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by: Jaquelin Borer

FoundationsofSportManagement BUAD210

Marketplace > University of Delaware > Business Administration > BUAD210 > FoundationsofSportManagement
Jaquelin Borer
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This 30 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaquelin Borer on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BUAD210 at University of Delaware taught by MatthewRobinson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see /class/207105/buad210-university-of-delaware in Business Administration at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
BUAD 210 972011 22600 PM Chapters 15 12 14 16 What is sport management 0 Sport management de ne 0 Evolution of sport management 0 Ideal competencies 0 Sport management Reality ofthe sport industry 0 Realities of the sport industry job market 0 Very attractive jobs Very high demand for these jobs Many new jobs are being created Starting salaries can be somewhat low 0 O O 0 Work hours may be high and unconventional o MUST have more than a love of the game 0 Sport iiidustryis more than watching games and rubbing elbows with star players 0 Sport iiidustryis 0 Marketing sales 0 Finance accounting 0 Lawmanagement 0 Event management 0 Career tips 0 Need to build a resume Volunteerism 0 Must do well academically 0 Need to do an internship It is in the inroad to your rst job 0 Remember there is no such thing as a BAD rst job 0 Networking is very important De nition of sport 0 How would you de ne sport 0 Competition 0 Set of rules or guidelines 0 Has to involve physical activity 0 Uncertainty of outcome 0 Idea of competitive element is somewhat controversial in the academic eld De nition of management 0 It is the process of working with and through other to achieve organizational objectives in an ef cient manner De nition of sport management 0 The process of working with and through others to achieve a sport organization s objectives in an efficient manner 0 EX of objectives winning publicity getting money to spend 0 All people activities businesses and organizations involved in producing facilitating promoting or organizing any product that is sport tness and recreation related Evolution of sport management 0 1957 Walter O Malley president of LA dodgers approached Ohio Univ about a need for educated and trained sport managers 0 1966 lSt sport administration academic program began 0 Growth in academic programs Ideal competencies 0 Management amp organizational skills 0 Social foundations 0 Marketing 0 Finance 0 Legal aspects 0 Ethics 0 Sport governance 0 Field eXperience internship Sports segments 0 Spectator sport 0 Consumers follow sport directly or indirectly through attending contests or obtaining information through tv radio newspaper magazine and internet 0 Participant recreational sport 0 Consumers play sport through recreational leagues sport clubs high schools colleges or summer camps Professional sport 0 Maj or league team sports 0 MLB NBA NFL WNBA MLS 0 Minor league team sports 0 Minor league baseball American hockey league NBA developmental league 0 Individual sports 0 PGA LPGA NASCAR ATP 0 Newemergingalternative sports o X games pro beach volleyball sur ng etc 0 Individual professional events 0 Greater Hartford Open tennis tournament etc 0 Sport entertainment 0 WWE ice shows gymnastics exhibitions Amateur sport 0 Collegiate athletics 0 Positions with I Athletic departments UD I Conferences CAA Big Ten I Governing Bodies NCAA NAIA NJCAA 0 Positions in marketing rules compliance media and public relations student athlete services fundraising administration 0 Sport organizations such as AAU Little League Baseball YMCA 0 Participants receive no pay 0 Limited funding 0 Provide opportunities for athletes to compete o The Olympics 0 Early premise was based on amateur competition 0 Must question amateurism in today s Olympics 0 Billions of dollars are involved 0 Many top athletes treat their sport as their profession 0 High School sports Olympic Movement 0 IOC 0 International Olympic Committee I What sports will be played 0 NOC s 0 National Olympic Committee 0 NGB s 0 National Governing Bodies 0 International Federations Sport Agentry 0 Professional businesses that serves various duties for sport organizations and athletes 0 Examples 0 Velocity International Management Group CAA 0 Types of services 0 