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by: Reed Champlin

WesternCivilization1648tothePresent HIST102

Marketplace > University of Delaware > History > HIST102 > WesternCivilization1648tothePresent
Reed Champlin
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This 46 page Class Notes was uploaded by Reed Champlin on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST102 at University of Delaware taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see /class/207090/hist102-university-of-delaware in History at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
January 3 2011 Characteristics of the West Common roots in Greece and Rome Historical transformation Economy from agricultural to industry and development of markets Society from a society of orders based on birth to society based on income and opportunity meritocracy Politics from authoritarian rule to popular participation 1648 Thirty Years War The old Regime European monarchies from 16481848 Definitions of Old Regime Alexis de Tocqueville The Old Regime and the Revolution 1856 quotA system of institutions based on hierarchy and authority that was substituted by others based on equal opportunity Pierre Goubert s 6 features of the Old Regime Authoritarian character of politics Prevalence of agrarian economy Preponderance of religion over rational scientific thought Slow population growth Profound social divisions Slow transportation and communication Water water carrier Family economy preindustrial economy Sanitation Arranged marriage Justice in the Old Regime pillory Popular culture animal fighting gt bull baiting bear baiting consumer culture cock fighting January 4 2011 The Western Economy 1650 1800 Agrarian economy Low productivity Susceptible to shortages and famine Land was the main source of wealth and production Underdeveloped markets Controlled labor force Artisan industry controlled by guilds Feudal Economy agrarian economy Agriculture is the primary source of production Land is the primary source of wealth Landowners make up an elite class called the nobility Factors of low productivity Structural means of land exploitation traditional methods of cultivation traditional technology weak livestock difficult transportation Socioculturalfactors 0 Distribution of ownership very uneven land ownership 0 Stratified society 0 Conditions of tenancy I Peasantry in Western Europe I Serfdom in Eastern Europe Serfdom in Europe kills incentives absenteeism unreliability provokes rebellion especially in Russia Key components of a successful crop yield Water Fertilizer Technology Plow Broadcastseeding Sickle harvestingscythe harvesting The draught animal Agrarian growth in the West Expansion of cultivated land Introduction of new crops Profound transformation of some regions 0 Agrarian surplus for commercial agriculture Some regions that combined 0 Adequate environment 0 Favorable tenancy conditions 0 Proximity to markets Agrarian Revolution Regions 0 NetherlandsModern Cultivation o CataloniaIrrigation and Property distribution 0 EnglandEnclosure Laws Manufacturers and the City 0 Urban life 0 Trade and finance 0 Protoindustry Netherlands Geographic advantage 0 Fertile land 0 Central location for easy access to markets Technologicalinnovations 0 Add wheels to the plough 0 Grass cultivation seeding weeding watering Politics 0 Strong middle class 0 End feudalism o Fairly democratic republic The Dutch Empire Catalonia Geography 0 Fertile valleys Exports 0 Wine production for the Spanish empire England Revolutions of 1640 and 1688 0 Definitions of property change 0 Enclosure produces an entrepreneurial aristocracy who takes pride in cultivation and productivity Innovation 0 Jethro Tull s seeding machine and ploughs 0 Henry Cavendish first chemical fertilizer with nitrogen The market economy Broadly defined is that economic or socioeconomic system in which 0 The means of production are overwhelmingly privately owned and operated for profit 0 Decisions regarding investment of capital are made privately 0 Production distribution and the prices of goods services and labor are affected by the forces of supply and demand In other words by the natural forces of the market Rise of the Urbis Cities and manufactures 0 Urban life 0 Trade and finances 0 Industry Old Regime Universal Order Aristotle s hierarchical view of nature translated to earthly order Natural hierarchy and universal order 0 Orders of Angels I Seraphim Cherubim and Thrones I Dominations Virtues and Powers I Principalities Archangels and Angels Feudal society Medieval Orders 0 Bellatore I Warriors feudal lords o Oratore I llprayers Clergy o Laboratore I llthose who work villains January 52011 Old Regime society the Estates Nobility 1st Estate Clergy 2nd Estate Commoners 3 Estate No recognition for equality before law Instead of classes of free individuals with similar rights there were preestablished social categories sanctioned by law that established different qualities of people Individual rights and duties were predetermined by class Categories were known as Estates Nobility Conceived as the mirror of society From aristocracy to a gentry landed class 1015 of social body Privileged group Clergy Members of the church Divisions 0 Upper 0 Lower 5 of social body Commoners Every single member of society with no noble status Large majority 8085 of social body No fiscal privileges Very diverse Challenges to the Old Regime The State 0 Not only was the Old Regime inherently unequal but also rather inefficient in governance Changing role of family and individual o Questioning the Patriarchy 0 Call for individual freedoms and rights Elements of social disruption Rise of middle class bourgeois society Consumption in a rising merchant class Absolutism The political doctrine and government practice of unlimited centralized authority and absolute sovereignty as vested especially in a monarch Power is concentrated in the figure of the monarch and is not subject to judicial legislative religious economic or electoral challenge Rise of absolutism Search for efficient administration Wars between the 14 h and 16 h centuries required states to better organize resources lncrease efficiency of tax collection and military organization Strengthened administrations Absolutism Between medieval monarchy and modern bureaucratic state 0 Medieval in the definition of the nature of power I The principle of Divine Prerogative o Designated by God I Some medieval political theorists had seen kings as deriving their authority from God but as obliged to rule in accordance with law and in consultation with the nobility Principles extracted from Holy Scripture King resembles God as supreme sovereign Jean Bodin s Six Books of the Commonwealth 1576 sovereignty was absolute and indivisible In any system of government the power to make interpret and enforce laws had to be held by one person or institution Precursor to the Modern Nation State Monarchy as Patriarchy The relationship of King and Subject mirrors that of God and Human or Father and Son 0 The King is to be benevolent kind magnanimous and supportive o The subject is to be loyal deferential respectful obedient and loving Louis XIV The Sun King Became King at the age of 5 reigned 16431715 Model of the absolutist monarch Institutions and symbols of the monarchy The Modern Bureaucracy o Ministers enhanced efficiency 0 Cabinets ministers intendants tax administration committees o Bureaucratic career 0 National police and army Noblesse de Robe The Modern Bureaucracy JeanBaptiste Colbert 0 Economic reformer member of the lower nobility Versailles Hunting lodge turned symbol of the Divine Right of Kings Kings crazy daily schedule Courtly entertainment People copied Louis style all over Europe JacquesBenigne Bossuet 16271704 Divine Right of Kings Tutor to dauphin January 6 2011 Scientific Revolution Series of important scientific discoveries between the 16 h and 18 h centuries Sparked by Nicholas Copernicus 14731543 lasting through the career of Sir Isaac Newton 16021727 Challenged traditional religious and scientific assumptions Astronomy 0 Aristotelian universe Geocentric Heavenly bodies rotate around the Earth Universe organized as a natural hierarchy from perfection to imperfection Motion results from the properties of