History 2001, Week 9 Notes
History 2001, Week 9 Notes HIST2001
Popular in 20th Century European History
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jay Morgan on Sunday March 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST2001 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Professor Ethan Katz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see 20th Century European History in History at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 03/13/16
Attack on Poland and the Democracies of Europe 3/7 – 3/11/16 During World War II over 70 million soldiers were mobilized. 60 million were killed and half of those numbers belonged to the Soviet Union. During the Nazis initial conquest, we see a massive assault the civil liberties of both men and women. We also see the systematic elimination of different groups like the Jews, Serbs, and Slavs. September 1, 1939 Germany invades Poland with massive amounts of troops. The battle tactic is called “Blitzkrieg” (lightning war). - Using armored vehicles and air support, the Germans would break through enemy lines, cutting them off from supplies and other groups. They would be encircled and quickly wiped out. Poland was completely unprepared to fight back against Germany. After a week, the Nazi forces reached Warsaw. The Soviet Union signed a non-aggression pact with Germany in 1939. Part of the deal was for Russian troops to invade Poland from the East on September 17. The Poles are completely surrounded and cut off. Poland is defeated. Thousands of soldiers are captured. With the help of the Soviets, the Nazis begin a mass extermination of Jewish residence. - Civilians were rounded up for execution or deportation. “Undesirables” were deported to death camps. People are killed by the thousands. The NKVD (Soviet Secret Police) murdered Catholic priests, school teachers and scientists. Civilian population was coerced into giving up enemies of the Nazis and the Soviets. - Both sides employ dangerous criminals. Used as torturers and brutal enforcers. February 1940 The Soviet Union begin deporting Polish civilians. Men are sent to gulags (work camps). Women and children are shipped by train to Kazakhstan by the thousands. They are left in the middle of nowhere to die from the elements. April 1940 Joseph Stalin orders the elimination of Polish officers. - Officers are stripped of their personal effects and taken into the wilderness. The Soviets murder them and bury them in mass graves. - Soviets denied atrocities and blamed German death squads. Gorbachev admits it in 1990. By the end of World War II, Poland loses 18.6% of its population. 1/10 are killed on the battlefield. The rest are civilian casualties. May 1940 The Nazis attack Holland and Belgium. Using blitzkrieg, Holland falls in five days. Belgium falls in eight days. June 14, 1940 France surrenders to the Nazis. Northern France is occupied while the South become a free zone. - The free zone belongs to the Vichy government (French). Prime minister Philippe Petain collaborates with the Nazis and rounding up Jews and other undesirables. Supports Nazi authoritarianism. - French resistance fights back against Nazi occupation. 1940 Great Britain stands alone against Germany. Receives supplies from the United States, but not their full aid. Winston Churchill becomes the new Prime Minister. Battle of Dunkirk Germany pushes Allied forces to the port of Dunkirk. Churchill orders all available ships (military and civilian) to evacuate as many soldiers as they can. - Germany surprisingly does not truly chase after the fleeing troops. Lack of coordination from Hitler allows 338,226 soldiers to escape. Hitler begins using aircraft to bomb Great Britain. 62,000 are killed by the wars end. War and Genocide in the Balkans Benito Mussolini of Italy is Germany’s small ally. Mussolini seeks to recreate the old Roman Empire. This means complete control of all the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. Yugoslavia Italian forces are beat back by Yugoslavian forces. Air bombings only strengthened the resolve of the resistance. Hitler is displeased. He is planning to a massive invasion of Russia, but now has to postpone because of Yugoslavia. In 1941, April 6-17, the Germans defeat Yugoslavia. - Nazis bomb Belgrade. 17,000 are killed. - Yugoslavia descends into chaos. Results in civil war between rebels against Nazi supported government. Croatia From 1940-45, Nazis deport and murder Slavs and Serbs. - Intensified during the civil war in Yugoslavia. Germans stole food from the local populace and famine struck. From 1941-42, estimated 300,000 were dead. The Partisans Described as paramilitary force (civilian). Waged war in occupied areas. Hitler authorizes “atonement killings”. For every soldier killed by partisans, 100,000 civilians should be killed. - Practiced all over Europe. If one civilian killed a German soldier, civilians were rounded up and executed as examples. Compliance through terror. June 22, 1941 Operation Barbarossa Hitler orders the invasion of Russia, despite their pact. Within weeks, German armor cuts deep through Russian territory. Russia is not prepared. - Russian battlegroups are captured by the hundreds of thousands. Invasion involved three simultaneous attacking vectors: 1. Northern flank attacks Leningrad. Lays siege to the city for 900 days. Estimated one million dead. 2. Center forces invade Smolensk. The city is taken, but Soviet forces are able to hold the advance for a couple months. Buys Stalin time to reorganize. 3. Southern flank attack Kiev with the aim to take oil fields in Baku. Continue capturing battlegroups. - After 9 months, estimated 2 million POWS murdered. The Soviets eventually recover. Civilians are conscripted by the millions. Stalin orders civilians to dig defensive lines all around Moscow. Hitler assumes personal control of the invasion and holds off attack on Moscow. Orders forces to reinforce vector three due to difficulties in taking the oil fields. The Battle of Stalingrad City is an industrial area for producing tanks and weapons as well as oil. Hitler believes the Stalingrad must be taken first before Moscow. Mistake allows Stalin to reinforce Stalingrad. - After five months, 475,000 are dead. Arriving Soviet reinforcements are able to rout the Germans. Key victory for the Russians.
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