Athlete representation Financial services and consulting Marketingpromotionssponsorship Media production and consulting Websiteintemet services 0 O O O 0 Event management 0 Merchandising and licensing Facility Management 0 Management functions for various facilities such as o Stadium 0 Arenas 0 Convention centers 0 Amphitheaters 0 Recreational facilities 0 Responsibilities such as 0 Ticket sales 0 Operations 0 Marketing 0 Concessions Event management 0 Organizations that produce sporting events such as o Corrigan sports 0 Events for teams leagues and corporations 0 One time events such as the Boston marathon Sport technology and Communication 0 An emerging area of sport management 0 Growth due to technological advancement 0 Companies that provide intemet services 0 Produce communication tools such as media guides photographic services etc 0 Sport oriented websites such as espncom rivalscom cstvcom Key is to have excellent computer skills Sporting goods industry 0 Companies that produce and or distribute sport apparel equipment and products 0 Examples 0 Nike o Reebok 0 New balance 0 Under armour Chapter 4 39 Theory in Sports 01 39 quot Organizations 0 Definition Social entities created to coordinate the efforts of individuals with the intent to achieve goals Achieving goals if often easiest by people working together Organizations use raw materials humanfinancial resources expertise and knowledge to transform raw materials into goodsservices Types of sport organizations 1 Public organizations 0 Sport commissions parks and recreational departments park services 2 Nonpro t organizations 0 US Olympics Committee collegiate athletic depts 1 For profit organizations 0 Pro teams sporting good companies retail sporting good stores Economies of ScaleScope o Economies of scale 0 Being more efficient by mass production of goodsservices 0 Example aNIKE shoe factory o Economies of scope o Maximization of resources used throughout an organization 0 Example using the multiple skills that a person may possess Organizational Effectiveness 0 Definition the extent to which organizational goals are achieved 0 But how do you measure this 0 Traditional Approaches 1 Goal approach did you meet your goals 2 Resource based approach did you obtain the inputs necessary to meet your goals 3 Internal process approach transforming inputs into a sellable output Contemporary Approaches 0 Stakeholder Approacli 0 Determine if different groups connected to the organization believe that the organization is effective I Ex do employees believe the organization is effective 0 They may have different opinion vs the ownership I Fans views vs team ownership views 0 Competing Values Approach 0 Combines elements of several traditional approaches by focusing on the value dimensions of the focus and structure 0 Focuscontinuum from internal staff to external organization 0 Structure stable vs exible Stable values task oriented get the job done approach Flexible structure favors change and innovation Organizational Structure 0 Definition formal system of task and authority relationships that control how people coordinate their actions and use resources to achieve organizational goals Organizational culture 0 Set of shared values that controls organizational members interactions with each other and with people outside of the organization 0 Example New York Yankees vs Dallas Mavericks o Signals o Languagej argon o Ceremoniessocial events 0 Physical setting 0 Sloganslogos Organizational environment 0 All organizations operate in an environment 0 Set of forces surrounding an organization that affect the way the organization operates 0 General environment conditions 0 Economic 0 Technology 0 Political 0 Social cultural Chapter 5 Managerial Leadership and Organizational Behavior Leadership 0 Definition process of in uencing the activities of an individual or group in efforts to achieve a goal in a given situation 0 Primary goal o Exert in uence on individual and group behavior in order to achieve the leader s or organization s goals 0 Manager vs Leader 0 Manager concerned with doing things the right way 0 leader concerned with effectiveness and doing the right thing 0 What makes for an effective leader 0 Developing a vision Trusting subordinates Calm and cool in a crisis situation Experts in their profession Willing to listen to differing opinions O O O O 0 Encourage risk taking 0 Simplify concepts