bodies not from external forces The earth as the heaviest body of the universe is located at its center I Everything in motion has been moved by another object itself in motion Scholasticism and Astronomy 0 Scholastics dominated Medieval thought 0 Combined Aristotelian philosophy with Christian theology o Emphasis on faith and reason I St Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologia Problems with Aristotelian model 0 Mathematical inaccuracies made predictability impossible o Difficult to measure planet and moon cycles Copernicus 14731543 0 Polish astronomer o Emphasized observation and experimentation o The Revolution of the Heavenly Bodies 1543 I Challenged the Aristotelian conception of the universe I Asserted that the heavenly bodies orbit the sun not the earth heliocentric cosmology I Earth is only the center of gravity for the moon s orbit Tycho Brahe 15461601 0 Observed the stars 0 Kept a catalogue of some 1000 stars over the period of two decades 0 Brahe charted the path of the 1577 comet determining it was outside the orbital path of the moon without benefit of a telescope Niccolo Fontana Tartaglia 14991557 0 Studied ballistics 0 Nova Scientia 1537 was a treatise on gunnery that helped establish an understanding of falling bodies 0 Revised the notion that bodies move in straight lines argued that bodies followed elliptical paths that depended Johannes Kepler 15711630 0 Used Copernican heliocentrism to explain a working solar system 0 The orbits of the planets are ellipses with the sun at one focus 0 Planets travel faster along their elliptical paths when they get closer to the sun 0 There is a precise relation between the size of a planet s orbit and the length of time that planet takes to orbit the sun Galileo Galilei 15641642 0 First law of motion 0 Demonstrated by dropping bodies of different weights from the top of a tower that the speed of fall of a heavy object is not proportional to its weight as Aristotle had claimed 0 Developed a formula to measure the speed of falling objects 0 Improved the telescope Scientifi Enlighte o Challenged both scientific and religious assumptions through his discoveries in the cosmos o Discovered planets with smaller bodies orbiting them craters and mountains on the moon and sunspots all get him into deep shit bc church is pissed 0 After 1613 Galileo was persecuted by the Roman Inquisition for his controversial and at that time heretical views on the cosmos Sir Isaac Newton 0 Newton s laws of motion formed the foundation of classical mechanics as well as his law of universal gravitation 0 Published the Principia Mathematica in 1687 setting forth his laws of gravitation o Mechanics I Three laws of motion helped explain the law of universal gravitation setting the foundations of modern physics 0 Optics I Discovery of the composition of white light integrated the phenomena of colors into the science of light and laid the foundation of modern physical optics 0 Mathematics I lnfinitesimal calculus c Revolution Nature obeys laws that humans can discover Natural laws only can be discovered by the means of observation experimentation and logical thinking Many traditional beliefs prove to be wrong Revision is not only possible but rather necessary for human improvement Science technology and rational thinking are beneficial because they result in human progress nment In the 18 h century many educated individuals were captivated by science and its methods Interest in applying these methods to the study of human nature human behavior and human relations The result of this application was the intellectual movement called the Enlightenment Kant What is Enlightenment 1784 Expressions in philosophy literature political thinking economics social thinking law science religious thought and art The first intellectual movement not dominated by religion since the Middle Ages Print culture 0 Enlightenment depended on printed text to disseminate ideas o Enlightened thinkers exchanged letters and made use of salons parlors and coffeehouses to debate and share ideas Enlightenment vs Benightedness o Darkness was the past characterized by the lack of freedom and the prevalence of doctrine over free individual thinking 0 Light represents the liberation of the human soul by the embracement of rational free thinking January 7 2011 Enlightenment thinkers Shared common belief that human reason can overcome the benightedness of the past Applied the scientific method to philosophy and the study of human nature Strong emphasis on observation and experience Think individually Think rationally follow what seems reasonable Think progressively Engage in the exchange of ideas citizens of the world Questions the political and social foundations of the Old Regime Francis Bacon 15611626 0 Early proponent of enlightenment 0 Philosophy based on the scientific method 0 Emphasized the importance of inductive reasoning I Observationexperience to logical axiom to physical or universal law Renee Descartes 15961650 0 I think therefore I am 0 Empirical evidence 0 Observation and experience 0 Deep belief that the God set the world in motion like Deists but remained a devout Roman Catholic David Hume 17111776 0 Scottish skeptic 0 Focus on methodic doubt o Argued against metaphysical philosophy and a religious superstition 0 Focus on empiricism I Sense I Perception I Rationality 0 Events are random not ordained by Providence I It is the individual s duty to create order where none exists Voltaire 16941778 0 French Philisophe freethinker o Critic of Christian paradox o Wrote Candide or Optimism 1759 I Scathing social critique I Attacked church corruption war and ultimately unfettered optimism of the human condition Strong proponent of free speech 0 Cultural Libertine O Deism Belief in a deity though not necessarily a Christian God A deity exists but does not interfere in human activity Nature is knowable rational and moral therefore the deity must be rational and moral No formal creeds worship or hierarchy Tolerant of religious dissent Enlightenment Political Theory Challenged absolutism Emphasizes individual liberty Emphasizes justice and natural rights Justified the overthrow of tyrannical government John Locke 16321704 0 Emphasized natural law and natural rights I Natural law is only discovered by reason and applies to all men 0 Natural rights include lllife liberty and property 0 Wrote Two Treatises on government 1689 I Social contract theory 0 Right to overthrow a tyrannical government I Essay Concerning Human Understanding 1690 o Humans enter the world lltabula rasa gt clean slate o Argues against Christian notions of original sinman can change if you change his surroundings Baron de Montesquieu 16891755 0 Wrote Spirit of Laws 1748 o Employs empiricism to explore the human political experience throughout history I No one political system can apply to all men through all time I Separation of powers 0 Judicial legislative executive JeanJacques Rousseau 17121778 0 Noble savage philosophy I Society corrupts the natural man but is also necessary 0 Wrote The Social Contract I Man trades his natural state in favor of cooperation with civil society I Individuals submit to authority through the general will of society in return for a guarantee of protection of certain rights January 11 2011 Estates General French Parliament under absolutism met in May 1789 June 1720 The National Assembly June 201789 Tennis Court Oath said they will not adjourn their meeting until a constitution had been established Storm of the Bastille on July 14 1789 August 4 abolition of feudal privileges o Seigneurial rights 0 The Church s rights to collect the tithe Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen August 2027 1789 One of the basic charters of human liberties o 17 articles adopted between 2026 august of 1789 0 Will serve as the preamble of the French Constitutions of1791 1793 and 1795 0 Basic principle llall men are born free and equal in rights article 1 0 Right to property 0 Popular sovereignty o Fundamental freedoms speech and religion 0 Society of equal opportunity 0 Separation of powers 0 Inspired by American declarations and constitutional texts and above all by the ideas of many Enlightened thinkers such as John Locke Montesquieu Voltaire and JeanJacques Rousseau o