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by: Reed Champlin

UnitedStatesHistory HIST205

Marketplace > University of Delaware > History > HIST205 > UnitedStatesHistory
Reed Champlin
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Reed Champlin on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST205 at University of Delaware taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/207089/hist205-university-of-delaware in History at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
February 10 12th ntro The Era of Reconstruction America Ch 5 15 1 2 3 6 12 Lincoln wins the election 0 1860 Four candidates He won by getting 29 of the votes He won a divided nation 0 By the time he was inaugurated seven states had left the union Southern Carolina Mississippi Florida Alabama Georgia Louisiana Texas 0 He saw hisjob as keeping the country together and Whole 0 More people died in the civil war than any other To end the civil war he had to end slavery o Approached the congressman from Delaware He wanted compensated emancipation Would cost the US a million dollars inexpensive compared to war Hoped that if this happened he could spread the message to other states Slaveholders in Delaware turned it down Emancipation Proclamation January 1863 o eed slaves in rebel territory So although he declared it he didn t free anyone at that moment because he didn t have the power to do it slaveholding states kept their slaves through the war Lincolns 10 plan o If ten percent of the people Who were eligible to participate in the election in the confederate states voted in favor of rejoining the union it would happen 0 Very different from what other republicans wanted to do They wanted revenge WadeDavis proposal required 50 of voters to vote on joining the union and would have to take an oath that said they were wrong to have joined the rebellion Confiscation Act 1862 o Said that any property belonging to a confederate that was captured by the union could be taken without compensation Lincoln put this through but never enforced it 14th Amendment 0 1868 o guarantees equal protection before the laws 0 establishes citizenship for all people born in the US regardless of background or race 15th Amendment 0 1879 o Guarantees the right to vote for former male slaves John Wilkes Booth 0 Thought by shooting Lincoln the war would be reenergized Freedman s Bureau 0 Proposed to make bridge between slavery and freedom 0 Many slaves could not read orwrite and did not have a trade Most had done field work or domestic service 0 Proposed to offer basic education to these freed people Civil Rights Act 0 Guarantees the right to a trial before a jury etc Specifically states that they will be treated as citizens of the US Reconstruction Acts 0 Passed by Congress in 1867 o Allowed for federal reconstruction of the south until amendments could be enacted 0 Not readily accepted 0 Black codes made by confederate states Specified that former slaves had to by law secure an annual working contract with an employer or face imprisonment Then they had to pay debt to whoever bailed them out 0 14m and 15m were designed to not let these things happen but problems persisted 0 African Americans severely hampered from voting first by terrorists such as KKK 700 people killed on the way to polling places in one instance Why was this allowed to happen 0 By 1870 people were weary War had been going on for nine years In presidential Election issue of reconstruction became the center point It appeared to have given the democrats the vote However there seemed to be problems particularly in Florida It appeared as though there was widespread corruption and voter fraud there Congress established a fifteen member panel to investigate o Determined that there was voter fraud Votes could not be counted Republicans made president In 1877 federal government ended official reconstruction February 1719 Industrialization and Its Cultural Context America Ch 1718 1745610 18 467 Country becoming more urban and industrial Things that helped fuel this process 1 Resources a US Wholly self sufficient in resources needed iron cotton copper etc b In 1875 Bessemer introduced a new process where iron would be superheated with coal fire at very high temperatures This would render it into steel with less cost than before In two years price of steel dropped in half and more c Tobacco New machine introduced that produced cigarettes 2 Labor a At best factories had 200 employees before Women who lived there b After civil war mass migration to US In 1840 s women began to be replaced by immigrant labor Cheap and abundant labor It helped that they spoke different languages because it made forming unions difficult Children and slaves started to work as well Henry Clay and Development 0 He proposed that the federal government do something about the problems with transportation being so expensive Proposed that they pave roads over paths made by animals Invest in canals 0 Federal government did not fund any of this It was up to the states 0 Start to see skyscrapers in the late 19th century because steel became cheaper Henry Clay and the Role of Government Had envisioned the role of government as boosting the economy Wasn t a big government idea but still thought that the government could make a difference even in a smaller capacity 0 Envisioned that by placing taxes on imported goods that American manufacturers would have an ntage Government and Rail Roads 0 Government gave railroads land and they sold it to people settling in the west They would invest the money back into their own business As immigrants began to acquire their own money they could settle into the west cheaply Government awarded land based on how many tracks were laid This meant that there was no incentive to do this efficiently Why go through a mountain When you can go around it Steam Technology 0 owers locomotives o In 1807 Robert Fulton created for paddle boats Carnegie and o MOBILITY the Gospel of Wealth The key to being in the railroad business on the side of the union during the civil war was how to get men and weapons and food all in the same place He