Leadership theories 0 Full range of Leadership Model 0 Most common is known as transactional leadership I Contingent rewards I Active management by exception I Punished for negative behavior I Passive management by exception 0 Transformationalleadership o Marked by trustworthiness encouragement risk taking and consideration 0 Placing the organization s goals ahead of individual s goals 0 This will be beneficial to all in the organization Managerial leadership 0 Combination of management and leadership into a coherent integrated concept 0 By combining the two an organization and its people will be used more effectively Hierarchy of Management 0 Toplevels managers Small in number Have most power and authority 0 O O Responsible for overall organization 0 Use more conceptual and interpersonal skills 0 Middlelevel managers 0 Usually selected by toplevel managers 0 Mainly manage individual departments 0 Ensure that assigned tasks are completed 0 Use combination of technical and interpersonal skills 0 Supervisory level managers 0 Report to middlelevel managers 0 Responsible for employees who work in their units 0 Have least amount of authority 0 Have most communication with lower level employees 0 Use more technical and some interpersonal skills Leadership and decision making Leaders make decisions 6 steps to decision making de ne the problem identify criteria for decision develop evaluate alternatives and options select an option implement the option 99595quot evaluate the effectiveness of the decision I example insuf cient space for student recreation tness on UD Campus Organizations and Power 0 Sources of power 0 Organizational I Legitimatepositional power your job title gives you power I Reward and coercive power person who gives bonuses raises reprimands etc 0 Personal power I Expertiseknowledge I Access to information I Referent power charisma charm power of personality Chapter 12 Sport Marketing 0 Definition all activities such as production pricing promotion and distribution of a product designed to meet the wants and needs of sport consumers through the exchange process Uniqueness of Sport Marketing 0 What makes sport marketing unique 0 Sports are inconsistent and unpredictable 0 Sport vents are perishable Sport involves emotion Sport product is often experiential and intangible Production and consumption occurs simultaneously 0 O O 0 Sport consumers consider themselves experts 0 Sport marketing has little control over core product Evolution of Sport Marketing 0 Sport marketing really started to develop in the 1920 s 0 Golden era of sport 0 Popularity of sport icons such as Babe Ruth Red Grange 0 Sport started to become a big business 0 Large sport facilities were constructed for the spectators o Emergence of ticket sales baseball cards advertising etc Important sport marketing gures 0 Bill Veeck 0 Mark MacCormic IMG o AG Spalding sporting goods 0 RooneArledge Monday Night Football Marketing Mix The 5 P s 0 Product 0 Price 0 Place 0 Promotion 0 Public relations Sport sponsorship o Billions of dollars are spent annually by major corporations that want to associate with sport organizations 0 Important concept return on investment Examples for sport marketing 0 A nitymarketmg 0 Using a consumer s affinity or interest in something to sell your product I Example team credit cards 0 Ambush marketing 0 Relating your product to an eventteam when you are not an of cial sponsor of that eventteam o It is widely used but rather unethical I Example NIKE and Atlanta Olympics o Guerrilla Marketing 0 Aggressive unconditional marketing methods 0 Low budget 0 Method to get extensive free publicity I Examples undercover marketing 0 Viral marketing 0 Using social networks to market your productservice 0 Youtube facebook myspace Chapter 16 Consumer Behavior Theory Consumer Behavior 0 Marketers need to know all they can about their consumers o What they want 0 What they think 0 What they feel 0 What they value 0 Helps you to understand the factors that in uence the decisions people or groups make to purchase products services 0 To sell more sport businesses must know more about their consumers 0 Makes it easier to design products and build marketing campaigns Market Segments o A portion of the population that is distinctive in terms of its needs characteristics or behavior 0 Targetmarket the market segment that one selects to market to Methods of Segmentation 0 