspicious days for marriage starting a business etc It also had bad days for when bad things that will happen The Mayan king was responsible for performing religious ceremonies and was said to be sent down by the gods When the king died elaborate ceremonies were performed The Mayan king was to establish order and harmony in the universe Blood sacrifices were necessary There were human sacrifices rights Even the king and queen would shed their own blood for sacrifice The Mayans believed in many Gods It was believed that the soul of a person makes a journey to the underworld when the person died If you were a good soul then you make it back to the real world During the 10th C CE the Mayan military and economy collapsed It was succeeded by smaller kingdoms Toltecs Aztecs culminated the trends you see with the Olmecs The Aztecs were the most successful civilization at the time of 13th to Early 16th C CE Tenochtitlan was a city that had cultural political and economic success It was an empire of great extent power economic prosperity and architecture Tenochtitlan was highly structured but came to fall in early 16th C CE by the Spaniards The Spaniards invaded with guns which were foreign to the Aztecs The Aztecs were forced to sacrifice themselves Aztlan was a culturally based place that moved southward in part of the order of 9 N 00 ED Huitzilopochtli the Hummingbird God He was driven by a core belief that they needed to conquer in order to have harmony in the universe He needed humans to sacrifice and believed that blood sacrifices were essential for the preservation of the culture Human blood was required to survive because he was the patron god of the warriors and preserved the order of the universe One day Huitzilopochtli and his henchmen were walking They saw an eagle on a cactus eating a serpent so they saw this as a sign to stop walking This site was then named Tenochtitlan It became an administrative political and religious capital During the 14th C CE the Aztecs expanded and became the greatest power in Mexico Itzcoatl created a Triple Alliance which was a step in creating the Aztec empire Itzcoatl built the empire through conquest In 1519 the Aztec empire reached its height It had 28 million people in the empire The land was 30000 sq mi and there were 400 500 subject conquered folk Aztec priests required sacrifices At least 20000 people were sacrificed at a time The next ruler had 40000 sacrificed at a time The Aztecs were brilliant people They had a book culture related to religious matters They were skilled astronomers mathematicians and astrologers Quezalcoatl was the feathered serpent god He was the patron of priests and protector of goldsmiths He invented the calendar and books Quezalcoatl was believed that one day he would return to the Aztecs Tenochtitlan was a city built on a lake In 1524 the population was 400000 It had a huge marketplace that had 60000 people working There was a wide variety of things that were traded there It was the central place for economy commerce bureaucracy and for the king who lived there Tenochtitlan contained a number of temples pyramids and a sacred pool It was a center of a great empire The key to the success was the development of a sophisticated farming economy eg corn chili peppers potatoes The great empire was dominated by its king Montezuma was the next to the last of the rulers ruling from 1502 1524 He let the Aztecs reach their greatest extent He was the top of the pyramid and a religious figure He was known as the reincarnation of the sun He had numerous wives and concubine Montezuma was aided in his administration by governors The empire was divided into provinces run by governors who collected taxes had many wives led armies were responsible forjustice and were the local religious power In his kingdom there were bureaucrats nobles farmers foot soldiers and serfs The nobles were the warriors and generals of the army The foot soldiers were the commoner class The serfs were in the lowest level of Aztec society They were bound to the land Eventually he was invaded by Cortes and was murdered Cortes was seen as Quezalcoatl returning Cortes was welcomed and arrived with 500 men horses canons and guns something unknown to the Aztecs He was able to conquer Aztecs and murder Montezuma By 1524 the Aztec civilization was conquered by Cortes and his allies The great empire was conquered and destroyed Disease spread and many died Know the events important people political and social structures of the Sui Tang Song and YuanMongol dynasties including the impact of the Yuan on China Be able to discuss the pattern of chaos and order in Chinese history Be able to discuss the achievements of Empress Wu and others Be able to discuss the cultural developments and changes in Buddhism and emergence of Neo Confucianism 1 N E The Sui Dynasty 589 618 CE restored order political order