New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

PSYC 1100, week 8 notes

by: Hannah Traynor

PSYC 1100, week 8 notes PSYC 11OO-H73

Hannah Traynor

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover what will be on the next exam on Perception, both visual and audio.
Introductory Psychology
Jason Anastas
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Introductory Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Traynor on Sunday March 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 11OO-H73 at University of Connecticut taught by Jason Anastas in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Connecticut.

Similar to PSYC 11OO-H73 at UCONN


Reviews for PSYC 1100, week 8 notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/13/16
Module 24: Thinking  Thinking, a.k.a. Cognition o Cognition refers to mental activities and processes associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating information o Cognition can include reasoning, judgment, and assembling new information into knowledge o Also supports these other psychological processes: attention, emotion, consciousness, perception, learning, memory  Thinking: Topics o Concepts: the building blocks of thought  A concept is a mental grouping of similar objects, events, states, ideas, and/or people, etc.  Ex: dogs vs. cats  A concept can be represented and communicated by an image, or by a work such as “chair” or “party” or “democracy” o How do we learn/form concepts?  We think we form concepts by definitions. For example we define a triangle as an object with three sides  But is this how we actually form concepts?  Often, we form concepts by developing prototypes, that is, mental images of the best example of a concept  All different ideas of what a triangle looks like o Conceptualizing a Chai  What is your definition of a chair? What is your prototype of a chair? Which of these fit the chair concept? (stools, fence, swing, beach chair) o When prototypes fail us  Prototypes fail us when examples stretch our definitions, as in considering whether a stool is a chair  Prototypes fail us when the boundary between concepts is fuzzy, as in judging glue- green colors or computer-blended faces  Prototypes fail us when examples contradict our prototypes, such as considering whether a whale is a mammal, or penguin is a bird  Problem solving o Refers to the thinking we do in order to answer a complex question or to figure out how to resolve an unfavorable situation o Strategies for arriving at solutions include: trial and error  Involves trying various possible solutions, and if that fails, trying others  When it’s useful: perfecting an invention like the light bulb by trying a thousand filaments  When is fails: when there is a clear solution but trial and error might miss it forever o Algorithm  Step by step strategy for solving a problem, methodically leading to a specific solution o Heuristics  A sort-cut, step-saving thinking strategy or principle which generates a solution quickly o Insight  Refers to a sudden realization, a leap forward in thinking that leads to a solution  Trial and error vs. Algorithms o To solve a word jumble, you can use:  Trial and error—randomly trying different combinations in no particular order  An algorithm—carefully checking every single combination beginning with the letter “C” before moving on to a different starting letter  Heuristic—knowing where consonants and vowels go in common words o Algorithms: Not just thoroughness  A father and a son are currently 40 and 10; when will the son be half the father’s age?  Use algebra: x=1/2(x+30) o Insight: the “aha” moment  Refers to a sudden realization, a leap forward in thinking, that leads to a solution  We say aha and feel a sense of satisfaction when an answer seems to pop into our minds  We also may laugh; fake punchlines rely on sudden insight  Insight and the Brain  Frontal lobe extra activity  Experiencing the aha moment stating the answer  A burst of activity I right temporal lobe  Obstacles to Effective Problem Solving o Confirmation bias, Fixation/mental set, Heuristics  Confirmation bias o Refers to our tendency to search for information which confirms our current theory, disregarding contradictory evidence o Natural tendency: “if I’m right, then fact “c’” will confirm my theory. I must look for fact “c” o Scientific practice: “If I’m right, then fact “d” will disprove or at least disconfirm my theory. I must search for fact “d” o If you think that answer is something, ask a question that would disconfirm your theory (if you think the number is 8, ask if it is odd) o Pick the things that make you wrong instead of right  Research: o The ultimate test of our mastery of confirmation bias in psychology might be our ability to avoid confirmation bias in research o If we believe that overeating candy is the main cause of ADHD symptoms, we look for kids who eat a lot of sugar  A mental set o The tendency to approach problems using a mindset (procedures and methods) that has worked previously o Fixation is a type of this o If you are “primed” to use a certain problem-solving strategy, you can form