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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leopoldo Larson on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BISC300 at University of Delaware taught by JaneNoble-Harvey in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/207094/bisc300-university-of-delaware in Biological Sciences at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
What is Included what is excluded 639 Eukaryotio organisms fungi protists algae protozoa slime molds infeotious metazoans mites worms 639 Prokaryotio organisms bacteria arohaea AND Some Aren t Even Organisms Infectious agents without cells Viruses nucleic acid protein Viroids or Virusoids RNA Prions protein 7 Copyright the McGrawHill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display Organisms and biological entities studied by microbiologists can be I includes includes eg egi eg eg composed of composed of composed of composed of Yeasts Algae Escherichia Methanogens Molds Protozoa COII Slime molds Antony van Leeuwenhoek 1 675 N Fig 111 a 1 939 to observe microorganisms Drapery merchant in Delpht Lens Specimen holder Fig1 11 Focus screw 39Z39Not a scientist 39Z39Findings to Royale society 39Z39NO materials and methods 39Z39Setback microscopy nearly 200 years mauve m Kathy Park TalamVisuais Unlxmlled 1 655mm VUVisuais Uniimiied Golden Age of Biology Mid1 800 t Charles Darwin evolution t Mendel Fundamental inheritance t Compound light microscope The Cell Theory Bacteria and Microbiology LSLIS PASTEUR Le hasard ne fa mrise que es esprits prepares Chance only favors the mind that is prepared The Con ict over Spontaneous Generation spontaneous generation living organisms can develop from nonliving or decomposing matter Nutrient Tearing Pasteur s Prepared Mind Microorganisms are physical and biological entities oz Have mass single cells otoAre living like plantsanimals 639 Can change genetically Suspended in the Air amp Aeted Upon by Gravity 1 Pulled air through cotton 2 Microbes found in cotton Microbes in am all into flasks Pasteur s SwanNecked Flasks Copyright the McGrawHill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display Draw out neck so that Fig 113 l curved i Microbes I I being 39 destroyed U at Vigorous heat Broth free of is applied live cells sterile Flasks still at quotI j Institut Pasteur 39 Unwersnty of Farm J Trap Neck on second N k39 t t 39 b 39 sterile flask ecmigrggesagrgme graVIty is broken trapped at base growth occurs and broth is sterile Allowed the Development of Aseptic Technique Handling sterile materials 6 manipulate materials so they remain sterile t lnoculate it with specific material t Make a pure culture of a single organism to study Section 68 Could do scientific controlled studies Connection with Disease Common idea was that disease was due to supernatural forces Techniques developed allowed the association with microorganisms to be determined Rober Koch established bacteria as pathogens Copyright The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display Final Proof Robert Koch 1 8431 91 0 established the relationship between Bacillus anthracis and anthrax used criteria developed by his teacher Jacob Henle 1 8091 895 these criteria now known as Koch s postulates still used today to establish the link between a particular microorganism and a particular disease CauseandEfiect Relationship Bacillus anthracis amp anthrax Naming organisms Genus and species I Genus always capitalized italicized in print underlined in script Ispecies never capitalized italicized in print underlined in script Rules postulates for establishing a causeandefiect relationship 187 6 Koch s Postulates the microorganism must be present in every case of the disease but absent from healthy individuals the suspected microorganism must be isolated and grown in a pure culture 0 the same disease must result when the isolated pure microorganism is inoculated into a healthy host experimental infection the same microorganism must be isolated again from the diseased host Required Pure Culture Technique Necessary Physically separate cells from one another and let them grow while separated at not in liquid mixing at must be solid medium 39 D 5 st reproduce into clones colonies Techniques from Koch s Lab Richard Petri dish Fannie Hesse agar as a solidifying agent used in jellies IComplex carbohydrate made by marine algae Most bacteria cannot digest I Solid up to 100 C but liquid until ca 45 C incubate at body temperature of humans etc Developed nutrient media of various types 18 Koch s Postulates Fig 1 1 5 Postulate Experimentation 1 The microorganism must be Koch developed a staining technique to present in every case of the examine human tissue Mycobacterlum disease but absent from tuberculosis could be identified in healthy organisms diseased tissue Incubation period there amp no d Isease 2 The suspected microorganisms Koch grew M tuberculosis in pure must be isolated and grown in a culture on coagulated blood serum pure culture Ml tuberculosrs colonies If cannot grow in pure culture Ike vdlrus 3 he same lsease must result Koch injected cells from the pure when the isolated microorganism culture of M tuberculosis into guinea is inoculated into a healthy host pigs The guinea pigs subsequently 9 died of tuberculosis o If only grows in humans unethical 4 The same microorganisms must Koch isolated M tuberculosis in pure be isolated again from the culture on coagulated blood serum M tuberculosis diseased host from the dead guinea pigs colonies Severe limitations is Practical Interests Drove Microbiology st Pasteurization mild heating to kill certain bacteria 8 keep quality First used for wine prevent spoilage Other liquids juice milk to kill spoilage organisms and pathogens st Pasteur studied fermentation produced desirable products expanded into biotechnology today