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by: Leopoldo Larson

IntroductoryBiologyII BISC208

Leopoldo Larson
GPA 3.53


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This 57 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leopoldo Larson on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BISC208 at University of Delaware taught by MichaelMoore in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/207098/bisc208-university-of-delaware in Biological Sciences at University of Delaware.

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Date Created: 09/19/15
BISC 208 Lab Final Exam Study Guide Spring 2013 The Final Lab Exam Duration 1 hour and 15 minute m Closed book combination multiple choice and problem questions Multiple choice will be answered on scantron problems on answer sheet Supplies Bring 2 pencils and an eraser A lab calculator and a ruler will be provided Please remember You may not collaborate with anyone during the exam The TA is not permitted to answer your questions The TA has the authority to act if she observes any inappropriate exchange of information between students during the exam If you have a problem with a question make a note in the appropriate section ofthe exam the first or second page Lab Final Exam Study Guide Use worksheets lab manual your lab notes and quizzes to prepare for the exam In general you should be able to Distinguish dependent variables from independent variables in an experiment Formulate experimental and null hypotheses Create a graph label it correctly and place dependent and independent variables on the graph Calculate the concentration or volume ofa solution when making a dilution the formula will NOT be provided Analyze a set of data by calculating mean standard deviation and also using appropriate statistical test t test Spearman s rank test and Chi square test and be able to interpret results of statistical analysis Dog evolution Be able to define the following terms evolution variation selection mutation Be able to explain what is meant by neutral mutation and understand what it means when we say a mutation is fixed in the popultion Be able to create a phylogenetic tree using genetic differences Explain genetic drift and the founder effect Why are DNA or amino acid sequence used to determine evolutionary relationships Be able to reconstruct evolutionary relationships based on data that provide results of paired analysis of nucleotide sequences Systematics Know all associated vocabulary the list was provided on the handout at the beginning of the lab Be able to interpret a cladogram specifically make sure you can identify a clade root derived character ancestral character homoplasy apomorphy plesiomorphy parsimony ingroup outgroup Be able to create a cladogram if provided with the characteristics a group of organisms reference the websites from the handout and practice problems Plants Structure and function Be able to describe stem anatomy in particular a cross section ofa stem along with vascular tissue parenchyma epidermis What were the outcomes of the dye uptake experiment by split stem What do the results of the dye uptake experiment reveal about the organization ofthe vascular system in plants Plants Transpiration 0 Be able to describe the pathway that water travels through a plant 0 Be able to explain transpiration and how a plant transpires o What is the contribution of diffusion to transpiration o What is the role of guard cells and stomata in transpiration 0 Explain how measuring a decrease in the pressure can provide information on the transpiration rate of a plant 0 Be able to identify the parts of a potometer and assign each role of its set up 0 Be able to explain how to measure the transpiration rate if raw data were provided units used in expressing transpiration rate to analyze the results ofthe transpiration rate ifa set of results was presented either in a graph or table format 0 Explain how different factors affect the transpiration rate factors such as humidity coating the upper leaf surface with Vaseline coating the lower leaf surface with Vaseline the number of leaves wind light etc Animals Invertebrate Dissection 0 Be able to identify organs and make connections between form and function 0 Annelida amp Cephalopods be able to describe their major characteristics use comparecontrast exercise 0 Earthworm 0 Be able to give examples of an earthworm s adaptation to its environment 0 Be able to describe the following terms dorsal blood vessel digestive system crop amp gizzard o Squid 0 Be able to identify and assign the role ofthe mantle syphon gills arms tentacles mouth pen Animals Blackworm 0 Be able to describe two types of circulatory systems open amp closed 0 Ifthe pulsation rate at the tail end is measured is the rate