The decrees of August 4 and the Declaration were such innovations that the king refused to sanction them 5 October 1789 mobs to Versailles Louis XV and Marie Antoinette Revolution became more and more radical o Ceremony of planting lltrees of liberty July 12 1790 Decree of Civil Constitution of the Clergy o Revolutionaries went beyond the separation of church and state 0 Introduced the supremacy of the state over the church o A sort of nationalization of the French Catholic Church o Clergy transformed into government employees 0 The Civil Constitution soon provoked opposition made many devout Catholics turn against the revolution Constitutional Monarchy o The National Constituent Assembly was trying to create a monarchical regime in which the legislative and executive powers were shared between the king and an assembly 0 Louis XVI uncooperative The Flight to Varennes June 211791 September 3 1791 French Constitution Monarchy Fear that the revolution was threatened 0 France declared war on Austria on April 201792 Ascent of Republicanism September 1792 France transforms into a republic National Convention The trial of Louis XVI 1011 December 1792 0 January 211793 Louis XVI executed 0 Marie Antoinette also executed Revolution in the hands of radicals o Maximilien Robespierre Georges Danton Jacobins Girondists OOO Committee of public safety first modern police state 0 Sans Culottess without knee breeches Totalitarian Republic o Attacks on private property Censorship 0 Police state 0 End of lllaissez faire policies 0 Spring of 1794 in Paris an average of 1000 executions per month 0 Purges among Jacobins 0 Economy in disarray o Rebellions against Jacobins o Maximilien Robespierre llthe Incorru ptible was overthrown in the National Convention on July 27 2794 and executed the following day Directory 0 New llConstitution of the Year III I Directory ruled from November 2 1795November 10 1799 Five Directors Strong presence of the military 000 Mission the tame of the radical revolt o Ended with Napoleon s coup on June 181800 Democratic legacies o Constitutions Elections under nationalpopular suffrage Political parties Free press Separation of church and state Popular mobilization Military draft 0 Republicanism O O O O O O Legacies to modern totalitarianism 0 Massive repression o Radical nationalism 0 State police 0 Controlled propaganda o Exile Other legacies 0 National unification abolished local languages etc 0 Right to education 0 Society based on merit and talent equal opportunity January 12 2011 Napoleon A product of the French revolution 0 Social backgrounds and military career 0 Personality Attended Paris Military Academy graduated 1785 Army officer and follower of the revolution around 1789 Napoleon s ascent revolutionary wars after 1792 0 December 221793 Bonaparte age 24 was promoted to brigadier general for his role in the defense of Toulon from British attacks Personality o Photographic memory 0 High power of concentration capable to go to the heart of complex problems and bring about rapid resolutions Energetic Hyperactive man of action Enlightened mentally OOOO Charismatic great communicator I Possessed some kind of sweetness to convince I Leadership Ambitious 0 His models were AtG Caesar and Charlemagne o Selfsufficient excess of selfconfidence I Impatient I Arrogant I lntransigent obstinate illuminated o Visionary o Campaigns in Italy and Egypt 17961798 0 Constitution of year Vlll Dec 1799 0 First Consul 1799 o Consul for life 1802 Emperor 0 March of 1804 Senate offers First Consul Bonaparte the title of Emperor I The French Senate voted a law on May 181804 title Emperor of the French 0 Napoleon l was crowned Emperor of the French on a cold December 2quotd in 1804 o Coronation at NotreDame Cathedral Political system 0 Enlightened despotism or modern dictatorship I A mix of both systems Political ideas 0 Exercise of a strong centralized authority centralized bureaucracy o Reconciliation with the Catholic church signed a Concordat with the Vatican in 1801 0 Continuity with the French revolution by the implementation of a set of new laws embodied in his Napoleonic Code 0 Imperialism Napoleonic Code 0 Has been the main influence in the 19 h century civil codes of most countries of continental Europe and Latin America 0 Diversity of laws was the dominant characteristic of the prerevolutionary legal order Roman lawcustomary law 0 Content I Primogeniture hereditary nobility and class privileges were suppressed I Protection of property I Civil marriage separation of church and state I Divorce or annulment Right to education I Metric system standardization of weights and measures I Abolition of local customs unification of markets I Standardization of the judicial system I Abolition of serfdom I End ofguilds I Patriarchalfamily Empire 0 Justification for Empire the export of the achievements of the French revolution December 21805 Russians and Austrians defeated at Austerlitz Takes Berlin in 1805 Friedland in 1807 defeating the Russians again Madrid in 1808 The key to his success 0 Militaristic talent that revolutionized warfare o Idea of total war I Traditional warfare was defensive and rigid attached to accepted rules armies took a position and defended it in the confrontation the first retreating was the loser of the battle 0 Napoleon adopted an offensive and flexible approach to the art of warfare he stressed the advantage of a rapid and audacious attack in preference to waging defensive war from a fixed position 0 Surprise and speed were essential elements of Napoleonic warfare Additional factors 0 Morale I Conscript army of patriotic soldiers I Well trained I Promotions on the basis of talent I Artillery I Special corps o Napoleon s charisma and commitment Napoleon s main failures 0 Miscalculation on the appeal of tradition and patriotism I Resistance I The Spanish ulcer o Guerrillas o The disastrous 1812 campaign to invade Russia I Retreat of the Grand Army from Russia Great Alliance 1813 0 Members I Austria I Prussia I Russia I Sweden I Britain I Spain 00000 O 0 January 13 2011 Defeat at Leipzig October 1813 Capture of Paris in spring 1814 Abdication at Fontainebleau in 1814 Exiled to isle of Elba 1815 Feb 26 Napoleon escapes Elba lands near Cannes 20 h March Napoleon enters Paris 16 h June Battle of Ligny and Quatre Bras 18 h June Battle of Waterloo gt final defeat Napoleon flees from disaster at Waterloo Died in exile on the island of St Helena The Restoration 0 Congress of Vienna 18141815 I Restore absolutism I Stop democratic revolutions I Neutralize France 0 Bourbon family returns to power I Create an international balance of powers I Results 0 Success only in one of the goals the creation of a balance of powers Europe s 4 powers Russian empire Prussian empire Austrian empire and United Kingdom January 142011 Midterm Wednesday the 18 h 5 of 7 id terms to identify 1 essay out of 3 choices Revolutions of 1820 O 0 Independence ofGreece Liberal rebellions in Spain and Italy Revolutions of 1830 0 Independence of Belgium July Revolution in France force Charles X to abdicate and install the quotCitizen King Louis Phillipe Revolutions of 1848 Democratic revolutions liberal bourgeois 0 February 2024 revolution in France provoked the abdication Louis Philippe King of the French and the proclamation of the Second Republic March 15 revolution breaks out in Austria the Habsburg rulers are compelled to meet the demands of the Reform party Following months the revolution spreads over German territories and other parts 0 Europe Germany in 1848 39 independent states Frankfurt Assembly September18 1848 1848 the Communist Manifesto Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Louis Blanc Louis Blanqui Challenges to Enlightenment Romanticism O O O O O O Secular philosophy that flourished in the West during the 19 h century Criticized the Enlightenment as being I Excessively centered on reason and science I Too rigid in its belief that human behavior is predictable due to llnatural laws I Closed to creativity Romantics argued the Enlightenment was producing soulless unfeeling individuals Romantics approached their view of human nature by emphasizing I Feelings I Emotions I Imagination I The individual instead of the social Rejected the standardization of humanity introduced