and infrastructure It revived important traditions of bureaucracy sought to restore Chinese international power by conquering Korea which did not work The Sui Dynasty did not have a mandate of heaven The Tang Dynasty 618 907 CE had a founder Gaozu He rose up against the Sui The Tang Dynasty exploited numerous traditions and had a powerful political system and military It was a successful dynasty with successful warriors due to their strength of conquest This success brought increasing revenues The Tang Dynasty spread Chinese power throughout Mainland China Tibet Korea and N Vietnam There were Sons of Heaven and they had great universal power The Tang Dynasty improved the powerful bureaucracy It had 15 provincial governors who were well trained experts These governors gave important advice to the emperor and were influenced by thoughts of Confucius This was the age of order There was important economic growth There was an introduction to the growing of tea rice in the South This allowed people to live longer lives and thus the population grew Also the government started taxing this large population to pay for the military There was an increase in manufacturing and great growth of paper porcelain and silk Silk was actually raw silk and silk thread that was traded There was a route in which silk was traded It was called the Silk Road China controlled the revenues and taxes along this route to maintain the Tang power There was also cultural growth in which printing developed for written texts books and education material Encyclopedias history books and religious books were published The Tang Dynasty was also known as the Golden Age of Buddhism There were 2 types of Buddhas Maitreya Buddha and Amitabha Buddha Maitreya Buddha was the Buddha who was going to make everything right in the world an Earthly paradise Amitabha Buddha wanted to make a heavenly paradise but preached that only with faith you will be able to enter the Pure Land There was also Chan BuddhismZen Buddhism in West America that was a Chinese type of Buddhism Poetry was eventually written Li B0 was a poet who wrote about pleasure He wrote poems about wine and other simple pleasures Another contemporary poet was Du Fu This was a period of order and economic productivity Soon a female ruler named Wu came to power She ruled from 690 705 CE and was one of the greatest rulers of the Tang Dynasty She promoted Buddhism and took a non traditional path to power She was a concubine She began to dominate at court She placed her sons in power She expanded the military and subjugated the Koreans Wu strengthened international and national power She used Buddhist monks into the bureaucracy as administrators This weakened the aristocracy and strengthened her power She used secret police who were established as informers that executed torture to maintain her power Eventually Wu was replaced by her grandson who ruled for 40 years During the Mid 8th C CE Buddhism became oppressed in 841 CE In 907 CE Tang Dynasty came to a close Another period of Chaos was still around During 907 960 CE China went through Chaos During 960 1279 CE a new dynasty appeared the Song Dynasty It established political stability in China There were studies of Confucius classics There were exams and the more exams that were passed the higher the position you obtain as well as salary and prestige The Song Dynasty had a diplomatic policy It collected money from silk and trade commerce It dominated in land trade and sea trade Pquot 9 There was a continued growth of societies Printing was promoted which led to economic growth Orderstability was renewed internally This was the period of Chinense cultural influence that influenced other parts of East Asia Zhu Xi promoted Neo Confucianism and used Daoist traditions in China Basically Song Dynasty was less successful than Tang Dynasty in foreign policy It used diplomatic policy During the 13th C CE the Mongols shaped Chinese and Asian history They were great warriors who were led by Genghis Khan They increased the economic trade in their empire Mongols pushed into South into China In 1264 Mongols established the capital Beijing In 1279 the Yuan Dynasty came to power It overturned the Song Dynasty and became an elite power The Yuan pushed westward and east to Korea and Vietnam They sought to conquer Japan They preserved continuity of earlier political institutions The Yuan sought to establish itself as legitimate Chinese dynasty They brought art culture and literature They hated the Native Chinese and adopted Chinese namestraditions but remained separate and distinct from the Chinese Massive taxes were forced on peasants These peasants were forced to build roads temples governmental buildings They were forced off their farms and to work for the Yuan The peasants had animosity toward the Yuan The Yuan Dynasty lasted until 1368 until they were overthrown