greater or smaller Be prepared to explain why 0 What is the most common mode of reproduction in blackworms 0 Be able to calculate the pulsation rate from a data set 0 Be able to determine if a chemical acts as a depressant or stimulant and explain why Touch and Temperature 0 Be able to explain the difference between visual and touchtemperature sensory receptors 0 What factors affect person s sensitivity to tactile simulation 0 Define sensory adaptation 0 Explain the tactile localization 0 Touch receptor densities differ in different regions ofthe body Explain how that could affect animal s survival 0 Be able to explain how to measure two point threshold distance 0 Be able to explain what thermosensory nerve fibers are and how they contribute to our perception oftemperature o How does the density of cold sensitive points relate to warm sensitive points 0 Are warm and cold sensitive fibers physiologically identical 0 How does previous experience affect our perception of temperature Animals IV Respiration 0 Be able to explain metabolic rate and the factors that affect it 0 Define BMR o How does BMR differ from SMR o How does the size of an animal affect its metabolic rate when considered per unit mass 0 What is a respiratory quotient o How does an animal s diet affect its respiratory quotient 0 Explain the difference between an ectotherm and endotherm and provide examples for each 0 What is the relationship between body temperature and the metabolic rate ofan ectotherm and endotherm o How does an ectotherm adapt to an increase in temperature What about an endotherm o What is the relationship between the metabolic rate and environmental temperature of an ectotherm Of an endotherm 0 Be able to describe the mechanisms used by an a endotherm and b ectotherm to regulate body temperature 0 What is the thermal neutral zone for an endotherm What happens when the environmental temperature drops below the lower critical temperature 0 Give a few examples of how endotherms are able to cope with changes in external temperature How does an ectotherm adapt 0 Be able to explain the functions of each part of the apparatus used to measure respiratory quotient o What is the function ofa soda lime tube Of a drying column 0 Be able to distinguish an endotherm from an ectotherm based on the values for metabolic rates measured at different temperatures Animals V Chordate dissection 0 Be able to identify components of the digestive excretory respiratory circulatory and reproductive systems in a shark frog and mouse 0 How can one determine the gender of a shark frog pig and mouse 0 How does each animal move Focus on their adaptations o What is special about a frogs integument Be able to identify or answer the following questions for each animal 0 Trace a shark s digestive tract locate the spiral valve in its intestine what is its function Compare a frog s digestive tract with a mouse s digestive tract Examine the mouth tongue and teeth of a frog and mouse Identify the esophagus and trachea ofa frog and mouse Identify the glands that are associated with the digestive tract liver pancreas What kind of respiratory system does each animal use Identify the diaphragm of a mouse Identify the parts of the heart how many chambers does it have trace blood flow find the spleen 0 Where are the kidneys Where is a shark s cloaca Where is the anal opening of a mouse Where is the rectal gland ofa shark and what does it do Where is the bladder of a frog and mouse Why do these animals have bladders OOOOOOO Ecology and II Explain the relationship between a predator and prey What factors affect the dynamics of predator and prey populations What are the limitations of peg board simulation How does peg board simulation illustrate some components ofthe predator prey relationship in nature How do different distribution patterns of prey affect predation How does the learning of a predator affect predation How does differing structural complexity affect predation Be able to summarize the natural history of se Royale in respect to moose and wolf populations What is population ecology What factors affect the growth of the population of predators And of prey Explain the term carrying capacity ofa population fa population is going through exponential growth how would the numbers of individuals change from one generation to the next generation Which model is more natural exponential growth or logistic growth of population Be able to distinguish a logistic growth pattern from an exponential growth pattern What is the effect of a predator on the health of its prey use the wolf moose example as an illustration Be able to use the t test to analyze data and then interpret results with the provided table with critical values for t test Practice questions for BISC208 lab exam Spring 