learned that it was all about logistics Goes into the steel business Figures out not only howto make steel cheaply but how to motivate Goes and acquires his own iron ore mines Doing it himself instead of paying others to do it Vertical integration base to top Wrote a small book arguing that it s the responsibility of the very wealthy to pass on their wealth to society Very specific plan in mind If he gave every man woman and child the bulk of his wealth those 5 a person would make a difference but only for a very limited period of time What would make a bigger difference would be to invest in universities hospitals and libraries This is what he did as did his fellows John Rockefeller Interested in horizontal integration you integrate among your competitors who are doing the exact same thing that you are Give them an offer that they can t refuse to join them February 24 26 Stepping onto the World Stage America Ch 21 Documents 2 116710 As the US becomes the largest creditor nation it affords the US an opportunity to exhort its influence in world affairs One of the first places we see this happen is in the SpanishAmerican War This happens in relation to Cuba Cuba was important to Spain Ever since the late 1850 s Cuban people had been fighting for independence against Spanish imperial war Spain was pouring money and troops into Cuba Cuba only became more rebellions In 1896 Spain sent a new colonial government Sent Wyler His solution was to create what he called concentration camps His point was to concentrate the Cuban people into camps pulling them out of their homes at night where they could be guarded and surrounded In the morning they would be released to go about their lives It served Spain s interests to a point But the camps were so brutal that 200000 died between 1806 and 1898 This wasn t the purpose of the camps but that was the result This started to get the interest of American newspapers The fact that this was taking place so close to home troubled the American people The issue was sensationalized Joseph Pulitzer a journalist wrote about this selling the story of atrocities right off of the American coast Congress decided to investigate Was it really this bad Sent a group of senators headed up by William Proctor to go and look into it He came back and reported to the nation that in fact the papers were accurate Thought the US should do something about this US started to dispatch ships to the nation Book called Influence of Sea Power in History was published in 1890 Powers needed a strong naval presence lf America was going to take its rightful place we needed a strong navy SpanishAmerican War April August 1898 W r Remember the Maine A ship dispatched from US to Cuba 0 As it was on patrol on Feb 15 1898 it exploded in the dead of night Three hundred American sailors were drowned and killed 0 The headlines of newspapers the next morning was to remember the Maine This said that this was an act of violence and should be considered an act of war 0 The reality is no one knew how or why 0 One of the notable features of its design was that the boiler room was right next to the room with weapons and explosives It would appear that this could have caused an explosion Yet this would have allowed time for sailors to get on lifeboats However it caused a chain reaction and bottom blew up and it sunk almost instantly o What is US to do about this Put navy on alert However this step was not taken by the president or the secretary of the navy It was taken by the assistant secretary Theodore Roosevelt Most people didn t even know who the assistant secretary of the navy was The secretary was away on vacation 0 After the Maine was sunk he sent a cable to the commander of the American pacific fleet Dewey They were in Hong Kong In his cable Roosevelt ordered Dewey o finish supplying as quickly as he could and then move the fleet towards the Philippines Roosevelt reasoned that should war come with Spain the Spanish would be likely to dispatch that fleet to the west coast of the US It would be better for the US to arrive in the Philippines before the Spanish could act o It was a huge gamble that Roosevelt was not authorized to have made But it was ruled as sound Two Front War 0 The US fought Spanish in Cuba but also they engaged the Spanish in the Philippines and Guam and Puerto Rico 0 As navy heads to Cuba they stop in Guam 0 Dewey and his men were surprised by this They put the men in confinement Dewey feels badly for these guys They surrender 0 They move on to the Philippines Spanish fleet is still in harbor They didn t have time to dispatch The navy surrenders o Aguinaldo was with Dewey Had been exiled in Hong Kong Thought that Philippines was going to be freed Thought US was there to help him Teller Amendment 0 Attached to the declaration of war 0 States that US if victorious would not keep Cuba as a colony They would free them oesn t say anything about any other Spanish possessions 0 Filipino American War Wyler Pulitzer Hearst Mahan Aguinaldo The president was not eager to go to war 0 He presses Spain to abandon Cuba 0 McKinley began to make public announcements against Spain He was publicly demanding that Spain leave Cuba Spain had been considering this 0 Ultimatum is made Spain must leave Cuba or US will go to war with them Spain chose to ignore this for fear of losing their dignity Because they would not do this on April 18 of 1898 President McKinley asks for a declaration of war and receives one What does this mean The US is really not prepared to go to war Army is small Navy is not ready Their military was more of a defensive force than anything else Moreover there was a debate among the American people about why this war should take place Morally some people thought the fact that they lived in the same hemisphere was justification enough Others thought this was a chance for US to show power through military Strategically important Also some worried about implications of this What would US do if they were to rid Cuba of Spanish rule What next US gets forces 0 Roosevelt asked if he could be allowed to create his own brigade the rough riders who would