Demographic Segmentation 0 Age sex income occupation education religion ethnicity o Psyenograpnie Segmentation 0 Needs motivations attitudes interests opinions lifestyle 0 Geographic Segmentation 0 Physical location of home workplace etc Consumer Motivation 0 Participation motivation 1 Achievement motivation 2 Social motivation 3 Mastery motivation o Extrinsic vs Intrinsic Rewards 0 Motivation for people to participate in sport 0 Spectator Motivation 0 Reasons for viewing can be different from reasons to participate o 8 core spectator motivations H diversion entertainment selfesteem enhancementBLRGbasking in re ected glory economic gain gambling aethsthetic value need for affiliation family ties P Q MPN eustress excitementstimulation Consumer Loyalty 0 Few products or industries have the consumer loyalty that is displayed in the sport industry 0 Sport fans are very loyal to their favorite teamproducts Group In uences 0 Consumers may be greatly affected by the groups they are associated with 0 Example of direct O O 0 Family Friendspeers Overall society culture 0 Example of indirect O O O 0 Athletes Coaches Actors Politicians Chapter 12 Sport Finance Sport is the 11th largest industry in the United States Over 400 billion is spent each year on the sport industry More money is spent on sport and leisure than it is on paying rent Current Financial Culture 0 North American Professional Sport 0 NFL OVER 9 billion in annual revenues 0 NFL total team operating profit over 850 million 0 Yankees generate over 260 million in revenue annually 0 NY Yankee payroll about 210220 million 0 MLB league revenues over 7 billion 0 Rising Revenues 0 Television and Media rights 0 Largest source of revenue in big 4 leagues except for NHL 972011 22600 PM Exam T agics 0 legal aspects 0 Ethics 0 Ania teur sports 0 Professional sports 0 Sport agencies 0 Pro les Chapter 17 Legal Aspects of Sport Sport Law 0 The application of existing laws to the sports setting 0 There are a few laws specifically addressing sport 0 Behavior of sport agents Title IX Sports Broadcasting Act Amateur Sports Act of 1978 De nition of La W39 an accumulation ofrules and regula tions that go vern our bena Vior O O O 0 Failure to abide by the law may result in criminal or ciVil penalty 0 In the USA the US constitution is the supreme law of the land Basics of Law 0 American Legal System 0 Federal and State systems 0 Both can enact laws 0 Both have court systems Statutes Laws established by legislatures Precedents Collective body of case law that a court should consider when interpreting the law Stare decisis prior court decisions must be recognized as precedents and followed Due process 0 A law shall not be unreasonable or arbitrary and that the means selected for enforcing the law shall be reasonable Connection to the NCAA and Violations US Constitution and Sport 0 14th Amendment the equal protection amendment 0 cannot make distinctions based on race ethnic origin and gender I example HS athletic association Careers in Sport Law 0 Legal counsel for teamsleaguesplayers unions organizations 0 Athletecelebrity representation 0 All sport managers must have at least an elementary level or legal knowledge Federal Legislation 0 Related to sport 0 Americans with Disabilities Act I Sport facilities and events I Casey Martin Case 0 Title IX of the Education Amendments Act 1972 I Office of Civil Rights I Equity between males and females in all educational activities I Huge effect on high school and college sports I 3 prong test I proportional spending I if not in proportion but making progress I prove all of the needs of the women are being met Key Concepts 0 Risk Management 0 Maintaining control over the legal uncertainties related to sport events I Crowd control at games I Safe physical environment for attendees I Securitysearches at entry gates 0 Failure to manage risks may lead to I Accidentsincidents I Injuries to playersofficialsworkersspectators I Injuries may lead to legal actions lawsuits 0 Avoid legal actions whenever possible I They are expensive I Time consuming I Bad public relations I People get hurt or worse Tort liability o T art a personal iiijurysu red by an individual because of another is improper conduct 0 Most common form of tort is negligence 0 An unintentional tort injury 0 Plaintiff must show that the sport manager owed a duty of care Negligence o Fa ure to act as another reasonable and