2013 NOTE Below are a series of practice questions for the BISC208 lab exam Please keep the following in mind 1 These questions are provided to give you a feel for and some practice on multiplechoice questions that will be on the exam 2 These questions are NOT repeated on the exam so don t bother memorizing them 3 Just completing these questions will NOT prepare you for the exam You should spend most of your study time reviewing the labs and thinking about what you did why you did it what the results were and how changes in the methods used would have affected those results Preparing a table with those categories for each lab might be helpful to you 4 The majority of question types on the exam will be multiple choice but there are other types of questions includin applying mathematicalstatistical methods that were used in the lab organizing data in table or graph formats and interpreting presented data See your worksheets and other lab assignments for examples of other question types 5 Studying your flow sheets and lab assignments will be useful as well reviewing the actual labs 6 The exam is closedbook no notes study cards or anything of that nature Calculators are provided by the course for your use This policy is coursewide If you are used to have an openbook section on your class exams you need to remember that you will NOT have one for your lab exam 7 Ifyou are wondering if something will be on the exam ask yourself did we spend time on it in lab If we did then it might be on the exam The more time spent on it the higher the likelihood of seeing it on the exam 8 The lab exam is written by faculty Your TAs did not write it nor do they see it prior to the exam Thus they are unable to tell you what is on the exam Please direct those types of questions to your Professor Given all those caveats we the BISC208 faculty hope these questions are helpful to you as you study Answers are on the last page of this question set Lab 1 Evolution Dogs 1 Which of the following graphs best represents the relationship you would expect when plotting of genetic differences in a population as a function of time A B O U genetic genetic genetic genetic Time Time Time Time 2 Examine the diagram of evolutionary relationships to the right Which of the following statements is true a Wolf 1 and wolf 2 are more closely related to each other than either is to wolf 3 b Wolf 2 and wolf3 are more closely related to each other Wolf 1 Wolf 2 Wolf3 than either is to wolf l c You would expect more gene sequences differences between wolf l and wolf 2 than between wolf l and wolf 3 d You would expect the exact same genetic differences between all 3 wolves e None of answers ad are correct Lab 2 Phylogenetic Analysis 3 A geneticist constructed two cladograms Which cladogram is more parsimonious a cladogram a b cladogram b c Actually cladograms a and b are equally parsimonious 4 Which of the characters in Table 22 below is found in all of the derived species but not in the outgroup species a character 1 b character 2 c character 3 d character 5 e character 6 Table 22 A character matrix Characters X E X Lab 3 Plant anatomy and transpiration 5 In the dye uptake experiment you put the stem underwater before cutting it Why a to make sure the stem was sliced as evenly as possible b to eliminate the oldest part of the stem c to eliminate as many nodes as possible d to avoid the introduction of air to the cut stem which could block dye uptake e None of ad are correct 6 You are measuring transpiration with the potometer In your rst experiment where you measured the effect of leaf surface area on transpiration temperature a remained approximately constant b was increased as the experiment progressed c was decreased as the experiment progressed d was increased for the rst set of runs and then decreased for the second set of runs e not quantified or measured Lab 4 Transpiration 7 Sometimes a er collecting a couple of minutes of transpiration data the potometer output showed a at horizontal line Which of the following is the most likely explanation for that type of output a This is the expected output of a potometer that is working correctly b There is probably an air bubble in the tubing that is interfering with the measurements c The infrared gas analyzer IRGA was not correctly calibrated d C02 had not been completely removed from the air going into the chamber e The heat lamp has not been turned on 8 You start measuring transpiration rate with anintact shoot Then you gradually remove leaves until the stem is bare Which of the graphs below depicts the trend you would expect to see in transpiration rate as the experiment progressed a graph A b graph B c graph C d graph D e none of graphs A D A B C D Y Y Y Y X x x x Lab 5 Invertebrates 9 See the gure to the right for