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by: Leopoldo Larson

HumanPhysiology BISC276

Leopoldo Larson
GPA 3.53


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Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leopoldo Larson on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BISC276 at University of Delaware taught by BarbaraButler in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see /class/207099/bisc276-university-of-delaware in Biological Sciences at University of Delaware.

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Date Created: 09/19/15
Chapter 8 Chemical transmission is from a neurotransmitter through a receptor chemical site by way of two neurons to a glial cell Electrical passing from one neuron to another through gap junctions Axosomatic terminal to cell body Axoaxonic to terminal to terminal Axodendritic synapse going for terminal to dendrite ea Man a v ismlnel a Synanllc h gt vesiniu A n Neuruirnnsmmev In Reupule u molecule r r Sympllc p 12quot 7 Plasma mumb m Vamp quiz 5 Pasisvnapilc nation mm of gel 1 Pmynaplic mum ii mil m Aaliva msynzpllc navmn um axspwnrmum in Juu lngn milm mmrs 1 Calcium gate channels need to open 2 Diffuse into terminals 3 Calcium fuse with the vesicle with the membrane neurotransmitter 4 Fusion occurs when vesicle and membrane open 5 Neurotransmitters fill the synapse 6 Reaction along membrane Ache breaks up ach which forms acetate and choHne These chemicals get reabsorbed to be used again Synaptic delay 5milliseconds to hours depends on the neurotransmitter being used Synaptic fatigue over stimulating using a particular neurotransmitter causing fatigue example ach onotropic receptors action is fast and occurs at ion channels Metabotoic receptors direct coupling slow and occur at receptors that use a g protein and then an ion messenger Excitatory receptors EPSPwhen the membrane is highly permeable to sodium you get an excitatory presynaptic potential Inhibitory receptors PSPwhen the membrane is highly permeable to potassium you get an inhibitory presynaptic potential Summation Temporal A is followed by B with an accumulation effect Spatial if A and B arrive at the same time and get an accumulation effect A and B stand for impulses Divergence spreads from one neuron to many or more than one Convergence when multiple synapses come into one neuron Facilitation if the neurotransmitter causes an EPSP terminal to terminal Inhibition if neurotransmitters cause an IPSP Particular receptor site terminal to terminal Amount ofdrug o Enhance or inhibit receptor site m cause of addiction Cholinesach action depends upon the specific 0 over me need more and more to get same reaction receptor Cholinergic synthesized in the liver Nicotinic cholinergic ionotropic and all skeletal A eCtS With aCh Site mUSCleS Nicotine competes and takes up spot therefore Muscarinic cholinergic metabotropic and the ham responds and releases dopam39ne cardiac and smooth muscle making you feel gOOd Biogenic has a quaternary protein receptor and 39 During detox you Will fell irritable39 has 4 subunits with 2 alpha and 2 beta 39nsomma39 and restlessness Epinephrine adrenaline Nore epinephrine nore adrenaline Regulate by sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system Degraded by MAO enzymes Dopamine neurotransmitter that affects the entire brain Excitatory and inhibitory reactions When receptor sites for dopamine are damaged you get rigidity which leads to Parkinson s disease Over excited cocaine inhibit receptors staying high Amino acids GABA responding to sedatives Neuropeptides vasopressin regulates urine output and acts as an antidiuretic Location of neurotransmitters what part of brain Chapter 9 6 superior saggittal sinus 7 arachnoid villi Nervous system 1 Ventricle section of the brain the CSF protects the brain and allows movement the CSF is sterile and roughly 120 to 150ml are exchanged 3x a day Homeostatic protection of the brain tissue 2 Ependymal cell to be involved in formation of cerebral spinal fluid 3 Capillary 4 Neuron 5 Astrocyte maintaining the blood brain barrier Capillaries in the brain 6 Microglial cell responsible for phagocytosis 7 Oligodendrocyte responsible for myelin sheath in CNS Has astrocytes that help maintain tight junctions in brain capillaries Tight junctions blockages 00 I Schwann cell responsible for myelin 0 Will only admit hydrophobic sheath in PNS molecules carbon dioxide water and other ions Neurolemma is the outer covering of a Schwann I Alcohol aspirin and cell some pathogens along with some antibiotics 1 Hair Example bacterIal menIngItIs and tetracyclIne 2 Scalp 4 Cranium bone 0 Neuroglobin Ngb is an OZbinding 3 Periosteumcovering of bone three layer of spinal cord protein localized to cerebral neurons of 1 duramaterrough outer layer vertebrates including humans 2arachoid