Popular in Course
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Reed Champlin on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST321 at University of Delaware taught by PeterKolchin in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/207087/hist321-university-of-delaware in History at University of Delaware.
Reviews for CivilWarandReconstruction
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/19/15
September 2 2010 US population 1830 129 million 1860 325 million 1880 502 million mmigrant5decade 18205 1 million 18305 5 million 18405 14 million 18505 28 million 18605 21 million 18705 27 million New State5 183080 183045 1 Northern 3 Southern 184660 5 N 0 S 186180 5 N 0 S Percent Urban 1840 108 1860 198 1880 283 Slave trade abolished in 1808 5ave population triple5 from 15 to 45 million from 18101880 natural increase Immigration number5 increase rapidly especially through 18405 and 505 German British and Irish compri5ed most incoming immigrant5 Most ri5h moved to cities German5 went to Midwest Geographical movement of population increase in transportation technology gt railroad5 canal5 gt from east to west from countryside to cities urbanization local migration September 9 2010 3 paper assignments due throughout the course of the semester and we have to do 2 of them first paper due Sept 30 Idea of American experiment September 23 2010 NEED TO READ West Virginia vs tide water region was a victory for slave holding interests in court Slave representation not a full person Arguments of where state capitals should be slave holders wanting them to be in plantation areas and those who don t want them there Hinting Helper 1857 non slave holder from hill NC wrote a book remarkable critique of slavery not from an abolitionist point of view argued slavery retarded economic growth dea that free blacks held a threat to proposed order Abolitionism caused a reaction of slave holders that was disproportionate to the actual threat Surplus of slaves slavery no longer economical Shifting political balance with 5 non slave states entering the union between 1845 and 1860 with no slave states entering 2 ways to defend slavery Picture a spectrum with dr on the left and sca on the right Democraticracist practical gt socially and economically religious gt gods plan to Christianize the world racial gt make them out to seem evolutionarily inferior gt made for labor SocialClassaristocratic isms gt reform gt social turmoil free labor leads to a disorderly anarchic set of social relations Wage slavery free labor some thought worse than slavery bc owners didn t care about their workers at all October 12 2010 DO EVERYTHING YOU CAN NOTO FAILTHIS CLASS Politics of late antebellum period political revolution from KansasNebraska act collapse of second party system Passage of Kansasnebraska act set off a vigorous struggle for control of Kansas whether would come in as a free or slave state In the north new England immigrant aid society gt promote immigration to Kansas 2 rival governments set up in Kansas mini civil war Battle of John Brown led a group of free soil settlers on an attack of settlers on potomee creek and killed several southerners Several hundred southerners attacked John Brown in retaliation Bleeding Kansas violence became the biggest issue in national politics at least between 18541858 Charles Sumner one of the few abolitionists in the senate gave a speech in government against slavery attacked another senator in particular Crazyass Sumner attacked by Preston beat him with a cane in front of a few southerners each became heroes to north and south respectively Sumner injured so badly he didn t resume his seat until 3 years later traveled around the world resumed seat in 1859 Preston Brooks became hero in the south 1857 held a constitutional convention Kansas adopted a constitution and applied to Congress for admission had to get constitution ratified first provided a choice to vote for constitution with slavery or without slavery but couldn t vote against slavery antislavery boycotted election slavery won handily bc they were really the only ones who voted applied as a slave state senator Stephen Douglass and Buchannon gt northern democrats broke with Buchannon and voted against admission of Kansas right before contest with Lincoln for election to senate of Illinois there was no majority to admit Kansas compromise proposed by English English Bill gt given back to voters with the option of voting for it or against it was not admitted until 1861 as a free state Conspiracy of slave power in the north gt thought that slave power would stop at nothing until slavery was allowed everywhere Electionof 1856 pitted James Buchannon against John C Fremont who was a general in Mexican American war first race Republicans ran nationally and were narrowly defeated former prez Millerd Filmore of the KnowNothing party also ran Republicans swept most of the north gt didn t get Pennsylvania thought of as the key to the next election gt if they could win PA they could prob win the election Lincoln not an abolitionist but thinks slavery is bad and that blacks are still inferior to whites thought slavery was inhumane very strong believer in the Union thought abolitionists posed a threat equality of rights and equality of capabilities gt debate with Douglas Lincoln s choice of words in this debate is important admits they are not equal but still deserve to be granted basic rights uses term self government Lincoln toys with the idea of colonization didn t think blacks could live free in America Misunderstanding between Lincoln and Douglas Lincoln believes owning another human is wrong whether they are black or white Douglas thinks Lincoln doesn t support blacks and isn t really anti slavery Views on free labor believed free labor system was a better way to organize society Need 5A majority in congress could not build up that majority against slavery for nearly 20 or so years After he is elected he promises over and over again to southern senators and the like that he cannot and will not abolish slavery where it already exists also will not let slavery expand southerners indignant about not being able to expand their system claims the north is llenslaving them Election of James Buchannon during his administration there was a continuing hostility 2 particularly