go and rid Cuba of Spanish rule 0 He was granted this Orders custom made uniforms eyeglasses c As a young man he had been a cowboy 0 His wife died went out west to west to exercise and get over his depression 0 As a young man he suffered from asthma his father s solution was for him to work out He kept this through his life 0 Newspapers pick up story of the Rough Riders Roosevelt became a national figure In Summer of 1898 Spain surrenders US decides that they are going to take the Philippines as a colony Between 1899 and 1902 the US fought a war in the Philippines in order to take possession of it over 127000 soldiers went to fight 4200 were killed and hundreds of thousands of Philippines died as well 0 This sparked a debate should Americans be colonizing other places If so why March 3 5 The Politics of Early Reform America Ch 1920 19 4 5 8 20 48 We have been looking at how dramatically the US changes in the post civil war era People are unsettled Millions of people who were enslaved are now free A million new immigrants arriving every year into the country People are living in larger communities working in larger work places It s unsettling and confusing As a result people in the early years of the 20 h century are looking for political solutions First see this emerging in rural America 0 p southMidwest People who are feeling particularly vulnerable to all of the change around them People are poor and feeling left out In part troubled by source of income Supply of cotton was dramatically reduced After civil war went back to growing cotton But as time goes on 18708090 so many people growing it that the price drops dramatically Planters are feeing pinched Falling deeper and deeper into poverty They feel that republicans and democrats are not addressing their needs Thinking about a third party solution So the people s party is formed the populists Trying to address rural poverty In the 1870 s people settling in Utah Colorado found that farming was very profitable What they did not know was that they were living through an unusual weather period Cold and wet They did well until the weather got back to normal in the 1880s and it became warm and dry They too joined the populists Eventually by 1892 are prepared to go onto the national stage They wanted to propose that the federal government become more involved Populists and their Concerns o R iroads a l o Needed to be reformed o Needed to charge uniformed rates o If railroads fail to comply then they should be nationalized 0 Radical for the time Monopolies They wanted these destroyed or broken up The huge companies They were monopolizing on the market Currency 0 Wanted to change the system 0 Currency of the US had been confused up until the civil war During the civil war the US placed itself on a gold standard For every dollar in circulation the government guaranteed that there would be a dollars worth of gold in storage So it was very stable 0 However there was a wrinkle Btw 1865 and 1900 increased by one thousand percent However the amount of gold did not increase so same amount of dollars in circulation How does this effect the value of the dollar Value increases o If you have money this is terrific If you re impoverished farmers it ll make it more difficult 0 As deflation is unfolding their solution is to change the currency system They should also use silver Election of 1892 Weaver James Populist candidate 0 Former general during civil war on side of the union 0 Got more votes than any third party ever on the popular vote front Fields 0 Confederate general during civil war 0 Running with Weaver Harrison Benjamin 0 Republican Cleveland Democrat amp winner 0 Wins by approximately a 3 margin Take away Major parties saw they needed to take issues from the populists Whenever a third party gains some significant traction the major parties absorb their issues and make the third party irrelevant This is What happened in 1896 Shift of 1896 0 Features a split 0 McKinley William republican Lawyer and judge in the state of Ohio usiness he adopted the idea of splitting up the monopolies Pro immigrant 0 Bryan democrat rom Nebraska Known for his oratory skills Favored more traditional American values White AngloSaxon values Part of that reforming the currency system Men should not be crucified on a cross of gold If elected he would adopt silver as well as gold material oses in a landslide o McKinley spoke to more people than Bryan could ever do Between 1900 and 1920 we see a whole array of reforms that fall under the general classification as the progressive era in American history dea that government can and should play a bigger role 0 Reformers are not farmers They are overWnelmingly urban middle class white March 1012 The Roaring 20 s and the Coming of the Great Depression A DJnts 22 459 232 World War and it s Aftermath Franz Ferdinand Assassinated in Sarajevo o The heir to the AustrianHungarian empire 0 When touring he was assassinated in 1914 He was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist vxno wanted independence from the empire 0 In response the AH empire imposes martial law All rights and privileges are suspended After dark they were subject to arrest or even getting shot on the spot 0 The Russians objected to this although there are sharp differences between Serbians and Russians Russians declared war against the AH Empire 0 A series of alliances dragged Europe into war France had alliance with Russians AH had alliance with Germany Great Britain became involved as well most Americans this seemed to be folly o Wilson s Neutrality 1914 o Told fellow Americans to remain neutral about the war in thought and in deed o In part he does this for purposes of domestic tranquility 0 As a neutral power the US can supply both sides if they so choose 0 The reality is that Wilson is not neutral He loves British culture literature He wants to see the British to come out in better shape 0 This becomes evident with the sinking of the Lusitania 0 US Intervention April 1917 o War was at a standstill Millions of soldiers had already perished o All that was left were very young or very old soldiers 0 Germany