a mental set that makes it harder to solve a new, similar problem  Fixation o Think about two dimension is three dimension  INTUITION o The human cognitive style of making judgements and decisions is more efficient than logical o The quick-acting, automatic source of ideas we use instead of careful reasoning is known as intuition o Using intuition to make a decision has some downsides, as we’ll soon see, but it also has some benefits o As with problem-solving, there are mental habits which make intuition judgments simpler and quicker, but may lead to errors:  The availability heuristic  We estimate the likelihood of an event based on how much it stands out in our mind, that is, how much it’s available as a mental reference  Ex; slot machine, when you win, its loud, bright signs, and it gets stuck in your head, but many people aren’t winning  Misleads us about whether a plane ride or a motorcycle ride is more dangerous, because of the media that surrounds the casualties, rather than cars being more dangerous, occurs more often  Tend to give weight to the ones that don’t happen very often  Vivid images are almost always wrong  Overconfidence  Refers to our tendency to be more confident than correct  We overestimate the accuracy of our estimates, predictions, and knowledge  Ex; thinking you can put off work and still get it done well, thinking you have test material mastered when you scan it and it feels familiar  The overconfidence error: survival value, when confident we make quick decisions which may be better than a thought out decision, also feeling certainty reduces stress and anxiety, and over confident people may gain social power (make people bend to your will)  Know when not to be confident: say “I think” rather than “I know”, be open to feedback and to correction, ask for other people’s opinions, keep track of when you were wrong (keep track of horrible habits)  Belief perseverance  “my mind is made up; do not confuse me with the facts”  The tendency to hold on to our beliefs when facing contrary evidence  We interpret information I a way that fits our beliefs. We might claim that the new information is wrong, biased, or just “doesn’t make sense.”  You can’t cure someone else of this, just telling someone the “right” information won’t override it  Instead, watch for this in yourself. Take opposing views and information seriously, always assuming that you could be wrong  Framing  Is the focus, emphasis, or perspective that affects our judgments and decisions o Ex; are condoms effective if they…work 95% of the time OR fail 5% of the time o Stores try to sound like a bigger sale than they actually have o Intuition; how to use it well, how it may have been adaptive, and when it’s effective  Think carefully; incubation refers to the power of taking a break from careful thinking, even to “sleep on it,” to allow leaps in cognition  Intuition is effective when it is a product of expertise built up from trial and error  Ex: knowing the sex of a chick, making a diagnosis, speed chess, quarterback decisions  Creativity o Refers to the ability to produce ideas that are novel and valuable o [creative intelligence involves using those ideas to adapt to novel situation] o Convergent thinking – left-brain activity involving zeroing in on a single correct answer o Divergent thinking – the ability to generate new ideas, new actions, and multiple options and answers  Robert Sternberg’s Five components of Creativity o Expertise o Imaginative thinking o Venturesome personality o Intrinsic motivation o Creative environment  To be more creative o Pursue an interest until you develop expertise o Allow time for incubation o Allow time for mental wandering and aimless daydreaming o Improve mental flexibility by experiencing other cultures and way of thinking Module 25: Language and Thought Phonemes: sounds such as Ba, Go, the smallest of sounds Morphemes: the units of meaning, such as words and meaningful parts of words Grammar: refers to the rules for using words, including semantics, definitions, connotations, and syntax (how the order of words makes meaning) Language Development  Amazing process; we acquire the use of 10 words per day between ages 2 and 18  Children learn basic grammar of language before they can add 2+2  Most kids can recall words and meanings, and assemble words into sentences, while simultaneously following social rules for speaking and listening Language Talents and Stages  0-4 months; Receptive language: associating sounds with facial movements, ad recognizing when sounds are broken into words  4 months; Productive language: babbling in multilingual sounds and gestures  10 months; Babbling sounds more like the parents’/households’ language  12 months; one-word stage: understanding and beginning to say many nouns  18-24 months; Two-word, “telegraphic”/tweet speech: adding verbs, and making sentences but missing words (“See bird! Read book? Go park!”)  24+ months, 2+years; Speaking full sentences and understanding complex sentences Explaining Language Acquisition: Nature and Nurture  The role of genes o We seem to have an inborn talent for acquiring language, through