an image of a dissected earthworm The pointer is showing a muscular structure What is this structure 7 b pharynx c seminal vesicles d gizzard e intestine 10 You decide to measure the effect of different light wavelengths on blackworrn pulsation rate You test three different worms with three different wavelengths What parameters would you want to hold constant during your experiment a pulsation rate b light wavelength c both pulsation rate and light wavelength d everything but pulsation rate and light wavelength e temperature 3 Lab 6 TouchTemp Senses ll Twopoint threshold distances were measured for ve body parts on six subjects The averages of the six subjects were calculated Results are shownin Table 51 Which body part probably has the lowest density of touch sensory endings a body part 1 b body part 2 c bodypart 3 d body part 4 e body part 5 12 How would you be likely to detect the greatest number of cold spots a touching 5 skin with a 35 probe b touching 35 skin with a 35 probe c touching 35 skin with a 5 probe d touching 5 skin with a 5 probe Lab 7 Animal Respiration 13 Say you le either your lizard or your mouse in the tube at room temperature and you covered the tube with a towel so that the light was dim and there were no visual distractions for the animal What would you expect the effect would be metabolic rate and why a increase because the animal would calm down b decrease because the animal would calm down c stay the same because the animal would calm down d increase because the animal would become agitated e decrease because the animal would become agitated 14 You had a drying column in your repiration apparatus because The animals needed to be breathing completely dry air The air needed to be dried before it was pumped by the pump The condensor tube would rust if exposed to moist air The temperature sensor could not be exposed to moist air None of answers ad are correct WEDPST Lab 8 Vertebrate Anatomy 15 The structure indicated by the pointer in Fig 81 is the 39 the primary function of this structure 1s Heart circulation Lung39 buoyancy Lung39 respiration Stomach digestion Kidney excretionwaste formation Figure 81 Dissected mouse with some organs removed 951057 16 Which Spearman s Rank Correlation value below indicates the strongest positive relationship a 0 b 085 c 05 d 095 e 023346 Lab 9 Ecology Pegboard simulation 17 Say you used 100 beans instead of 50 beans on a pegboard ofthe same size You would expect a predation success to increase in both clumped and random distributions b predation success to decrease in both clumped and random distributions c there to be no effect on predation success 18 In the second part of the experiment you measured predation efficiency in a structural simple and structurally complex environment Which of the following natural environments would you consider a structurally complex habitat for a predator a tropical rain forest a temperature deciduous forest in summer a swamp All of ac are structurally complex environments None of ac are structurally complex environments rue99 s Lab 10 Ecology Isle Royal 19 On Isle Royale the populations of moose and wolves go in cycles In atypical cycle increasing wolf density causes or allows an in moose density Increasing moose density causes or allows aan in wolf density a increase decrease b increase increase c decrease increase d decrease decrease 20 What does dNdt mean in population ecology a The number of organisms in the population at a particular time The amount of time the population has been present in a particular location The demographics of a population The change in population as a function of time The change in species composition in an ecosystem as a function of time 0305 Answers 1b 2b 3b 4e 5d 6a 7b 8c 9d 10d lla 12c l3b l4e 15e l6b l7a 18d l9c 20d BISC 208 EXAMPLE QUESTIONS FROM DR MOORE S OLD EXAMS 1 A contemporary definition of evolution would be aa change in r39 r f I 39 during 39 g ba change in allele 1 39 during 39 g c occurs when two alleles confer different fitness on the individuals possessing them d any process that results in increasing adaptation e all of the above 2 In the human gene pool you discover that the frequency of the recessive allele for albinism has increased over that last decade The most specific conclusion you can draw from this evidence is a that evolution is occurring in this population b that natural selection is occurring in this population c that none of the assumptions of the HardyWeinberg Law are violated in this population d that this population is experiencing genetic drift e that the absolute number of albino individuals in the population has increased 3 The significance of the HardyWeinberg Law to the theory of evolution is that it a suggested the theory of punctuated equilibrium b identified