decided to resume submarine warfare Hoping that British and French would have to make a settlement to end the war before the US could become involved 0 They sunk cargo vessels that were shipping supplies to the other side 0 Wilson administration sought a declaration of war The US quickly begins to put itself on a war footing 0 There was a lag time They had to train people to go to war Ultimately 2 million Americans served in WI between 1917 and 1918 Over 50000 killed It is the US that makes the difference tipping war in favor of British and French Russians have left the war by this time o Ultimately the Germans surrendered The treaty that follows treaty of Versailles redraws the map of Europe Whole new countries are created Places that had all been part of the AustrianHungarian empire 0 Later Reaction 0 Beginning of advertising 0 By 1920s its not entirely clear to the American people that this was worth it was the world really safer for democracy It didn t seem to be Economy plunges no longer creating war materials 0 US pulls back from world affairs as a result For the first time in 1921 the US begins to impose immigration restrictions 0 Whole series of terrorist bombings Palmer had a bomb sent to his house His maid lost her hands when she picked up the package No one was taking responsibility for this 0 Palmer made up his own mind on what was happening He blamed it on communist influences particularly from people from abroad He named a young new member of his justice department Edgar Hoover to investigate these bombings and bring people to justice 0 Restrictions based on census data from 1910 People were asked not about their race but about their ethnic data After 1921 3 of ethnic groups could come In 1941 congress changes this to 2 and changes the census year to 1890 Why Because its only after 1890 that there is a large surge of people coming from southern and eastern Europe This was what congress believed to be the problem 0 By changing numbers you changed the ethnic mix Further restrictions became significant in the 1930s when Hitler is taking power and people wanting to flee OO O O Lusitania May 71915 Said to be one of the finest ships on the sea Attracted wealthy passengers In May it set sale from NYC to England The German government warned them that they could potentially be at risk Germany took out a full page add in the NYT to warn them Problem was there were no American ships that were as luxuriousprominent A few days after setting sale as it was off the Irish coast the ship was attacked by a German submarine o The British had a reputation of having strong naval presence Germany did not But it did build its forces in one particular areas submarines Had approx 100 Relatively fragile vessels that could only go under for short periods of time But it was long enough to launch torpedoes They sent one at the hull Sunk in 18 minutes 1500 people drowned 197 of whom were American 0 There were explosives stored on the ship 0 Wilson administration cries that this is foul play Cites international treaties in regard to this that said that if a passenger vessel was attacked that the safety and the welfare of the passengers need to be provided for 0 So Germany had to cease submarine warfare or US would join war 0 Germany agreed Summer of 1914 0 China is falling apart There is confusion There is also confusion and desperation in Europe The Roaring 20 s 0 Prosperity 0 Standard of living 0 Technology 0 Demographics 0 Election of 1928 Hoovervs Smith The US remains separateisolated from world events until 1941 Pearl Harbor ey were aware of world affairs 1920 s was a period of great change 0 What emerges in part is a consumer culture 0 We also see a mass migration Former slaves who were relegated still to agricultural manual labor in the south start to leave the south and come north for new opportunities in a variety of different work places that pay better wages and lead to higher prosperity c When we talk about prosperity there are still large parts of the country that are left behind o How to we measure prosperity People had more goods than they had ever had before Technology 0 People had electric things in their home Electric lighting etc This changed people s lives 0 By 1929 23 of American households had these This changed communication 0 By 1925 the US was producing 5 million porcelain items every year sinks toilets showers The 1920 s marked the creation of a mass culture linking people together by the things that they consume The mall a shared culture No matter what state you are in you can walk into a familiar place This is because we share a mass culture 0 Part of this is due to advertisin o In 1916 firms spent 16 mil on advertising 0 In 1927 into the billions 0 Advertising products in order to foster a consumer culture 0 Listerin Up until 1927 it was advertised with ads featuring a woman who couldn t get a date The woman disappeared Technological Innovation of Radio 0 Was not unique to the US but What was different here was that radio was and is a commercial enterprise In most of Europe it was supported by taxpayers In the US it has always been paid for by advertising 0 Radio first promotes sports Baseball and boxing 0 Music had always been sold as sheet music Another measure of prosperity life expectancy Soars in the 1920s lncreases by 12 years 0 Why 0 Increase in understanding of medicine o It increased because child mortality rates changed All of the things that used to kill people as children 0 By the 1930 s women have longer life expectancies than men for the first time ever Changing Demographics 0 Size of American cities sours o By 1930 150 cities in US with populations around 100000 0 Must have efficient agriculture transportation and economy that allows people to buy food Election of 1928 Hoover vs Smith 0 Hoover republican Smith democrat 0 They represented the era well 0 Hoover was an engineer graduate of Stanford orphaned by the age of 9 self made man who retired at the age of 40 and took his talents and devoted them to public service 1920 was the first time he ran for any office


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