by capitalism science reason technology and consumerism Music of romanticism I 18151848 I Chopin I Wagner I Beethoven Literature of romanticism I Criticized the hyperrational I Often emphasized the supernatural or metaphysical I Commitment to individualism and the individual experience I Often exhibited a love of nature I Often nationalistic English romantics I Samuel Taylor Coleridge 0 Poetry is the paramount of human creativity I William Wordsworth o Emphasized a love of nature and the necessity to approach the natural world with childlike curiosity not Enlightenment rationalism I Lord Byron o Rejection of tradition and champion of individual liberty German romantics I Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 0 Focus on both the natural and the metaphysical o Critic of romanticism s excess I Friedrich Schlegel o Emphasized egalitarianism and challenged traditional morals 0 American romantics I Edgar Allen Poe o Focused on the metaphysical and the macabre I Walt Whitman 0 Free verse poetry challenged morals and focused on the natural world I James Fenimore Cooper 0 Leatherstocking Tales celebrated nature and the heroism of the individual 0 Romanticism s legacy I Created the modern artist and intellectual 0 Independent 0 Rebellious o Passionate I lnspired movements for national emancipation I Extreme romanticism idealism and irrationalism January 20 2011 The Industrial Revolution The term was first used in the 1820s by French observers describing economic changes in Britain Described an economy in which the availability of goods was growing more rapidly than anywhere in the West Great Britain was the first llconsumer culture in modern society Describes Britain s economic growth from the 1760s1840s Arnold Toynbee published one of the first economic histories The Industrial Revolution in 1884 Consumer culture Economic changes 0 Concentration of means of production in the factory system 0 Manufacturers produced goods quickly and at lower cost 0 Growth of national and international markets 0 Rise of new financial institutions Technological changes 0 Use of new materials iron and steel 0 New energy sources coal oil electricity 0 New machinery that improved efficiency and lowered cost 0 Developments in communication and transportation 0 Increasing application of science to production Social changes 0 Urban developments 0 Rising immigration 0 New urban working class blue collar 0 New urban middle class bourgeoisie o Rapidly expanding consumer culture 0 Rise in leisure for middle class life EuropeanIndustrialization Why did industrialization begin in Europe 0 Natural resources 0 Integrated markets 0 Social and political conditions I Rise of the nation state I Impact on revolution 0 Commercial agriculture Demographic expansion 0 The West experiences a rise in population 0 Agrarian improvements 0 Advances in medicine I Control demographic catastrophes I Rise in birth ratesdecline in mortality rates Why Great Britain 0 Textile industry I Rise in demand of Calicoes from India I Textile technology traditional spinning I 1764 James HaregreavesI Spinning Jenny allowed one worker to spin eight threads at once I Richard Arkwright s Water Frame was the first automatic textile machine Powered by water the frame could spin stronger yarn which in turn led to the production of light weight cotton textiles at a more affordable cost for the consumer The water frame also brought textile production into a factory setting I Cotton mill most mills near water sources 0 Mining I James Watt the Steam Engine 0 Steam power revolutionized mining and transportation 0 Revolutionized mining by helping to improve water pumping and underground ventilation 0 Steam engine was used to extract coal from mine shafts as well as to lower miners into the shafts 0 Transportation Steam powered locomotive in 1829 Opening of the LiverpoolManchester Railway Line 1830 19 h century railway expansion 0 1830 less than 100 miles 0 1840 4500 miles 0 1850 23000 1876 89430 Europe alone 1876 83420 United States Railway expansion created high demand for coal and iron in the West Locomotive improvement 0 1840 Madrid to Berlin takes a minimum of 3 weeks 0 1870 Madrid to Berlin takes 3 days 0 1850 average rail speed 20 mph 0 1860 40 mph 0 1870 50 mph 0 Cast iron 0 Abraham Darby lll s cast iron bridges 1769 became fixtures of industrial travel Bessemer Process 0 Henry Bessemer patented a process to cheaply and efficiently turn pig iron into steel in the 1850s 0 Alexander Lyman Holley redesigned the process in the United States Steam powered ships Slow clipper ships Cunard Lines the first regular transatlantic passenger and mail service traveled from Liverpool to Boston beginning in 1840 lsambard Brunel s Great Eastern mixed propeller and paddle designs in 1858 the ship could carry 4000 passengers around the globe without stopping to refuel 0 Communication Telegraph Pioneered by William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone patented in 1837 Led to faster communication Transatlantic telegraph 0 Proposed by Cyrus Field in 1854 0 Travel from Ireland to Newfoundland 0 Used 2000 miles of copper cable insulated and wound with 300000 miles of iron wire for protection 0 Cable was spliced midocean and lost twice 0 Success in July 1866 carried by the Great Eastern 0 The 8 h wonder of the world 0 Took 17 hours to transmit the first message 0 By 1866 the cable could transmit 8 words per minute 0 Industrialization and the Western mind I Jules Verne 0 Around the World in 80 Days 1873 I Nelly Bly 0 Elizabeth Jane Cochran undertook the challenge to travel around the world in 80 days for the New York World in 1889 o Managed to make the journey in 72 days 0 Utilitarianism I Action is good if it helps to bring about the greatest happiness to the greatest numbers I Virtues are a matter of utility I Happiness can be measured through statistics I Economic growth provides happiness 0 Charles Dickens I Reaction to the ills of industrialization I Published Hard Times as a critique of utilitarian philosophy and working class troubles 0 Social impact of industrialization I Emigration I Urbanization I Rising middle class I Effect on the working class January 21 2011 Emigration and Immigration 18001810 London s population grows 40 due to immigration Housing expands by only 15 1850 250000 domestic cesspools in London 18311841 Paris receives over 120000 new immigrants Immigration 0 Early immigration from Europe to the US dominated by British Irish and W Europeans o llNew Immigration dominated by Irish Southern and Eastern Europeans Living conditions 0 Vienna s municipal authorities reported that in 1850 the average working class tenement was 400 sq ft per 15 people 0 After the 1830s urban planning became an important aspect of municipal governments The Bourgeoisie o Wealth was generated from capitalist ventures trade finance manufacturing 0 Gender distinctions also reflected class values and wealth o Femininity is reflected in motherhood and in the home 0 Masculinity was reflected in occupation Cult of Domesticity o Bourgeois values emphasized women s domestic activities 0 Importance of childrearing 0 Home d cor and consumer culture Women in the workplace 0 Single women entered the workforce at rising rates but usually stopped working after marriage New working class 0 Low wages forced women and children into the workplace 0 Women could no longer work and care for children simultaneously 0 Young children often cared for infants 0 Marker of or lack of wealth Child labor 0 Textile factories employed children as young as 5 or 6 o Often employed for dangerous work 0 Only about 10 of working children were employed in factories Changing sense of time o From the agrarian natural clock to the hourly industrial clock Social Darwinism 0 Survival of the fittest o Justified social inequality 0 Argument against social reformists Social reform o Often inspired by social utopianism Fourier and Owen o Sought to alleviate social ills of industrialization I Alcoholism I Prostitution I Poor housing I Crime 0 Luddites I British weavers smashed mechanized looms in protests 18111812 0 Communism O O Nationalism Reaction against the growing disparity of wealth within the West Humans are materialistic by nature The material always triumphs over the