matervascular layer has blood vessels 0 Its physIologIcal role Is unknown but like hemo lobin and m o lobin it ma 3 pIa matercover braIn or spInal cord g y g y transport 02 or serve as a hypOXIa Subarachnoid space is where cerebral spinal sensor fluid CSF is contained 1 formed in the choroid plexus 0 Research indicates Ngb acts as an endogenous neuroprotective factor in focal cerebral ischemia and may therefore represent a target for the 239 lateral ventr39des development of new treatments for rd 3 3 ventIcles stroke 4 cerebral aquaduct 5 4 h ventricle Cerebral hemisphere Thalamus warm secilun minimum libm cmpus callusmnl Ful ll1n us u ifhomclt r nerves Lumbar 3 nerves 3 5anral nurvas 5 39 H s nnrvc Copyllg l 39 2008 Pearson Euucauon inc puhilshmg as serum Cummings Broca where speech is formed Wernicke area language comprehension Thalamus relay center Hypothalamus regulates body temperature thirst urine output and hunger Cerebellum muscle coordination balance and muscle tone Midbrain brainstemtwo parts Pons and medulla cardiovascular respiratory and digestive control Contains medulla pons and midbrain 1 Olfactory smell 2 Optic being able to see 3 Oculomotor movement of pupils 4 Trochlear peripheral movement of the eye 5 Trigerminal ability to chew and move your face nose and mouth 6 Abducens up and down movement of the eye 7 Facial impact salivary glands and tears 8 Vestibulocochlear hearing 9 Glossopharyngeal swallowing 10 Vagus stimulates many organs 11 Spinal voice and coughing 12 Hypoglossal tongue Reflex arc 1 Receptor sensory organ that receives impulse 2 Afferent pathway leads to CNS 3 Integrating center in the cord and brain where messages are processed 4 Efferent pathway returns 5 Effector responds to muscle or gland Homeostasis newborn reflexes Projection cerebral cortex to lower part of core Tonic neck reflex also known as fencing reflex Association connection one part of cortex to Step reflex another part on the same side Crawl reflex Commissural fibers part of cortex to another on the opposite All go away in 36 months Hydrocephaly to much CSF in ventricles Pathway Spine bifida maninges Afferent has dorsal root ganglion InfectIon paralysis IrrItatIon to surrounding tissues only surgery Efferent has no ganglion Ascending tracts going to brain Descending tracts down to muscles Pain receptor Touch receptor Sws rem sleep Ascending reticula activating system Serotonin controls rest pattern and sleep cycle Sitting beta Zoned out alpha Stage 2 heart respiration and movement slows down Stage 3 same as 2 just slower Rem dreaming Chapter 1 Hylin cartridge Body organization calcium atom calcium phosphate molecule fibril organelle myofibril cell stomach muscle tissue stomach organ digestive system organ system ed blood cells with white blood cell in r human organism R ce Epithelial 1 3 Dense tissue Skeletal muscle tissue striations Adhesion junction attach one cell to anot er Tight junction prevent passage of ions through cells Gap junction allow ions to pass through ells Chapter 4 Transport across the plasma membrane Intracellular fluid fluid inside cells Extracellular fluid fluid found outside of ells there are two types of extracellular fluid gt Interstitial fluid fluid surrounding cells gt Plasma fluid component of blood TA BLE 41 Mlllimnlar Concentrations m smcmrl Salutes in Intracellular Fluid ICFI39 and Exlvacallular Fluil l IECF Sulqu lot Ili tcr mm quot 1400 40 Na 150 145 0 Mg1 us 1 5 BAIT ltD 0E1 l 1 E II M 115 D HC 03 1011 25 U P 41m 2 0 Amino a u 2 n this Glucose 1 D 5 ii ATP are 00 Protein 40 92 quotIn39racaiiularlluln cumpcsllmn vanesvar illsrelllcell wuss 39Harers to calcium inns Yves luma vmsnl A slqri cant quanmv ul inrrscellmar alzium is sequesreveu lr membranerllmimled organelles sudav lluvn a umlelns Uglyunili uzwu Pearsun tunaamm ma plnirs llng 2 Hawaii in cmmmugs Sodium Calcium Chlorine HC03 High concentration on outside of cell Potassium amino acid ATP if present high concentration on inside of cell Passive simple diffusion gt Ions move from higher concentration to lower concentration Electrical driving force gt Inside cell is negative and outside cell is positive vice versa Strength is dependent of the size and quantity of cell Open Difference in concentration gradient Concentration from higher to lower Regular ions move through simple diffusion water moves through osmosis 1 2 3 Difference in charge 4 5 movement of a molecule with the help of an ion through a membrane aquaporens water passes channe proteins open on both sides Three sodium leave Two potassium enter sodium is a secondary transport for molecules insuin receptors primary active transport Endocytosis bring in Exocytosis bring out nothing leaves a cell without a vesicle Endocytosis gt Phagocytosis particle gt Pinocytosis liquids gt Receptor mediated endocytosis Chapter 5 A