the source of new variation in a population c proved that allele frequencies would not vary just as a consequence of Mendel s laws d defined the conditions that must be violated if evolution is to occur e both c and d 4 fall the assumptions of the HardyWeinberg Law are met in a population which of the following will change from one generation to the next a allele frequency b genotype frequency c phenotype frequency d adaptation e none of the above will change 5 The MINIMUM conditions that must be met for human beings to evolve greater computer skills in the future by natural selection is a people with computer skills must have greater fitness b computer skills must be in part heritable c people must be able to learn computer skills at an early age d both a and b e both b and c Answers mwaH Ummlgtw PowerPoint 01 Introduction to Evolution Paradigm Shift What is a Paradigm Shift Examples Paradigm Shifts caused by Scientific Discoveries in the last 500 Years Copernicus 1543 Earth man is not the center of the universe Newton 1687 1 World is governed by natural laws Lyell 1830 Earth is very old and constantly changing Darwin 1859 Life is governed by natural laws man is descended from other organisms and is not unique Paradigm Shift What is Science Attempt to explain as much as possible of world around us using only natural forces What is Evolution Heritable change in one or more characteristics of a population or species from one generation to the next Microevolution Gradual changes within a single species over generational time Mesonychid Ambulocetus Rodhocetus Basilosaurus 55 mya 52 mya 46 mya 42 mya 2001 Sinauer Associates Inc Macroevolution o Origin of completely new species m 0 A a 39 E i 3m m AN CESTOR FINCH from South American mainland Blueblack grassquit gala if L Chi a 2130 Shane Assodara Inc 39 m organismsthatshareadistlncbveform capable of interbreeding to produce viable andfertileo bpring mm Membersofmesamespedesmatare nkelytoencountereachomer opportunltytointerbreed What is Evolution o Heritabledlangeinoneormoredmaracue stics ofapopula onorspedesfromonegeneratlon tothenext indiiuas mu calydifferet A from others Ifa human popula onoonslsoodoflmmeyed Individuals would eye color ever evolve Isgeneticvariationcommonenoughfor evolution to occur 10 How many different types of individuals do you see ll Phenotypic variation In human populations appears very high Easyhoseethatmereare Iotsof underlying genetic differences How many different types of individuals do you see 13 Phenotypic variation in natural populations appears very low How much genetic variation is there 14 Phenotypic variation in natural populations appears very low Phenotypic variation in natural populations appears very low Phenotyplc variation in natural populations appears very low However phenotyplc variation is not the same as genetic variation Example A population consists of 100 Brown eyed individuals phenotype Mayoontaina mixofgenotypeswaand 8b Genetic variation is omen much greater 16 than phenotypic variation 17 o How can we tell how much genetic variation thereactually is 0 Looking at phenotype variation Oneapproach isto lookatarti cial selection 0 If all individuals are gene cally identical you unnot produce new types by selective breeding Arti cial selection reveals that underlying genetic variation is much greater than appears from phenotypic variation 0 Artificial selection reveals that underlying genetic variation is much greater than appears from phenotypic variation Wild mustard plant 39 Brassica oleraye Broccoli Cabbage sprouts Modi ed Leaves Flower buds Lateral Terminal trait and stem leaf buds leaf bud Artificial selection reveals that underlying genetic variation is f than appears from phenotypic variation m Sparums q 73 a i Mag Ohevhyp othjesi39sfor how WolvesLgavefri sgte to modern dogb r e eds by artificial selection 20 Genetic Variation within Populations These examples illustrate there is enough existing geneticvariation in populations to make some evolutionary change possible However there are limits No matter how hard we try we probably cannot breed whales from dogs There is not enough existing genetic variation in populations to account fOr evolution of new species 21 Genetic Variation within Populations For the evolution of new species we need to introduce new genetic variation Where does new genetic variation come from Rodhocefus 46 mya A mlntlocetus 52 mya Mesonychi d 55 mya 22 Genetic Variation within Populations Source of new genetic variation is m mutation Because mutations are random they can be neutral harmful or very rarely beneficial 23 Genetic Variation within Populations chances of an individual beneficial mutation are vanishingly small 1m illion Over very long periods of time the chances of rare events become