no particular kind of language is in the genes  The role of experience o We also seem to have a “statistical” pattern recognition talent. Infants quickly recognize patterns in syllable frequency and sequence, preparing them to later learn words and syntax Critical Periods  If you are not exposed to a language later in life, it is hard to say you will ever learn that whole language; the older you get the harder it is to learn  It is important to begin appropriate language exposure/education early so that language centers of the brain continue to develop  Language might never develop if not begun by age seven The story of Jeanie, she was deprived of the ability to speak far into her life, and thus she never really learned language, eventually learned words but grammar and sentences were never understood by her. She is very famous for her lack of ability to learn language because of her deprivation Deaf and Blind Children  They can use complex adapted languages by using other sense that are heightened  Sign language has the syntax, grammar, and complex meaning of any spoken language; in fact has some advantages, can convey info with your hands that you can’t with your mouth  What happens if a deaf infant’s parents don’t use sign language? They don’t develop a language Brain and Language: Lessons from damage  Aphasia: an impairment in the ability to produce or understand language, usually caused by damage; can be psychosomatic  Examples of aphasia: having the ability to speak but not read, to produce words in song but not in conversation, and to speak but not repeat; or producing words in jumbled order  Broca: discovered the area of brain damage, in the left temporal lobe, difficulty in putting words together in sentences or even speaking single words  Wernicke: different area of the left temporal lobe, difficulty comprehending speech and producing coherent speech Language and the Brain: how to read a word, steps 1 to 5; look at chart Do other species use language?  Receptive language for individual human words seems to exist for a few species; dogs can follow hundreds of commands  Productive language: many animals have “words”: sounds, gestures, dances (bees) to communicate information, including different “words” for different objects, states, and places  Chimps do not pick up words as easily as human children  Chimp word production lacks syntax, but a bonobo correctly understood “make the dog bite the snake” Thinking and language, language and thinking Language influencing thought  Linguistic determinism: the idea that our specific language determines how we think  Think about it in words, have a conversation with ourselves  In English, we have many words for self-focused emotions, such as sadness  Do language differences shape personality differences? o Bilingual people appear to have different personality profiles when describing themselves in different languages  Color Perception o We use our native language to classify and to remember colors. Different languages may vary in where they put the separation between blue and green, or they may not have separate words for these colors Language influences Thought  Gender neutral vs. male-based usage; even if “he” and mankind are meant at times to be gender-inclusive, people do create a male image in their mind when they hear these terms  Instead of replacing “he” with “he/she” or “their”, we can rewrite sentences without pronouns and possessives; for example, “his” becomes “the” Languages Improve Thinking  The bilingual advantage o People who are bilingual have numerous brain connections and neural networks o They also have a hidden talent, the ability to suppress one language while learning another o This ability tends to go along with other forms of executive control, such as resisting distraction and inhibiting impulses Thinking in Images without words  Some everyday decisions, such as which turn to take while driving, are certainly made based on images or other nonverbal content such as mental maps  Image rehearsal can help us improve behavior, even skilled performance such as playing piano or playing sports  If you imagine getting an A (outcome simulation), it may shift your mood up or down but will not improve your grade. Imagining the detailed actions of studying (process simulation), tough, does improve grades o Think about the road, not the destination Thinking affects our language, which then affects our thought 1. Thinking in a culture affects the formation of a language, especially its vocabulary 2. Thinking and language develop together in an individual as they grow 3. Learning a language and using a language as an adult an affect one’s style and content of thinking Module 27: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence (Nature and Nurture)  Even if we agree for argument’s sake that “success” in life is caused in part by some kind of intelligence, there is still a debate over the origin of that intelligence  Information to tease out the answers can be found in some twin and adoption studies  Studies of Twins Raised Apart o Twins raised in the same environment, as well as apart, they still