Southeastern Indians week 3/11
Southeastern Indians week 3/11 21902
Arkansas Tech University
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Autumn Stewart on Sunday March 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 21902 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Dr. Rebecca Weiwel in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Southeastern Indians in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 03/13/16
Southeastern Indians notes 3/11 Timucua Origins -cultural development of groups now known as Timucua stretches back thousands of years -several archeological cultures with similarities to other southeastern groups -"Timucua" encompasses several cultural groups who all spoke dialects of the same language Lifeways -pre-contact diet consisted of wide variety of fish, shellfish, reptiles, native plant foods, and maize -maize was not as emphasized as it was in other southeastern cultures -this changes with mission life -built mounds out of sand for burial and rituals Social and Political Organization -organized into around 35 chiefdoms at time of contact -various alliances among chiefdoms existed... -but they were never one large political unit -about 2-10 villages per chiefdom Leadership (civil and religious) -each village had chief -higher chief in main village of chiefdom -hierarchy of chiefly officials from specific clans -seperate hierarchy of war chiefs and officials -typical villages 200-300 people in 30 houses, large council house -matrilineal European Contact -first contact with Europe probably in 1525 -DeSoto marched through territory in 1519 1 -French established fort caroline 1564-1565 -1595-1630: Franciscan missions in all chiefdoms -epidemics -Timucua rebellion in 1656 -spaniards reorganize missions along camino real Mission Life -syncretism of old and new -tradtions that continued -basic political structure -aspects of social organization and belief systemms that were not (too) offensive to catholic spanish sensibilities -construction methods, some architecture -labor drafts Demise -continued depopulation from disease, labor, warfare -slave raids from the north to supply the english -Timucua population contracts to just around St. Augustine after raids in 1702-1705 -1763 the last known Timucuan indian left on ship to cuba Apalachees Overview -cultural continuity from late prehistoric times through spanish missionization -DeSoto and Apalachees -evidence for eastern and western capitals -Ivitachuco(ruled by peace chief) -Anhaica(ruled by war chief) -Apalachees put up fierce rsistance -culturally and linguistically distinct from Timucua -likely muskogean speakers 2 -different artifact styles -more reliance on farming than Timucua 3