cautious person would act 0 Plaintiff must show the following o Injury occurred 0 Injury was reasonable and foreseeable 0 Defendant had a duty of care to avoid the injury 0 Proximate causation Injury occurred due to the breach of that duty of care 0 Duty Breach of Duty Proximate Cause and Injury Intentional Torts o Intentional act to harm another 0 Examples 0 Invasion of privacy 0 Defamation release of private information or false claims 0 Assault Vicarious Liability 0 The employer of an employee who commits negligence may be held accountable for the actions of the employee 0 Must properly hire and train staff to minimize risk of vicarious liability Contract Law 0 Allows for private parties to enter into legally binding agreements 0 Both parties must abide by the binding contract 0 Ifnot one side has legal right to sue 0 Parts of a contract Legal subject matter 2 Defined offer acceptance and consideration 3 Parties have capacity age etc 4 No unfair bargaining power 5 Clear contractual language 6 Trademark Law Chapter 17 Ethics in Sport Management 0 What is ethics 0 Ethics is the study of morality andor the standard of morality that a professional should follow In its common usage it is knowledge about faimess respect and honesty in our social environment 0 What are morals o The fundamental baseline values that dictate appropriate behavior 0 Morality o The motives intentions and actions of an individual and how they are judged by the greater society 0 What is sportsmanship o The quality inherent in playing the game in which one is honor bound to follow the spirit and the letter of the rules Ethical Theories o Teleological 0 Ethical theories that focus on the consequences or the ends outcomes of action or behavior rather than on the means or process I Seek pleasure avoid pain I Goodness pleasure or happiness is the outcome sought 0 Deontological 0 Ethical theories that are rule oriented or principle oriented as opposed to outcome oriented I Can have a divine social or intuitive source I Ethical conduct is characterized by doing one s duty I Moral standards determine actions I do the right thing I the golden rule 0 Existentialism 0 Ethical philosophy that assumes that people are entirely free and thus responsible for what they make of themselves I emphasizes the uniqueness human existence freedom of choice and personal responsibility individuals must decide their essential nature rather than having it given from some transcendent source four points freedom responsibility dread authenticity Ethical Situations o How does one know if shehe is facing an ethical dilemma 0 Ask the following questions 0 When discussing the issue are the terms right or wrong 0 Will anyone be harmed by the decision 0 Are you concerned abut fairness Ethical Reasoning o The process of making a fair and correct decision 0 Much of ethical reasoning is based on personal or organizational values 0 Those beliefs that we hold as important They guide Moral Behavior in Sport 0 Examples of appropriate moral behavior 0 It is expected that all participantsathletes will gave an honest effort 0 It is expected that all competitors will follow the rules of the game 0 Moral behavior within immoral acts like NHL fights Morality vs The Law 0 Morality and the law are closely aligned 0 Many action that are considered morally incorrect may also be illegal o Stealing is both immoral and illegal 0 But some actions are considered immoral but are not illegal 0 Having an affair Values A quality that is important to a person or a society 0 A value is something that we judge to be worthwhile interesting desirable excellent or important 0 Types of values 0 Moral I Honesty respect 0 Social I Individualism and collectivism o Selfactualization I Natural drive to be the best 0 Nonmoral I Wealth pleasure success material items Hierarchy of Values 0 Different values come in con ict with each other 0 How does one determine which vales are most important 0 Core vales vs intendedadoptedweak vales I Core values held no matter what I Intended values we intend to hold I Adopted values adopted to conform to society out of perceived pressure I Weak values espoused o Ranking and categorizing of values 0 Child s safety vs staying physically t I Ensuring child s safety while in jogging stroller 0 Core values vs weak values 0 Intended values amp adopted values 0 Value audit Existentialism and Ethics 0 EXistentialismis