have very high correlation o The genes are identical and the environments are different, thus the intelligence is determined by genes o Findings from these studies indicate that both nature and nurture affect intelligence test scores, the question is how much of each  Identical twins seem to show similarity in specific talents such as music, math, and sports  The brains of twins show similar structure and functioning; similar brains just from similar genes  There are specific genes which may have a small influence on ability; the presence of the gene means you have more of that ability Adoption studies  As the child ages, the children are much more correlated with their birth parent than their adopted parents; may never have met them, but more evidence that this is biological Environmental Influences on Intelligence  Environment has more influence on intelligence under extreme conditions such as abuse, neglect, or extreme poverty; children were given physical compensation, but no experience extreme emotional neglect  Tutored human enrichment has a larger impact on compensating for deprivation that on boosting intelligence under normal conditions; do this with a child help get children to normal positions, not normal children to a more advanced position Schooling and Intelligence  Preschool and elementary school clearly have at least a temporary impact on intelligence test scores; one of the most important things to later development  College can have a positive impact on intelligence test scores if students have: motivation and incentives, belief that people can improve, and study skills, especially the willingness to practice  Understanding Group Differences in Test Scores: o Gender differences, “racial” differences, understanding the impact of environment, within-group differences and between-group differences, and the impact of test bias and stereotype threat on performance  Male-Female Ability Differences o Male/female difference related to overall intelligence test score o Girls tend to be better at spelling, locating objects, and detecting emotions o Girls tend to be more verbally fluent, and more sensitive to touch, taste, and color o Boys tend to be better at handling spatial reasoning and complex math problems o It is a myth that boys generally do better in math than girls. Girls do at least as well as boys in overall math performance and especially in math computation  Understanding group differences: within-group vs. between-group o Group differences, including intelligence test score difference between racial groups, can be caused by environmental factors o Variation within group is genetic; variation between groups is environmental (fertile soil theory; haven’t provided with resources to thrive)  Racial intelligence test score gap o Racial categories are not distinct genetically and are unscientific (ex; family came from Ireland, think of them as white, but 100 years ago they would have been their own category), no scientific reason for grouping people with a certain race, changes as society changes o Both “whites” and “blacks” have higher intelligence test scores than “whites” of the 1930s (people as a whole are getting smarter, this idea is a product of society) o “Whites” may have more access to “fertile soil” for developing their potential, such as: schools and educational opportunities, wealth, nutrition, support, and educated mentors, and relative freedom from discrimination  Two Problems called “bias” o Test makers must prevent “bias” in the popular sense of the word: making it easier for one group than another to score high on a test o Test makers also strive to prevent the scientific form of bias: making it easier for one group than for another to have their abilities accurately assessed, and their future performance predicted o Bias #1: in the popular sense of the word, intelligence tests are often biased. Often, tests have questions which rely on knowledge of “mainstream” culture, which not everyone will be equally familiar with o Bias #2: Aptitude tests seem to predict future achievement equally well for various ethnic groups, and for men and women  The Effect of Stereotype Threat o Study result: Black/African-Americans scored higher when tested by another Black American rather than being tested by Whites. Why?  Feel more comfortable o Black/African-Americans did worse on intelligence tests when reminded of their racial/ethnic identification right before the test. Why?  Get into your head o Women did worse on math tests than men, except when they are told first than women usually do as well as men on the test. Why?  Confidence o Stereotype threat: a feeling that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype o Stereotype threat may interfere with performance by making people use their working memory for worrying instead of thinking o This worry, then, is self-confirming/fulfilling: worrying about a negative evaluation leads to a negative evaluation  Issues Related to intelligence tests o Judging someone based on their IQ score, one score sums up all potential; but that is WRONG


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.