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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leopoldo Larson on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BISC207 at University of Delaware taught by JaneNoble-Harvey in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see /class/207095/bisc207-university-of-delaware in Biological Sciences at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
BISC207 Exam 1 PowerPoint ReviewStudy Guide PowerPoint 1 0 Characteristics that de ne life 0 Organization energy use metabolism response to stimuli regulation homeostasis growth development reproduction biological evolution Hierarchy of Organization Horizontal Gene Transfer a mature organism can transfer an entire gene to another mature organism o 3 Domains Bacteria Archaea 8LEukarya o Eukarya 4 kingdoms K Protista K Fungi K Plantae K Animalia o Genomes genetic makeup of organism o Proteomes complete set of proteins an organism can make 0 Proteins determine the traits of a cell PowerPoint 2 0 Big 6 Elements C H O N o S P o All organic compounds contain Carbon 8L hydrogen 0 Molecules fill their outermost electron shell 0 1St shell 2 max electrons 2quotd shell 8 max electrons 3rd shell 8 max electrons o Covalent bonds sharing bonds 0 Strong chemical bonds 0 O and N have high electronegativity o C and H have low electronegativity o H bonds hydrogen bonds are weak 0 When 2 H20 molecules approach each other the 8L sides attract opposites attract 0 Ice maximum H bonding 0 Gas H20 vapor no H bonding 0 Alcohol 0 Organic soluble interacts witn H20 polar because of hydroxyl group 0 Ionic bonds 0 Ions atom that gainedlost electrons o Cations are 8L anions are o Opposites attract o Hydrophilic water loving hydrophobic water fearing doesn t dissolve in H20 amphipathic both polarionized and nonpolar regions part is hydrophilic part is hydrophobic PowerPoint 3 o Prokaryotic cells before nucleus 0 Nucleoid area where there is DNA but no barrier around it o No internal conpartments only a plasma membrane for energy 0 Anatomy of bacteria cell 0 Plasma membrane barrier between inout Cytoplasm stuff in cell that is not DNA Nucleoid where DNA is Ribosomes where polypeptides are made protein synthesis Cell wall prevents bursting within cell lysis Peptidoglycan chains linked together by peptides o Glycan polysaccharide portion of molecule 0 Live in dilute solutions protects cell complex 8L 3 dimentional 000 PowerPoint 4 o 4 important groups carbs proteins lipids nucleic acids 0 All contain big 6 elements 0 Lipids everything not soluble in H20 0 FatsTriglycerides formed by bonding glycerol to 3 fatty acids quottriquot 0 Fiber cellulose o Phospholipids glycerol 2 fatty acids 8L a phosphate group 0 Organic molecules 0 2 parts carbon skeleton 8L functional group Skeleton structure functional group function tells cell what to do 0 Macromolecules that are Polymers o Condensation dehydration eliminates H20 o Hydrolysis adds H20 breaks polymers into monomers Example digestion breaks food down into smallerthings Monomers monosaccarides which means quotone sugarquot 0 Ring compounds made of 5 6 Carbons o Hydrophilic o Disaccarides two monosaccaridesjoined by condensation o Polysaccharides many monosaccaridesjoined by long polymers 0 Biological membranes phospholipid bilayers o Steroids cholesterol 4 interconnected rings of Carbon atoms 0 DNA genome informs proteome o 200 amino acids in one sequence in a double helix stabilized by H bonds o Tertiary structure folds in chain due to interactions between R groups H bonds hydrophobic interactions Hemoglobin structure 4 chains 4 heme molecules 0 Val his leu thr pro gluval glu beta chain difference in chain could mean RBC disease 0 Protein protein interactions 0 Interact through weak H bonds hydrophobic interaction and van der Waals interactions only stay together momentarily 0 Nucleic Acids DNA genetic information 8L RNA decoding DNA and building polypeptides o Nucleotides monomers of nucleic acids 0 Central sugar ribose or deoxyribose 0 Nucleotide base 1 carbon ring and kepo and amino groups ATGU DNA AUGC RNA 0 Phosphate group 5 carbon PowerPoint 5 o Eukaryotic cells 0 Cytosol inside of plasma membrane but outside of cell organelles o Cytoplasm everything in plasma membrane except for nucleus 0 Organelles membrane bound compartments with special structure 8L function 0 Nucleus contains DNA 0 Proteome determines the characteristics of a cell 0 Gene regulation relative amount of protein amino acid sequence Proteins are created to be inactive then are activated when needed IDENTICAL DNA IN DIFFERENT CELLS Metabolism all chemical reactions within a cell 0 Polypeptide synthesis Transfer RNA brings amino acids tRNA Messanger RNA carries info to make a polypeptide from the nucleus m RNA Cytoskeleton Microtubules intermediate filaments actin microfilaments Made of proteins functions as the cell s bones 8L muscles Provide shape 8L strength to cell Anchor and organize cellular parts Golgi apparatus Stack of flattened membrane sacs Receives protein in vesicles Releases products in vesicles to various destinations The secretory pathway made on rough endoplasmic reticulum ER Vacuoles Functions of vacuoles are extremely varied Peroxisomes vesicles from Smooth ER Enzymes that catalyuze certain reactions Peroxisomes have catalase breaks down H202 into H20 and 02 Plasma membrane Functions selectively permeable cell signaling using receptors cell adhesion Mitochondria Makes ATP for energy Anatomy outer 8L inner membranes DNA ribosomes Chloroplasts Photosynthesis plant like Outer and inner membranes Contain their own DNA divide by binary fission have ribosomes Semiautonomous organelles cannot be grown outside of eukaryotic cells dependent on genes Motor proteins Head hinge tail Flagella 8L cilia Flagella long present in pair and singular Cilia short cover all or part of the surface of a cell Mucociliary escalator Cells are ciliated on the surface toward lumen Cilia beat and move mucus SMOKING paralyzes cilia Nuclear envelopes The outer membrane is continuous with the ER membrane Nucleus contains chromatin o Chromosomes become visible due to compaction shortening during cell division 0 ER smooth 8L rough