spiritual History is driven by the struggle over the production of material goods Constant struggle between oppressor and oppressed 0 Factory owner vs worker bourgeoisie vs proletariat Importance of class solidarity Goal is classless society Triumph comes through both civil disobedience and violent revolt o Socialism emphasized peaceful remedies to social ills Religious alternatives Pope Leo Xlll Rerum novarum Of New Things 0 Christians have a moral obligation to the poor England Salvation Army 1878 Municipal solutions lncreased city planning England Public Health Bill 1848 0 National standards for urban sanitation Public utility services 0 1882 60 of homes in Paris had running water Expansion of educational opportunities Search for identity and belonging Romantic liberal and conservative influences O O 0 Expression of uniqueness romanticism Self determination liberalism Traditional values conservatism Nationalist Movements O O O O O 1820 Greece disintegration of the Ottoman Empire 1820 Belgium 1848 and 1870 Germany and Italy Civic Nationalism Association of independent citizens with equal rights Rejects concepts of ethnic ancestry Nation is a political entity Focus on common rights duties and allegiances Ethnic Nationalism Nation of common ethnicity Common heritage either real or imagined 0 Shared customs folklore language religion and values Changing the European map 0 Nationalism led to selfrule movements 0 Led to the breakup of major empires 0 Rolled back the Ottoman Empire expelling the last great Islamic empire from Europe 0 Led to the quotBalkanizationquot of Europe Italian and German Unifications 0 Similar goals and means 0 Similar chronology 181418481870 0 Different politics Germany 0 Four kingdoms 0 Six grand duchies 0 Ten principalities 0 Three free cities Foundations of the German state 0 Historical I Holy Roman Empire Emperor Otto the Great 962 0 Culture I German language I High culture I Religioust diverse o Protestant North 0 Catholic South 0 Integrated German markets First stage 18001848 0 Radical attempt at unification o Influenced by Romanticism o Inspired by Herder s Volkish Nationalism 0 Johann Gottleib Fiechte 17621814 I To the German Nation 1806 o Argued for unification based on shared culture 0 Language is key component of ethno nationalism Failure at Frankfurt ConservativeRepublican Division Second stage 18481870 0 Dominated by a more conservative agenda 0 Pragmatic leadership 0 Kaiser Wilhelm I of Prussia o Prussian Chancellor Otto von Bismarck Pragmatic unification o Prussia moves to consolidate power and unify German speakers 0 Wage wars that solidify cultural identity and nationalism 0 Expansion of Prussia 18071871 Bismarck s campaigns 0 1864 war with Denmark I Gains Holstein o 1866 AustroPrussian War 0 1867 Confederation of Northern German States Conflict with France 0 Dispute over Spanish throne I Prince Leopold con HohenzollernSigmaringen nominated for Spanish throne o Bismarck uses antiFrench nationalism to promote German solidarity o Ems Dispatch 0 France declares war FrancoPrussian War July 1870May 1871 0 Napoleon III is deposed by the radical Left 0 Political instability in France 0 German establishes an economic and military power in central Europe The First Reich The new Germany 0 Rapid economic and industrial growth 0 Rise of a prosperous middle class 0 Fairly diverse 0 Highly nationalistic 0 Rise of ethnonationalism German nationalism o Pragmatic conservative nationalism to 1890 0 Rise of imperialism and ethnic nationalism after 1890 Volkish nationalism o Built around folklore o Sentimental patriotism o Emphasized German uniqueness o Conceived Germans as simple and morally superior o Rejected llcultural pollution from foreign influences o Environmentalist or naturalist conservative o Promoted selfsufficiency and mystical relationship with the land Racism o Germans are morally and racially superior I Distinction from the moral quototherquot France etc I Distinction from the racial quototherquot Jews etc Political conservatism o Antiparliamentarian o Antidemocratic I Democracy is not German 0 Anticapitalist anticommunist I Promote a traditional agrarian economy 0 Antiimmigration Nationalist mythology o ldealistic approach to the past 0 Emphasis on the Teutonic Germany 0 ldealize the Middle Ages as the height of German brilliance 0 Myth of the Teutons I Germanic peoples of Classical periods I Teutonic Knights of the MiddleAges Aryan Theory 0 Aryan refers to the lndoEuropean language family 0 Traces modern European lineage to modern day Persia and India 0 Volkish theory connected Aryan lranian in parsi to the German Ehre meaning quothonorquot 0 Definition linked to nonJewish Caucasians but Nordics in particular Adolf Stocker 0 Christian Social Worker s Party Lutheran Minister 0 Condemned the quotJew dominated press Paul Anton de Legarde o Orientalist o Promoted AryanTeutonic myths o Denounced Jewish liberalism Theodore Fritsch o AntiSemitic catechism 1893 o Republished as The Handbook of the Jewish Question 1896 0 Rural German values are superior to urban degeneration Wilhelm Marr 0 Jewish blood predetermines that they are opposed to German values 0 Jews cannot be assimilated into German culture Houston Stewart Chamberlain o Husband of Richard Wagner s sister 0 Enamored with German culture and Volkish theory 0 Foundations of the 19th Century I Teutonic peoples are heirs to classical Western Civilization I lnspires Mein Kampf January 25 2011 Foundations of Italian unification O O 0 History I Roman civilization I Renaissance Cultural I Language I High culture I Ethnicity Integrated Italian markets Obstacles to unification O O 0 Established elites feared liberal ideologies I King of Naples I Pope unification would mean Pope would have to give up significant land Austria had some claims to what is now Northern Italy Historic gap between the North and South I Industrial North vs Agrarian South First stage 1815 1848 O O O O O O O Controlled by radical liberals Focused on deposing princes of Italian states Kingdom of Sardinia and Savoy I Progressive constitutional monarchy Kingdom of the Two Sicilies I Traditional monarchy Lombardy and Venezia I Austrians Papal states Carbonari rebellion 1820 I Attempt to overthrow traditional monarchies in the South I Defeated with Austrian aid 1830s The Young Italy I Radical movement led by Giuseppe Mazzinni I Unification movement popular in the North I Charismatic movement by Romantic liberal I Sought to establish a democratic republic I Strong following in urban middle class I Active in 1848 rebellions Risorgimento The Resurgence I Intellectual movement that sought to reestablish Italian cultural prominence Giuseppe Garibaldi O I Romantic rural leader of Southern Nationalists I Fought in wars of South American independence I Organized the nationalistic army Red Shirts ltalian Revolution of 1848 I Popular uprisings in Naples Milan and Venice I Radical rebellion ultra liberal I Lacked support from the upper classes Second Stage 1848 1870 Characterized by pragmatic leadership 0 O O O O 0 Count Camillo Cavour I Northern liberal aristocrat I Able to win international support I Minister of Kingdom of SardiniaSavoy Cavour s pragmatic tactics War I Garner international support I Forms alliance with France against Austria I Alliance puts SardiniaSavoy in a position of Western leadership I Unify nationalist forces I Provokes conflict with Austria to attract Garibaldi s Red Shirts s of unification 1858 1866 I Territorial disputes over border territories with Austria 0 Defeat Austrians with French aid I SardiniaSavoy gains Parma Lombardy Modena Tuscany and Naples I Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel meet in 1861 0 Instrumental in winning alliance with Naples I Alliance with Germans against Austria I Defeat Austrians in 1866 gain Venice Papal states Unif Pius The I Vatican Rome resists unification I Protected in part by French garrisons I Napoleon recalls troops in 1870 FrancoPrussian War I Garibaldi enters Rome ication I United under King Victor Emmanuel II I Solidifies an Italian national identity I Comprised of 15 provinces with the central government in Rome IX I Pius IX rejected SardiniaSavoy s claims on Papal lands and insisted on the sovereignty of his power New Italy I Constitutional monarchy