one of many schools of thought for discussing ethics 0 Belief that we create ourselves with respect to how we behave think and value 0 We all have the freedom of choose our actions Chapter 7 Intercollegiate Athletics History of College Athletics 0 lSt intercollegiate competition in 1852 0 crew race between Yale and Harvard 0 Early athletic competition was intramural or organized by students 0 ISI intercollegiate football game in 1869 Rutgers v Princeton 0 lSt football game with rules closer to today s football in 1874 Yale v Columbia 0 football rules standardizations 18731880 0 As popularity grew in early 20Lh century college administrators began to take control 0 Football violence in the late 193911 century and early 20Lh centuries led to more organization and structure within college sports 0 1905 White House Conference on football called by President Teddy Roosevelt o 1906 IAAUS intercollegiate athletics association of the US 0 1910 IAAUS named changed to NCAA and moves to NYC 0 1929Carnegie Report on intercollegiate athletics o 1952 moved from NYC to Kansas City 0 1972 Title IX passed 0 1978 Division I subdivisions created lA and lAA ONLY FOOTBALL o 1982 NCAA takes control of Women s Athletics 0 1984 NCAA v Oklahoma Board of Regents o 1999 NCAA moves to Indianapolis 0 NCAA was formed to govern college sports 0 Rules ofplay 0 Eligibility 0 Golden Age of College Football in the l9290s o Knute Rockne Red Grange Amos Almonzo Stagg 0 Many great stadiums built 0 Basketball became popular in the 1940s 1950s 0 Early scandals in college athletics 0 Game xing in basketballpoint shaving o Televising of college sports began in 1950s 0 Somewhat controversial o NCAA control over televising of college football 0 1984 US Supreme Court ruling changed everything 0 NCAA and Women s sport 0 Growth of college sports into a billion dollar business 0 NCAA march madness 0 Division I A football bowl season Levels of Competition 0 NCAA o Divisions IIIIII I Division L335 D LA 120 IAA 118 IAAA 97 I Division II 288 I Division H1 432 Differences in NCAA Divisions 0 Division I 14 sports 0 Division II 8 sports 0 Division III 10 sports Job Opportunities 0 Marketing and promotions 0 Public amp media relations 0 Ticketing o NCAA rules compliance 0 Development and fundraising 0 Academic counseling and life skills 0 Facilities and operations 0 Event supervision Chapter 6 Professional Sport Industry Pro Sport Industry 0 De nition anysport activitym which the athlete is financially compensated 0 Pro Sport vs Sport Entertainment 0 NFL vs WWE 0 3 facets of pro sport leagues o Govemance NFL NBA NASCAR etc I Oversee the entire league D Scheduling D Rules ofplay D All trades have to be approved D Approves all contracts D Fines and suspensions D Shared revenues D Organizing the draft 0 Management team owners and executives 0 Labor the players History of Pro Sport 0 Pro Sport dates back to the early 1800s 0 Horseracing and boxing o 1869 Cincinnati Red Stocking lSt pro baseball team o 1871 national association of professional baseball players formed 0 ISI pro sport league 0 1876 William Hurlbut formed the National League 0 1917 formation of NHL 0 1921 formation of NFL 0 1937 formation of NBL 9 but failed 0 1949 formation of NBA 0 1996 lSt year of MLS major league soccer o 1997 15t year of WNBA RaceGender and Pro Sport 0 Pro sport opportunities were largely segregated until 1947 0 Jackie Robinson broke the color barrier in MLB 0 Rise of women s pro sports Unique Aspects of Pro Sport Leagues 0 Importance of Interdependence 0 Scheduling Salary caps Drafts Sharing of league revenues O O O Major vs Minor Leagues Minor Leagues lower level of sport competition May be affiliated to major leagues Minor league may have no formal link to the major league 0 Example NFL and Arena football Corporate ownership of minor league teams Single Entity Structure Different from traditional ownership style in pro sport Currently being used by MLS Ownerinvestors do not have single team ownership rights Buy into ownership of the league Obtain operating rights to teams The League owns all the teams 0 O O O 0 Players sign with the league not individual teams LaborManagement Relations Most North American leagues have players unionsassociations Union acts on behalf of the players Union signed a collective bargaining agreement with league owners CBA outlines 0 Salary system 0 Players rights 0 Rules enforcement drug