mechanism of attachment Direct Indirect binding to a receptor site 1 Paracrines give off signals from one cell 2 Autocrines signaling in which a cell secretes a hormone that binds to receptor sites on the same cell 3 Neurotransmitters relay amplify and modulate Ach 4 Hormones secreted by endocrine glands into the interstitial space and later into the blood Lipophilic lipid soluble hormones and paracrines Lipophopic neurotransmitters and autocrines Mode of transmission packed into synaptic vesicle and cluster at pre synaptic membrane on that side ofthe synapse that are released into the synaptic cleft then bind to receptors in the membrane on the post synaptic side excitatory to excite inhibitory to depress or slow down Characteristics activate or inhibit the receptor Actions 1 glutamate excitatory transmission gt Increases the other side of the synapse brain and spinal cord Z GABA inhibitory transmissions gt Sleeping medicine 3 Ach neurotransmitter that stimulates a neuromuscular junction the connection between motor nerves and muscles 4 dopamine reward system 5 seratonin 80 digestive system 20 in central nervous system gt Control of mood appetite sleep memory and learning Synthesis synthesized in the axon terminal Acha and choline are reabsorbed and biochemically form Ac gt Glutamate glucose metabolism gt Amines cytosol gt Proteins rough er gt Peptides rough er gt Hormones smooth er gt Lipids smooth er Transduction l intracellular receptors insulin 2 channel linked receptors ligand 3 enzyme linked kinesis 4 g proteins Degradation Acetylcholinesterase Ache breaks down Ach Ach gets sent through synapse and Ache break apart after binding to receptor Dopamine Diffuses away from target junction Homeostatic shifts overstimulation parkinsons Serotonin If tryptophan is to low use prilozac Chapter 7 Central nervous system brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system afferent in gt Somatic signals from organs stomach growling stimuli from skin muscles or joints gt Special vision hearing taste gt Visceral organs efferant out gt somatic skeletal muscle gt autonomic sympathetic and parasympathetic Nissel bodies found in neurons gt responsible for protein synthesis Ach neurotransmitter gt axon terminal end at some sort of receptor glial cells two different kinds that produce myelin gt oligodendrocyte CNS only gt shwann cell axons only in PNS myelin sheath lipid protein structure insulator node of ranvier impulse gets a quotjumping sensation to each node allow ions to travel gt leaky Ca ions to move at an open rate continuous flow 0 maintain resting state using chemical and electrical passive forces gt ligand need a receptor 0 receptor sites ex neurotransmitter V voltage gated controlled by sodium and potassium More potassium inside and more sodium outside Establishing the steady rate More sodium inside becomes less negative inside Always at 70 Resting polarization Depolarized result of a stimuli number increases because sodium goes inside becoming negative Hyper repolarization less than 70 Graded potentials 1 2 3 we T cquot Peripheral nervous system Schwann cells regeneration is plausible both produce growth stimulating proteins 1 2 months magnitude varies duration varies with trigger decremental conduction magnitude decreases with distance growth inhibiting proteins passive spreading to inactive area OllgOdendrocytes 9 months no refractory triggered by a chemical stimuli occurs in specialized region of the membrane graded potential is at a receptor site 1 N I 3 initiator and terminal ends start stop distance location along axon all of none law once stimulated the action potential goes until action is complete direction and frequency insulation voltage gated channels action potential increase along an axon from one neuron to another xylocaine over Novacaine block sodium channels Decision is based on where Central nervous system oligodendrocytes no regeneration Questions Questions 1 Name two types of tissues that 1 What is the major form of energy for respond to chemical all living things neurotransmitters 2 How is ATP synthesized 2 What are the passive forces related to the maintaining of ions during the resting state 3 Which body cells would require across the plasma membrane large amounts of mitochondria to produce large amounts of energy 3 What are the active forces 4 Which form of respiration is most elmmg aCt39On forces39 efficient in energy production and why Answers Answers 1 ATP 1 Muscleand nerve 2 Cell respiration in mitochondria 2 Chemlcal and elecmcal 3 Sodium and Potassium 3 Muscles and neurons 4 Aerobic anerobic only produces 2 ATP and without oxygen which is very insufficient in cytosol aerobic is with oxygen and produce 36 ATP 1 glucose 6 oxygen yields 6 water 6 carbon dioxide and 36 ATP


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