I Dominated by liberals January 26 2011 I Italian nationalism remained committed to democratic traditions I Rejected ethnic nationalism The new Imperialism O 0000 Imperialism is as old as human history New imperialism after 1870 Diverse forms of cultural political and economic domination Annexation Protectorate autonomous state that receives diplomatic or military protection Spheres of influence I Claim to exercise exclusive or predominant control over a region Why build new empires 0 O O O 0 Economics John Hobson and Vladimir Lenin Raw materials Demand for consumer products Capitalism demands expansion Problems I Does not explain nonindustrial countries like Russia Italy Portugal Spain I Engaged in deficit spending Diverse reasons for Empire 0 O O O O Diplomatic competition Nationalism Scientific curiosity Spread of religion and culture Notions of Western superiority Colonization of Africa 0 0 By 1850 the slave trade has died down and the Western coast of Africa is already colonized By 1900 all of Africa is colonized by the powers of Europe and incorporated into their empires Early interest in Africa 0 O O O O O Slaves 1830 Geographical Society of London promotes scientific inquiry in llDark Africa African myths tell of legendary treasure Christian missionary societies see opportunity to spread Christianity I London Missionary Society Church Mission Society Congo David Livingstone I Missionary doctor explorer scientist I Abolitionist First European to cross Africa from East to West First European to cross Africa from East to West Searched for the source of the Nile Charted Victoria Falls and the Rift Valley Lakes Sympathetic figure in European imperialism 0 Henry Stanley Funded by an American newspaper Scientific adventurer Popularized exotic images of Africa Through the Dark Continent Part of mission was to search for Livingstone o Leopold ll of Belgium Formed the International African Society 1876 Attempt to enhance Belgium s international prestige Belgian Congo becomes major exporter or rubber 0 Race for empire The New Media Europeans expand empires to enhance power prestige and their economies Berlin Conference 1884 attempts to established rules for colonialism in Africa 0 YellowJournalism attempts to sell newspapers 0 Shape public opinion 0 Adds to an atmosphere of disillusion and disorientation 0 William Randolph Hearst Ascendancy of Rationalism 0 Scientific Rationalism ascends after Romanticism s dominance Charles Darwin Social Darwinism O 0 John Stuart Mill Utilitarianism 0 August Compte Sociology Positivism Apply scientific rationalism to the study of societies Society can be understood through use of statistics Societies function according to rules Three stages of the Mind 0 Supernaturalexplanations o Metaphysical abstract explanations o Attempt to join supernatural with rational 0 Scientific 0 Founded upon laws and mathematics 0 Karl Marx Socialism lntellectualDisillusion o lntellectuals begin to react against scientific rationalism o Critique excesses of modernity 0 Search for just society Joseph Conrad Heart ofDarkness o Critique of imperialism through transformational changes 0 Loss of moral confidence 0 Critique of Western arrogance o Affirmation of individual freedom Friedrich Nietzsche o All evils of the West are a part of excessive rationalism o Critiques materialism and unfreedom I The Bourgeoisie has become a social monster Liberalism is a failure and democracy is a farce 0 Why I Excess rationalism negates instinct O I Instinct is natural and operates independently of reason I lnstinct ignites creation 0 Religion I Oppressive rules I Pessimistic message I Christianity is a moral weakness 0 Alternative solution I Reject Christianity 0 llGod is dead I Reject bourgeois values I Create llNew Man through spiritual transformation I A supermanoverlord will change the world I Create a new elite 0 Nietzsche on Morals I Questioned the validity of conventional morality I Humans are able to create a new moral order without Christianity or middle class values I New morality will emphasize pride strength and assertiveness I Spent last 11 years of his life in mental darkness I Suffered multiple strokes and partial paralysis January 28 2011 Modern art Modern literature 0 Knut Hamsun 18591952 I Hunger 1890 considered first modernist novl 0 Marcel Proust 18711922 I Stream of consciousness writing 0 Virginia Woolf 18821941 I Emphasized social and moral uncertainty Western civilization in peril o Declining influence of Christianity 0 Emphasis on new liberal ideologies undermine traditions o lndustrialism creates new class structures I Prelude to threat of socialismcommunism GK Chesterton 18741936 0 Emphasized importance of tradition 0 Christianity is the most stabilizing influence in Western Civilization 0 Anticapitalismanticommunist I Distributism Deep background to WWl o Clash of civilizations the West vs Islam 0 Islam spreads from Arabian peninsula to N Africa Near East Europe 711 Spain 0 732 Charles Martel defeats Muslim army at Tours 0 14821492 Spanish monarchies of Castile and Aragon overthrow last Muslim territory Muslim incursions into Eastern Europe Take Balkans Greece etc 1683 Jan Sobieski defeats Muslim army at Vienna 000 o Ottoman empire remains in Balkans Reasons for WWl 0 Imperial competition 0 Collapse of the Ottoman empire 0 Collapse of the balance of power 0 Germany vs France 0 AustriaHungary vs Russia Demise of the Ottoman empire 0 Ottomans have difficulty controlling nationalist movements I Serbia Montenegro Albania become independent 0 Austria annexes Bosnia Croatia and Herzegovina I Slavic not German populations Bismarck s alliance 0 Goals I Keep France as isolated as possible I Keep Britain appeased I Avoid an AustrianRussian conflict 0 1882 Triple Alliance I Germany Italy and AustriaHungary I GermanRussian Secret Pact of 1887 I Bismarck agreed to observe neutrality if either country became involved with a third power Kaiser Wilhelm II o Volkish Nationalist o Admirer of Houston Chamberlin 0 Less conservativepragmatic than Wilhelm o Bismarck resigns in 1890 Wilhelm ll s Germany 0 Encouraged imperialist expansion 0 Lapsed alliance with Russia I Still has triple alliance but no longer secret pact o Encouraged Austria to take a tougher stance toward Balkan nationalism o Undertook a major militarization project Consequences o 1894 French and Russians sign defensive alliance against Austria andor Germany 0 1904 France and Great Britain sign Entente Cordial o 1907 Tripe Entente Balkan Wars 0 Volatile territory with complicated national movements 0 First Balkan War 1908 I Serbia and Russia ally against the Ottomans and Bosnians I Austria and Germanyjoin to stop SerbianRussian Alliance I Austria claims territory 0 Humiliates Serbia and Russia 0 Second Balkan War 1912 I Serbia moves to claim Albanian territory I Austria and Germany ally against Serbia again I Serbs humiliated again Spark of WWI o Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated by Gavrilo Pricip 1914 o Bosnian nationalist supported by Serbia I Agents of Serbian government Rapid path to war July Ultimatum to Serbia by AustriaHungary July 28 Austria declares war on Serbia Russian mobilization beginning of Great War July 31st Germany declares war on Russia and mobilizes 0000 August 3 Germany declares war on France and invades Belgium to outflank the French army 0 August 4 the United Kingdom declares war on Germany O O Hypernationalist fervor in Europe Europeans are fired up Surge of nationalism I Germany Russia Great Britain France The Schlieffen Plan 0 O 0 German strategy to avoid fighting a two front war Goal was to first strike quickly at France in the West Focus attention then on Russia before she has time to mobilize Victory at Marne 1914 Casualties o Military 9721937 o Civilian 6644733 0 Total 16543185 0 Wounded 21228813 0 US deaths 115000 Outcomes of WWI O O 0 Rise of Soviet Russia End of Austrian empire German Revolution I Weimar Republic established as first Democratic Regime Treaty of Versailles I Meeting of 32 states 75 of world population I Woodrow Wilson seeks a balance of power I Weak peace I Terms of Versailles o AlsaceLoraine to France 0 Territory to Czechoslovakia Belgium Lithuania 0 Poznania parts of E Prussia Silisia to Poland 0 Surrender of German colonies