policies 0 Insurance and retirement bene ts 0 Discipline procedures 0 Recent CBA negations Player Draft In most leagues future amateur players are drafted by teams Player is required to play for that team for a certain length of time Draft order is usually based on team performance Set of rounds in each league eligibility limitations for draft 0 NFL 3 years after HS graduation 0 NBA 1 year after HS graduation Free Agency in Pro Sport After a set period of time most leagues permit players to be free agents at the end of their contract 0 Examples 0 6 years in MLB 0 24 years in NBA 0 Free agent can sign with any team Salary Cap System Method to keep player salaries lower than with free market Teams limited to total amount they can pay players Example current NFL salary cap is about 120125 million team 0 MLS 253 million for team Salary caps exist in NFl NBA MLS NHL amp WNBA 0 MLB has a salary tax system 0 Team pays a tax to the league of ce if salaries go over certain level NBA and NHL only leagues with an individual player salary cap It is based on years of experience or percentage of team salary cap Salary Cap Bene ts 0 Promotes parity among teams 0 Controls salary costs Pro Sport Leagues and the Media Substantial portion of league revenues in NFL NBA MLB come from TV and media rights contracts About 7075 of NFl comes from TV deals Growth of intemet media rights and revenues o Streaming games over the intemet o MLBcom get over 6 million unique visitors per month Local vs National broadcasting rights NFL only sells national broadcasting rights 0 Exception radio and preseason games All other leagues teams sell local media rights to local TV outlets This money is primarily kept by local teams 0 Some is shared with other teams Leads to disparity in team revenues 0 Example MLB and YankeesDodgersRed SoxMets Other Sources of Revenue 0 Ticket sales 0 Merchandisinglicensing o Sponsorshipcorporate Partnership 0 Luxury seating o Facilityteam naming rights Future Challeng o LaborManagement relations Developing new ways to generate money Increased technology and its effects Globalization of sport Career Tracks in Pro Sport 0 Business Side vs Player Personnel Side 0 Business Side I Marketing and promotions I Ticketing I Facility Operations I Public and Media Relations I Community Relations I Sponsorships and Partnerships 0 Player Personnel Side I Amateur Scouting I Pro Scouting I Player Development I Draft Preparation I Contract Negotiations I Video Preparation I Coaching Chapter 10 SportAgentrv and Agencies 0 Sport Agency 0 Companies that act on behalf of or represent sport properties or business that want to be Involved 1n the sport Industry 0 Examples I CocaCola may hire IMG for sponsorship program I A new sport facility for naming rights 0 Sport Agentry 0 Types of sport agency activities I Client Management and Representation I Negotiation I Sponsorship Sales and Solicitation Licensing Marketing Facility Management and Hospitality Management Event Management creation and development Financial Consulting Technology Upgrades and Changes I Media Development and Production 0 Full Service Agencies 0 Full range of services I Examples IMG Octagon I Client Management Event Management TV Production Corporate Marketing 0 Specialty Agencies I Specializes in 1 speci c area I Examples I CAA and athlete representation I Corrigan Sports and Event Development Management I Global Spectrum and Facility Management I IMG College and Aspire with College Athletics 0 In House Agency I A department within a single company that ahs a single function I Visa has a sport marketing division Athlete Representation 0 Most wellknown type of agency work 0 Very competitive 0 Most major leagues have an agent registration process 0 NBA more registered agents than actual NBA players Very cutthroat 0 Law degree is not required but is very helpful Sport Agency Trends and Challeng o The Global Economy 0 MiX of sport and entertainment 0 Involvement of companies such as CAA o In house vs Outsourcing o Con icts of interest 0 Large sport agencies that represent teams leagues athletes sporting goods companies etc 0 May be in position where they represent competing interests 0 Mergers and Acquisitions o Seen a lot of merging of past agencies in part decade 0 State and Federal Legislation 0 Legislation of sport agents in several states 0 Limitations on alcoholtobacco advertising in sport 972011 22600 