near certainties Given enough time anything possible becomes probable Significant evolutionary change takes a m time because beneficial mutations are so rare 7411 Signi cant evolutionary change takes a long time 2 m Years 24 1 Billion Seconds morethan 31 years 25 Genetic Variation within Populations First step necessary for Evolution to Occur Production of genetic heritable variation by random mutation good bad neutral Second Step New good genetic variations mutations become established in populations PowerPoint 02 Mechanisms and Genetic Basis of Evolution Part 1 Population genetics Studyofgeneticsatapopulationlevel Focusongeneticvarlation in populations and how it changes Helpsusunderstandhowgenetlc va a onisrelatedmphenotypic variation Gene pool Alloftheallelesforevelygeneinaghen population Recallfromgenetlcs Mydlploldlndwldmlhastwolodwmm Eadabanmnbempledbidmualldesfomsofa gene Wk nmmddmnamm Wbmmmdam annular i Humans amp Etamm amp labHam co Gene pool Alloftl39leallelesforeverygeneinagiven population Characte zeGenePoolmreeways Wm onofaw c phamtypem39owneyeswblueeyes Wpmpor onofasped c WwBoer Wmpor onoflodmpiedbv aspad calleleBorb Gene pool Consider a population of blue and brown eyed humans c There are 50 BB individuals and 50 bb Individuals c What are the phenotype genotype and allele frequencies Gene pool Ifthe population Is 50 BBlndlviduals and 50 bb individuals what are the phenotype genotype and allele frequencies 39 Phenotype 50hrowneyed50blue eyed Genotype 50BBOBb0bb Allele 50350b copies of particular allele eg B Allele Frequency loci 2 X individuals 6 Gene pool Ifthepopulation lsSOBblndeualsand SO bb individuals what are the phenotype genotype and allele frequencies 39 Phenotype 50hrowneyed50blue eyed Genotype OBB50Bh50bb Allele 25 B 75 b copies of particular allele eg B Allele Frequency loci 2X individuals 7 Evolution o Heritablechangelnoneormorecharacteristlcsofa populationorspedesfromonegeneratlontothe next Wm Change In allele frequencies fromonegeneration nothenext g 0 00quot quot 00 u on 00 0000 u 8 20 B 45 B HardyWeinberg Law 1910 Define conditions necessary for stable allele frequencies Establish baseline conditions for evolution No Change in Allele Frequencies Evolution will occur when No new mutations occur Allallelesnavethesameeffectonsurvivaland reproductive rates all neutral mutations Thepopulationissolargethatallele uenclesdonotcna duetorandom gnawed nae Only random m tion occurs between different popula gene ow Random mating A lationthatmeetsallthesecriberlais sa be in HardyWeinberg Equilibrium and will not evolve 10 No Change in Allele Frequencies Evolution will occur when No new mutations occur Allalleleshavethesameeffectonsuwivaland reproductive rates all neutral mutations Thepopulatlonlssolargethatallele uenclesdonotcl39la duetorandom fewrclleaqnoeel39feclra nae Only random m tlon occurs between different popula gene ow Random mating o Are an natural ulatlons in Ha Welnbgrg equililg gm my 11 Mechanisms of Evolution Changes in allele frequencies within pOpulations are caused by four mechanisms 1 new mutation 2 gene flow 3 random genetic drift 4 natural selection 12 Most important in natural populations Mechanisms of Evolution Changes in allele frequencies within pOpulations are caused by four mechanisms 1 new mutation 2 gene flow 3 random genetic drift 4 natural selection Natural Selection is one of many mechanisms of Evolution they are not the same thing 13 Mechanisms of Evolution Non Directional random or chance evolution forms of genetic drift 1 Genetic Drift 2 Founder Effect 3 Evolutionary Bottleneck Directional Evolution results in increased adaptation 1 Natural Selection 2 Sexual Selection type of natural selection 14 15 1 Genetic drif39l Changes in allele frequency due to random chance alone Just by accident one allele is passed on more than another unrelated to adaptation Sometimes an allele goes extinctjust by accidental drift Genetic drift Effects depend on population size Verylargepopula ons magnum randomeffedsmavmgedwt Mediumpopulatlons masterlch Samrammth Smilpopula ons drlltlsverywong alleiesomengoexunctjustbyacddent 16 htt darwineebuconnedu simulations drifthtm httppsychcoloradoeduquotcareyhgsshgssappletsevolutiongeneticdriftGeneticDrifthtm Genetic drift 10 0 1 u 2 2 Tc m lt O 5 05 Q s U G H LL1 0 0 50 Generations 2 Founder effect Small group of individuals establishes a new colony Just by chance some alleles are representw more than others Allele frequencies different from original population Unrelated to adapation 18 Founder effect 3 Evolutionary Bottleneck o Population reduced dramatially and then rebuilds Some notypes random eliminated when 33th shrinksly New ulation lik to have less genetic varlaggnp fewer algyles 20


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