o 15 Year German demilitarization Rhineland occupied 0 Ban on GermanAustrian union 0 Limit army to 100000 and no weapons stockpiles o No Uboats ships over 100000 tons 0 War reparations of 66 billion pounds about 440 billion 2011 Longterm Structural Factors Backwardness 000 O agrarian country with traditional agriculture only 30 literacy rate preponderance of serfdom into the 19th century serfdom abolish in 1861 Uneven distribution of wealth 0000000000 0 23 of all wealth in the hand of 5 of the total Russian population autocratic government Monarchy the Tsar empire 3 times the territory of uS 200 nationalities 146 languages some regions started a process of industrialization after the 18702 by 1914 23 million industrial workers in the St Petersburg area fast urbanization areas of western Russia social demand for change liberals socialist anarchists The First Revolution of 1905 O O began as a general strike backed by the LeftCenterRight coalition led by Russian SocialistDemocratic Workers Party First Soviets o council of workers deputies o coordinated revolutionary activities 0 Success of the 1905 Revolution 0 changed the government model from a autocracy to a semiconstitutional monarchy o Forced imperial reforms o fundamental Laws of 1906 created the Duma Russia in WWI o entered war with the largest army in the world 0 14 million soldiers 0 fully mobilized 0 high cost of war makes Russia s involvement unpopular o 8000000000 rubles in debt 0 high inflation o nearly deplete gold reserves 0 low revenue high cost economic peril 0 war exhaustion set in by 1917 Early Stage of Revolution 0 0000000 antecedents war exhaustion and calls for democratic reform February 1917 liberal opposition organizes general strike llpeace and bread end Russian involvement in WWl call for solution to food shortage February 28th Nicholas II abdicates provisional government take control o dominated by liberals and social democrats o centerleft government 0 led by Alexander Kerensky exiled to US in October 1917 0 Rise of the Radicals The Bolsheviks o leftist faction of the Russian SocialDemocratic Workers Party 0 Led by Vladimir llyich Lenin Lenin o revolution can only be achieved with violence 0 requires radical discipline organization and dedication o revolutionary professionals 0 goal quotdictatorship of the proletariat o father of communist movement atheistic movement Crisis of Provisional Government 0 Kerensky becomes Minister of War in May 1917 o favors continued Russian involvement in WWI o Bolsheviks call for immediate Russian withdrawal 0 rapid desertion of Russian soldiers 2 million by Fall 1917 o Bolsheviks infiltrate army and gain recruits o Bolsheviks gain members but still relatively small group Petrograd Soviet and Internal Division 0 Lenin emerges as leader of the Petrograd Soviet 0 internal division with Julius Martov over party membership 0 allowed anyone to join the communist party 0 party splits into two factions I Bolsheviks and Mensheviks Lenin and the Second Revolution 0 Lenin argues Russia is ripe for Communist takeover o opposes provisional government s war policies 0 encourages rebellion o agrarian reforms peasants seize land from property owners 0 organize workers strikes no weaponsno war 0 soviets seize local control 0 arm revolutionaries must be done violently and stop all political negotiation Military Coup 0 Russian general Lavr Kornilov attempts military takeover to restore oder August 1917 coup fails because of Lenin s Bolsheviks O O Bolsheviks gain broad support base for revolutionary activities because of this success in defeating a Russian military general Storming the Winter Palace 0 October 2425 Bolsheviks mount a nearly bloodless coup o occupy Winter Palace Government buildings telegraph stations strategic points o Kerensky flees to the US The New Regime o provisional government falls 0 Bolsheviks establish a soviet totalitarian state 0 led by Lenin 0 civil war from 19181921 0 White Army vs Red Army Russian soldiers Red Terror 0 Bolsheviks systematically eliminate adversaries o murder the Romanov royal family Keys to Lenin s Success 0 Discipline and organization Red Army 0 Repression o cheka Soviet State security organization 0 first concentration camps for working not death 0 antiwar policies 0 program of reforms 0 education 0 welfare 0 industrialization o efficient use of propaganda 0 died from a series of strokes Soviets after Lenin 0 Internal power struggle between Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin o Trotsky is exiled and killed for opposing Stalin Soviet Union 0 ferocious dictatorship o arguably exercised the greatest political power of any leader in world history 0 Machiavellian leadership 0 power politics in the name of utopian ends 0 eliminate rivals with brutal repression o imperial expansion 0 economic polices o industrialization o collectivization of agriculture 0 Military Industrial Complex 0 key to soviet success in WWII 0 lead USSR into nuclear age The Gulag 0 short for the Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei llMain Camp Administration 0 labor camps political camps women s camps children s camps transit camps punishment camps criminal camps o Aleksander Solzhenitsyn sent to work camps because he criticized Stalin and wrote the Gulag Archipelago in the 70 s February 1 2011 Fascism Benito Mussolini The Father of Fascism Fascist ideology o Antiliberal o Anticommunist o Anticonservative I Employs a progressive discourse using rhetoric of subversion through the right wing o Nationalistic o Racist o lmperialistic Fascist goals 0 Create a new authoritarian state with no basis in traditional models 0 Promote social economy based on ideaprinciple of the nation I Encourage class cooperation not conflict I Establish strong central state authority I Rigid mechanisms of social economic and political control I Corporatist socialist state where the government takes control of private industries 0 Protect private property 0 Control trade unions working class organizations 0 Social programs aimed at improving middle and working class 0 Build an empire 0 Create a new culture I Patriotic secular subversive I Still monolithicusualy violent Fascist political subversion o Constant organizations of public demonstrations 0 New media radio and film 0 Emphasis on public displays of power I Grandiose parades Promotion of the Fascist state Cult of leadership Military culture 0 Uniforms marches ranks 0 Discipline o Glorification of war Intellectual roots of fascist ideology o Romanticism wreaks of romanticism I Herder nation as the soul of the people 0 Social Darwinism o Racist theories I Eugenics o lrrationalism I Nietzsche Nazi Germany 19191930 German Workers Party 0 Founded by Anton Drexler in Munich 1919 0 Early meetings attended by Adolf Hitler o Hitler ousts leadership 19201921 I Renames the party the National Socialist German Workers Party Unrest under the Weimar Republic o WWI veterans believe Marxist and Jewish efforts drove Germany to armistice I Resentment fostered in Bavaria 0 Economic hardship and allied occupations stoke resentment o Conservatives and Socialists grow more radical Marxist rebellion o Marxists seize control of Bavaria 0 Government forces and rightwing mercenaries defeat communists o Communist uprising dominated byJewish leadership 0 Jews become scapegoats Beer Hall Putsch 1923 o Hitler employs Mussolini s tactics in power grab o Putsch fails Hitler imprisoned Mein Kampf 0 While imprisoned in Munich Hitler writes Mein Kampf a smattering of racial political and nationalist theory Economic collapse 0 Wall Street crash I US loans recalled I Collapse in world trade 0 Less German exports I German businesses close and cutback 0 Rise in unemployment Ascent of national socialism 0 Economic crisis Disappointment with the democratic experience of the Weimar Republic Fear among the middle classes to communist ascent Efficient manipulation of German nationalism Efficient organization OOOOO Use of violence to intimidate the opponent Hitler s charisma O Hitler becomes chancellor in 1932 Sturmabteilung o The SA Storm Troopers Brown Shirts I Paramilitaryenforcers Schutzstaffel o The quotSSquot I Elite paramilitary corps Hitler s bodyguards I Evolve into the national security force I Himmler Jungsturm Adolf Hitler o Hitler