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by: Leopoldo Larson

IntroductoryBiologyI BISC207

Leopoldo Larson
GPA 3.53


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Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leopoldo Larson on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BISC207 at University of Delaware taught by Hlousek-RadojcicPhD in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/207097/bisc207-university-of-delaware in Biological Sciences at University of Delaware.

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Date Created: 09/19/15
A Human cells In human cells there are 46 DNA molecules which comes out to 46 chromosomes and 23 pairs Being a protein means it has DNA which can translate into amino acid sequence In eukaryotic cells DNA cells can exists as linear and cellular molecules the DNA is exactly the same in every single cell in an individual human body 1 So how does a kidney cell differ from a muscle cell a there is differential gene expression i every cell identical genome iidifferent cell types different proteomes B Gene Expression 1 Constitutive genes genes expressed all the time in every cell a cellular respiration b movement of organelles with the cell gt cytoskeleton c transcription of DNA d translation of mRNA 2 Inducible gene genes expresses only sometimes or in some cells a myo bril the muscle cell has contraction b neuron nerve cells have signal transduction c epithelial skin cells protect the surface d erythrocyte blood cells transport oxygen 3hemoglobin within a red blood cell a the protein transports the oxygen b important the af nity of hemoglobin for 02 i different affinity for an adult versus a fetus a y globin genes are in embryos o y globin genes are in fetuses o 3 globin genes are in adults ii the af nity for hemoglobin is dependent on genes o 3 a y g globin genes alpha and beta globin genes each have a start codon within a coding region C Benefits of Gene Regulation 1 energy conservation a replication transcription translation all requires a lot ofenergy 2 having the right components at the right time in the right place gt growth and development 3 effective response to the environment a physical factors light water b chemical factors nutrient present warning signals D When does gene regulation occur 1 ln prokaryotic cells a transcription i sometimes it happens sometimes it does not ii of copies of mRNA b rate of translation c post translationual regulation 2 In eukaryotic cells a has the same processes as prokaryotic except in between transcription and translation theres an extra step b RNA processing i intron splicing ii stability of mRNA E Operon ex Lac Operon for ecoli responsible for decision of lactose 1 regulation of synthesis of enzymes involved in catabolism breakdown of lactose 2 operator structural gene a each structural gene has only one promoter b each structural gene has their own start and stop codons 3 producespolycistronic mRNA more than one translated product a regulatory gene small amount but continuous production of protein i this gene is shaped in such a way that it can bind to the operator when it is binder it is like a big road block that doesn39t allow the DNA polymerase to read the the sequence ii when lactose comes back into the system the regulatory gene cannot bind to the operator which then allows the DNA polymerase to recognize the promotor 4 When milk and cookies lactose and glucose is digested the ecoi has to make a decision a it is better to break down glucose first because when the glucose rst enters the cell it is reacting with the CAP site which then effects the transcription F Several Different Cultures of EColi A Wild Type B Operator Region 1 doesn39t bind repressor C Regulatory Gene 1 doesn39t produce repressor protein


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