important events that happened during his term that fanned sectionalist flame Dred Scott case gt 18305 Scott s master took him into federal territory north of the MissouriCompromise line eventually sued for his freedom court ruled against Scott Judges said Scott was not a citizen bc he was black and could not sue in federal court court stated slavery could not be banned from any federal territory undercuts Douglas popular sovereignty idea to not give the necessary policing force to enforce slavery so that even if it was legal it could not flourish John Brown s Raid conducted raid on arsenal at Harper s Ferry in an attempt to distribute arms to slaves and create rebellion no slaves came bc they prob didn t even know about it and a few days later they were surrounded and captured tried by Virginia found guilty of treason and executed seemed to confirm the fears of all southerners and southern politician black and red republicans Country is now almost entirely polarized southerners see attempt to enslave them October 14 2010 Election of 1860 Popular votes Electoral votes Lincoln 19mil 180 Douglas 14 12 Brechurity 8 72 Bell 6 39 Democrats strong in both n and s Sharp differences between n and s wings of party couldn t agree majority report gt endorsed by 15 slave states plus ca n or minority report doublist northern democrats gt didn t say whether congress had the right but should support the ruling Dred Scott decision Republicans met in Chicago leading contender William Steward from NY came in first on the first ballot lost some on second ballot gt voting peaked Lincoln won third ballot Douglas and Bell didn t care about slavery Lincoln hated it and Breckinrridge was all for it Douglas second in N n S Douglas won MZ n NJ who split vote Breckinridge won whole deep S Secession crisis election of Lincoln Y not try to win again in 4 yrs Bc they re dumb assholes S thought their interest were going to be harmed by some antisouthern party in presidency secession wasn t supported by all southerners Sectional division of slavery Sept 20 SC called a convention which unanimously voted for secession SC only unanimous state much stronger strong interest among larger part of pop in SC followed by 6 other states but with some opposition to it gt Non slave holding whites of south hill n mountain country in S When VA secedes WV breaks off from VA secession Lincoln sworn in March 4 election in November President Buchannon does nothing but criticize Committee of 33 proposed 13 amendment to Constitution which would have allowed slavery forever and never allowed to be changed forever Republicans we hardcore freesoil gt no extension of slavery Lincoln won t interfere with it where it exists but won t allow its extension Confederate expressly permitted slavery instead of 4 yr terms they limited prez to one 6 month term ppl from Montgomery chose Jefferson Davis and vp Alex Davis Confederate general someone bombarded ft Sumter Lincoln sent troops to put down the insurrection DE MD KY n MZ slave states who didn t secede Civil war causation Contemporaries emphasize the war was about slavery Clash of cultures position Struggle between agricultural south and industrial north Needless war or blundering generation position thought war could have been prevented Growing economic transformation of N growing sectional divergence territorial expansion gt slavery allowed to expand govt gt decentralized power democratic but very federal The war and secession are distinct October 21 2010 Y soldiers fought did they know or care or just following orders Start reading what this cruel war was over Soldier saw the war as being over slavery War for slavery is seen as linked to the war of social orderhierarchy Southerners defending slavery saw themselves as also defending their own freedom and their own material interests Vast majority of white northerners weren t abolitionists even if they were opposed to slavery 186162 Union forces already pushing into southern territory llslave power conspiracy slaveholders etc More time soldiers spent in the south and came into contact with slavery the more antislavery the Union soldiers became Mexican war only a decade and a half before civil war short easy war for America fought by small professional army not much strain on Americans no draft American military men in the mid 19 h century were raised on a number of precepts Henri Jomini gt wrote a book on art of war gt served with Napoleon New weaponry rifles that can be reloaded faster new industrial might of northern part of US made it easier to mobilize resources Lincoln went through several generals throughout the war eventually finds Grant and Sherman Draft highly inequitable buy your way out pay for a replacement South was the only part of the country that was ravaged by the war Southerners saw themselves as true descendents of forefathers saw themselves as rightful patriots Why the north won and why it took so long Lincoln so long as this is a war that is continued to be fought in the old fashion way gt small professional armies gt the north has no real advantage most of the best union officers were fighting for the south south s defensive advantage War almost always ends recession Urging of African Americans to join the North s war effort The war is changed with emancipation proclamation from a war for the union to preserve the status quo to a new war for freedom to remake the Union southerners now proven right about the war being to overthrow southern society well it didn t start out that way Some euro countries had stockpiled cotton blockade is only partially effective early on By 1863 union war machine in full swing and southern economy beginning to decline gt fewer and fewer resources rampant inflation throughout the south breakdown of entire transportation system food shortages including some riots in some cities growing dissention within the confederacy in taxation and centralization needed to sustain the war south born against centralization but it was needed for the war doing so in a way that interfered with the personal interest of southerners confederate deserters desertion of huge numbers of slaves to northern lines south even considered freeing some slaves and having them serve in the army confederacy on its last legs
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'