PM Chapter 16 Evmt and Facility Management Event and Facility Management 0 Worldwide surge in construction of sport facilities during the 1990s and early part of the 21St century 0 European Asian soccer 0 North American Pro Sport 0 North American College Sport 0 Community Sports Facilities 0 Put on hold somewhat due to global recession 0 Costs are rising VERY quickly 0 Yankee Stadium and Cowboys Stadium both cost about 15 billion Types of Facilities 0 Single vs Multipurpose Facilities 0 1St half of 20Lh century 0 19601970 0 late 1980s to today 0 Nontraditional Facilities 0 Golf courses 0 Tennis complexes 0 Ski areas Types of Facility Events 0 Traditional contests that are played in sport facilities 0 Nontraditional events 0 Concerts 0 Conferences 0 Circuses 0 Weddings Proms 0 Meetings 0 Anything that can produce revenue for the facility operator owner Risk Managanent o Maj or issue for eventfacility managers 0 Tire control offinancial and personal injuryloss om sudden unforeseen unusual accidents and intentional torts 0 Some recent events 0 Josh Hamilton 0 Notre Dame football practice Methods of Risk Management 0 Use of video surveillance 0 Use of patdowns and wands at entrances 0 Additional barriers blocking entrances 0 Increased number of security forces staff 0 Tighter control of alcohol sales 0 Timely removal of spills debris snow etc 0 Use of bar codes on tickets Cost of Increased Security 0 Greece spent 14 billion on security for the Athens Olympics Event Management 0 Events come in many shapes and sizes 0 Large worldwide event 0 O 0 Olympics World Cup in soccer NFL superbowl 0 National Regional Events 0 O PGA gold tournament Delaware football game 0 Local Events 0 0 5K run County fair Event Management Process 0 Scheduling the event 0 Determine when is the best time to book or conduct an event 0 Negotiating the Event 0 Contractual arrangement between facility and event promoter 0 Coordinating the event 0 Plan for organizing all aspects of the event 0 Staging the event 0 O O 0 Parking Seating Customer service Crowd management 0 Post event tasks Important concepts in event management 0 Customer service 0 Alcohol policies 0 Crowd management 0 Risk managementemergency planning 0 Proper amenities 0 Parking 0 Concessions o Merchandising 0 Hospitality 0 Corporate partnerships sponsorships Use of the webinternet in media relations 0 Websites are quickly becoming most important mediaPR communication tool for sport organizations New media forms and sports 0 Provide a direct link from sport organization to consumers 0 Do not have to go through traditional media 0 Athletes and websites 0 Many athletes now have their own website 0 Again use these to communicate to fans while bypassing traditional media and possible bias 0 Importance and role of social media 972011 22600 PM TeamAthlete Endorsements o A company pays an athleteteam to endorse their product 0 Most popular use with sporting goods manufacturers o NIKE plays millions to some athletes to endorse their products 0 Companies hope to increase sales through this alignment with star athletes 0 Ethical issues with endorsements 0 Shoe companies and amateur baseball 0 Behavior of star athletes off the playing eld 0 Prices of these products The Economy and Sporting Goods 0 Retail business 0 Overall retail has dropped in last several years 0 Decrease in consumer spending 0 Effect on athlete endorsement deals 0 Advertising and marketing budgets Chapter 19 International Sport International sport 0 Many facets of international sport 0 US teamsleaguesathletes abroad 0 Foreign coming to US 0 Globalization of the sporting goods industry 0 Athlete endorsers around the world 0 Examples 0 2005 over 450 foreign menwomen played Div I basketball I foreign athletes in sports such as ice hockey track and eld golf tennis soccer swimming I major in uential on college athletics 0 most every team in the NBA has an international player 0 LPGA is dominated by players from S Korea Mexico Australia Evolution of the Olympic Movement 0 Modern Olympics have existed since 1896 0 Mostly amateur competition until the 1970s 0 1970s saw Olympic sport start to become big business 0 Mark Spitz in swimming 0 Growth of women s participation 0 from sporting goods companies 0 cold War competition and inVested by nations 0 1968 and 1972 Olympics witnessed the politicizing of Olympics


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