Youth I Established in 1922 to recruit and train future members of the SA Consolidating Nazi Power 0 Reichstag fire I Communist plot or Nazi setup I Civil liberties suspended I Communist leaders arrested and Nazis gain control of the Reichstag o The SA emerges as a rival to standing German army and Hitler o Hitler orders the assassination of the Sa leader Ernst Roehm 0 SA purge The Fuhrer o Hindenburg wins majority in 1932 election 0 Elected to 7 year term Hitler Chancellor o Dies in 1934 Hitler merges offices Oranienburg concentration camp 0 Nazis erect the first concentration camps in 1933 0 House political adversaries communists I No the deathcamps of the Final Solution Nuremburg Laws of 1935 o Redefined German citizenship by excluding the Jews from the German nation 0 Citizenship was legally formulated as a racial condition 0 Marriages between Jews and citizens of German or lltindred blood are forbidden Nazi economic miracle The Nazi State Mussolini o Formed Fascist Party in 1919 0 Black Shirts 0 Mussolini becomes Prime Minister February 2 2011 o Mussolini abolishes all political parties except fascism o Propaganda machine 0 Mussolini and Hitler o Mussolini wanted Ethiopia I Invades and conquers I Portrayed as a great victory I Ruins ltalyfinancially o Mussolini starts policy of antiSemitism I Stripped Jews of rights I Signed pact of steel with Germany I NaziSoviet nonaggression pact o Mussolini tries to add to African conquests with Libya and Egypt Comparing totalitarianism communism and fascism in the 20 h century 0 Utopian goals I Communism s classless society I Hitler s utopia the thousand year Reich Violence Elimination of opponents Concentration camps Singleparty state OOOOO Propaganda staterun media I Manipulation of propaganda 0 Mass media I Especially radio Mass politics Youth organizations Cult of the leader Social programs Patriotism OOOOOO Imperialism o Scapegoat 0 Roots in Treaty of Versailles Path to War 0 1934 Hitler begins massive remilitarization project I Put people to work I Get out of depression I Restore German pride 0 1936 occupies Rhineland violation of Treaty of Versailles o 1938 Austrian anschluss Hitler annexes Austria Lebensraum o Hitler seeks to create quotliving space for ethnic Germans o Territorial expansion at the expense of Slavic populations 0 Looks to annex the Sudetenland Czechoslovakia Munich Conference 0 Hitler meets in Munich with Mussolini Eduardo Daladier France and Neville Chamberlain 0 Discuss the future of the Sudetenland 0 UK and France inform Czechoslovakia that it can cede the territory or face war alone 0 Germany agrees to no more expansion Why did the West capitulate 0 Fear of another war 0 Belief in selfdetermination German reunification o Focused on economic struggles of the Great Depression 0 Fear of the Soviet Union Invasion of Poland 1939 o Blitzkrieg warfare I Combination of motorized ground invasion with Luftwaffe airstrikes I Nazi forces take the Netherlands in four days I Belgium supported by France falls in two weeks Vichy France 0 German Army marches into Paris June 1940 0 French parliament votes to disband and hand power to Philippe Petain o Petain sets up an authoritarian government in Vichy 0 Signs armistice with Hitler s Germany Battle of Britain 0 Hitler hopes to negotiate peace with Great Britain 0 British refuse I quotVictory at all costs 0 Luftwaffe wages air war with Royal air force 0 Hitler quotpostponesquot invasion September 1940 Invasion of the Soviet Union 0 Hitler postpones the Soviet invasion for two months I Mussolini attacks British forces in N Africa I Germans have to come and bail them out February 3 o Invade USSR in June 1941 take Kiev and lay siege to Leningrad o Hitler s army defeated by Russian winter Global war 0 1941 US signs LendLease Act with Britain 0 US places oil embargo on Japan 0 Japanese mobilize for war 0 Japan waged war throughout China in the 1930s Axis victories 0 December 71941 Japan bombs Pearl Harbor 0 Germany declares war on US on December 11 1941 0 Germany threatens USSR s oil supplies in Caucasus Mountains 0 Japan controls the Pacific The tide of war turns Battle of Midway 4 June 1942 US bombers stumble upon Japanese carriers and destroy them while ships refueled Battle of El Alamein O 0 British forces defeat Erwin Rommel s German troops in N Africa October 1943 o Establishes a jumpingoff point for allied invasion of Italy 2011 Battle of Stalingrad 0 Urban warfare o Soviets resisted siege for eight months July 9142Feb 1943 0 Turned back the German army Holocaust the Final Solution 0 Nazis shift from policies that isolate Jews to policies that exterminate Jews in 1941 0 SS troops called Einsatzgruppen strike forces marched with regular army I Sole purpose was killing Jews and communists I Death count from Einsatzgruppen murders estimated at 152 million Work camps to death camps 0 Jews Jehovah s Witnesses Roma and enemies of the Nazi Part were targeted o Emptied Jewish ghettos sent Jews by train to death camps o Marched from trains to quotshower rooms AuschwitzBirkenau o Built in 1940 as a work camp for Poles and Russians 0 Death camp added in 1942 0 At least 80 of each train was sent to gas chamber 1945 and the end of WWII 0 Germany surrenders in May 1945 Hitler commits suicide 0 Americans create first successful atomic explosion 16 July 1945 in New Mexico Hiroshima and Nagasaki 0 Americans issue ultimatum to Japan unconditional surrender o 6 August 1945 Enola Gay drops atom bomb over Hiroshima I 140000 killed in bombing 60000 more within 5 years from radiation 0 9 August 1945 bombing of Nagasaki I 70000 killed in bombing 70000 more within 5 years Cold War 0 Struggle for global supremacy between the United States and the Soviet Union 0 End of alliance between capitalistic countries in Western Europe with the Soviets Occupation of Germany 0 Allied forces establish four occupation zones within Germany 0 Berlin is also divided into occupation zones The Eastern Bloc and the Iron Curtain o Soviet army moves into I Balkans 1944 I Poland 1945 o Communist coup in Czechoslovakia 1948 0 Churchill coins the term quotIron Curtain o Soviet troops and allies control Eastern Europe Berlin Wall 0 Erected as the quotAntiFascist Protection Rampart o Came to symbolize the Cold War 0 Up to 196115 million Germans moved from East to West Berlin or West Germany 0 Sophisticated wall with multiple barriers o Defectors could be shot trying to escape Decolonization 0 European powers begin losing colonies to nationlist movements I 1946 French colonial war in lndochina begins I 1947 lndia Burma Pakistan become independent from Britain I 1948 state of Israel established I 1949 Indonesian independence from the Netherlands I 1957 Ghana independence from Britain I 1960 Congo and Nigeria independent from France I 1962 Algeria independent from France Roots of Decolonization 0 Local nationalist movements after WW 0 European powers weakened by war I Economic troubles I Warweary military 0 Some colonial rebellions backed by Soviet power I AntiFrench war in lndochina becomes a war over communist rule lsrael partition plan The postwar West 0 Truman Doctrine I US policy to support llfree people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures 0 Marshall Plan I US economic aid to Western European countries I Conditional only on llmutual cooperation I Restores economic stability to Western Europe 0 The new consumerism Responses to postwar consumerism 0 Rise of the llNew Left 0 Responses to the quotcorporatizationquot of the West and US dominance o Antiimperial countercutura o Radical response to social justice issues I Black Panther Party I Feminism I Marxism Fall of Communism o 1980 Polish Trade Union Solidarity forms I Led by Lech Walesa I Demanded liberation of political prisoners I End of censorship I Rollback of government power 0 1988 Mikhail Gorbachev address UN I Eastern European powers free to choose political and economic systems I Shit goes fast V o 1989 I JanuaryNoncommunist parties and unions legalized in Hungary I February Roundtable talks with Solidarity in Poland I June free elections in Poland I September fall of the Berlin Wall I November collapse of Czechoslovakian and East German Communism I 1990 German reunification


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