CH. 7 PSY Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Morles on Sunday March 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY2012 at University of Florida taught by Professor Kimberly Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 03/13/16
General Psychology Chapter 7 Notes Memory The retention of information over time. Hyperthymestic syndrome is the memory of life events that are too good. People that have it can remember every single day they have lived. Guided imagery is when therapists ask clients to imagine past events Hypnotic age is when therapist use hypnosis to take clients to the psychological state of childhood. Paradox of memory- memory is good in some situations and poor in others. Our memories are shaped by our cultural backgrounds. Memory Reconstruction Memory illusion- false but subjectively compelling memory (you see sour and bitter but also remember sweet even though it’s not on the list) They illustrate memory reconstruction. Memory is not passive Not just encode – recall of info/events Not like putting a photo in an album We actively reconstruct memories Our brains go beyond available information Adaptive heuristic (mental shortcuts) o Reduce cognitive load o Efficient o Prone to errors 3 Memory Systems (stages) (even though some researchers think there are more) 1. Sensory memory 2. Short-term memory (STM) 3. Long-term memory (LTM) Differ in span and duration (obviously) Span- is about the number of info pieces we can hold Duration- is about how long we can hold them Encoding: Info comes in -> Enters sensory -> (Some is lost) Other moves to STM -> (Some is lost) Other moves to LTM Storage: Some is lost and some stays Retrieval: Stored info in LTM -> moves back in to STM Sensory Memory Each sense has its own form of sensory memory Brief storage of perceptual info (tied to our raw experiences) Acts like a buffer Fills in the blanks of our perceptions Iconic memory (visual) Lasts only one second and then it’s gone George Sperlings 1960 Study (pg. 250): Conducted a study to demonstrate the existence of iconic memory. o He flashed a display of 12 letters, arranged in a box shape of three rows of four. o Sperling used this to see how many letters his subjects could read during the brief flash of the projector. He found that on average, the test subjects could read three to four letters during his experiment. o After, Sperling conducted the same experiment but with one change. He added sound to the images one quarter of a second after the appearance of the letters. (He used high, medium and low tones and asked his subjects to read letters from the top, middle and bottom rows according to the tone they heard) They could read three to four letters during his experiment. o The common response was for the subjects to read three or four letters from a row after they heard the tone. Sperling concluded that his subjects saw a memory of the letters for a quarter of a second and were able to read from this image once they heard the various sounds. Eidetic imagery (photographic memory) Not exactly like photograph (minor errors) Echoic memory (auditory) “echo” Can last 5-10 seconds. Short-Term Memory (STM) Holds info for short durations 5-20 seconds Related to working memory (actively processing – like computer RAM) Loss of info from STM: Decay- info fades over time Inference- competition with new, incoming info (like jammed radio signals) More likely to occur when old and new info/stimuli are similar Main reason for forgetting Retroactive interference: when new info hinders ability to remember info already stored before (new interferes with old) Proactive interference: when previous info gets in the way of accessing new info (old interferes with new) Memory strategies Chunking: organizing info into meaningful groups K A C F J N A B I S B C F U I → C I A U S A F B I N B C J F K Mnemonics: learning aids that enhance recall PEMDAS (please excuse my dear aunt sally) (order of operations) EGBDF (every good boy does fine) (treble clef) Pegword method: rhyming Method of loci: place imagery Keyword method: language learning, reminder words Music: improves LTM recall Rehearsal: extends STM duration Maintenance rehearsal: repeating STM in its original form (like repeating a phone number aloud or in our heads) Elaborative rehearsal: forming meaningful links among links among STM info (like dog-shoe, a dog wearing a shoe) Usually more effective Takes more effort Levels of Processing 1. Visual 2. Phonological (sounds) 3. Sematic (meaning) Long-Term Memory (LTM) Relatively enduring info storage HUGE capacity (Span) o A lifetime of facts, experiences, and skills STM is only 5-20 seconds (unless applying strategies) LTM comes after Serial Position Curve: Primary effect- remembering what was presented earliest Recency effect- remembering what was presented most recently Novelty effect- more likely to remember what was odd or distinctive Types of LTM Explicit memory o Conscious effort required to recall Names of presidents What you had for breakfast Semantic memory- factual knowledge about the world Episodic memory- events (episodes) in our lives Implicit memory o NO conscious effort required for recall Unlocking our front door Tying our shoelaces Procedural memory- motor skills and habits (riding a bike) Priming- effects of prior experience with similar stimuli Conditioning Habituation 3 Memory Processes Encoding- getting info in to memory (more likely to remember something when conditions present at the time of encoding match conditions at time of retrieval) o Context-dependent learning- better retrieval when external context of retrieval context matches original encoding context. o State-dependent learning- better retrieval when internal state ([physiological or psychological) of retrieval context matches original encoding context. Includes mood-dependent learning Storage: keeping info in memory o What determines how and where our memories get stored? Our brains organize and store info/experiences based on what WE ourselves think is most relevant Schemas- organized knowledge structures or mental models stored in memory o An existing file system you designed Used as frames of reference Provide a script for familiar situation Help us interpret new situations Help retrieve stored info Retrieval: reactivation or reconstruction of info from memory o much of forgetting = failures of retrieval retrieval cues: hints that help us access info stored in LTM tip of the tongue phenomenon: retrieval failure where sure we know answer, but can’t come up with it. Ways of Measuring Memory: the “3 Rs” o recall- how well do we generate previously stored info o recognition- how well can we select previously remembered info from an array of options recall = essay; recognition = multiple choice question o relearning- how much more quickly we reacquire something learned before Law of Distributed vs Massed Practice We remember what we learn longer when we do not cram distributed practice- spreading out (distributing) what we are learning over longer intervals massed practice- cramming Most research shows that things like ginkobiloba and Ritalin do not actually improve memory test scores. Amnesia (most common types) retrograde amnesia- loss of past memories anterograde amnesia- loss of ability to make new memories infantile amnesia- adults’ unable to remember accurate memories before 2-3-year-old o hippocampus is only partially developed in infants o lack of sense of self Amnesia (uncommon) cryptoamnesia- hidden memory generalized amnesia and sudden recovery – very rare Emotional Memory amygdala- helps recall emotions associated with fear events hippocampus- helps us recall the events themselves flashbulb memories- very vivid emotional memories o able to be recalled in detail much later o still change over time – inaccurate as compared to initial memories False Memories Source Monitoring Source monitoring confusion- lack of clarity about origins of a memory Suggestive Memory Techniques smashed vs hit vs contacted cars misleading questions the misinformation effect: implanting memories Eyewitness Testimony: Most common cause of wrongful imprisonment only weak correlation between confidence in their testimony and their accuracy BUT- witness confidence DOES influence jury DNA testing Exoneration Biology of Memory Different types of memories are stored in different brain regions Long-Term Potentiation (LTP): gradual strengthening of connections among neurons from repeated stimulation “neurons that fire together, wire together” LTP plays a key role in learning; Hippocampus plays a key role in forming lasting memories Destroying hippocampus leaves implicit memory intact
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