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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alize Olson II on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI201 at University of Delaware taught by AntoniaRandolph in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see /class/207111/soci201-university-of-delaware in Sociology at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Key Terms Chapter 5 Achieved Status attained by Virtue of individual effort ex police officer pharmacist Ascribed Status occupied from moment a person is born ex sex race Collective consciousness the body ofbeliefs common to a community or society that give people a sense ofbelonging and a feeling of moral obligation to its demands and values Cyberspace interaction communication via computers email Internet etc Division of labor relatedness of different tasks that develop in complex societies Ethnomethodology ethno people methodology mode of study a clever technique for studying human interaction by deliberately disrupting social norms and observing how individuals attempt to restore normalcy Game Theory human interaction has the characteristics of a quotgamequot namely strategies winners and losers rewards and punishments and profits and costs Gemeinschaft a German word that means quotcommunityquot Gesellschaft A German word that means quotsocietyquot Group individuals who interact and communicate share goals and norms and have a subjective awareness of themselves as quotwequot that is as a distinct social unit Impression Management is a process by which people control how others perceive them Imprinting a phenomenon seen in newborn or newly hatched animals who attach themselves to the first living creature they encounter even ifit is of another species Macroanalysis a sociological approach that takes the broadest View of society by studying large patterns of social interaction that are vast complex and highly differentiated Master Status status that is dominant over all others Mechanical solidarity individuals play similar roles within society same values hold same things sacred Microanalysis focuses on the smallest most immediately Visible parts of social life such as specific people interacting with each other Nonverbal Communication a form of social interaction and can be seen in various social patterns body position head nods eye contact facial expressions Organic Solidarity people play a great variety of roles and unity is based on role differentiation not similarity Postindustrial society depends economically on the production and distribution of services information and knowledge information based technology Vital role Preindustrial society directly uses modifies or tills the lad as a major means of survival Proxemic Communication the amount of space between interacting individuals Roles behavior others expect from a person associated with a particular status Role Con ict Roles clash with each other when two or more roles are associated with contradictory expectations Role Modeling a process by which we imitate the behavior of another person we admire who is in a particular role Role Set all the roles occupied by a person at a given time Role Strain a single role brings con icting expectations Social Institution an established and organized system of social behavior with a recognized purpose Social Interaction behavior between two or more people that is given meaning by them Social Organization order established in social groups at any level Social Structure organized pattern of social relationships and social institutions that together compose society Society system of social interaction that includes both culture and social organization Status established position in a structure that carries with it a degree of prestige Status inconsistency the statuses occupied by a person bring with them significantly different amounts of prestige and thus differing expectations Status set complete set of status occupied by a person at a given time Tactile Communication patterns of touch Chapter 6 Attribution error errors made in attributing causes for people s behavior to their membership in a particular group such as a racial group Attribution theory the principle that we all make inferences about the personalities of others such as concluding what the other is quotreally like Depend on whether in the group or out of the group Bureaucracy a type of formal organization characterized by an authority hierarchy a clear division oflabor explicit rules and impersonality Coercive Organization characterized by membership that is largely involuntary ex prisons Deindividuation sense that one s self has merged with a group Dyad a group consisting of exactly two people Expressive Needs desire for companionship intimacy and emotional support Formal Organization a large secondary group highly organized to accomplish a complex task or tasks and to achieve goals efficiently Group two or more individuals who interact share goals and norms and have a subjective awareness as quotwequot To be considered a group muse have all 3 Group Size Effect the effects of group numbers on group behavior independent of the personality characteristics of the members themselves Groupthink tendency for group members to reach a consensus opinion even if decision is idiotic Instrumental Needs taskoriented needs groups come together to achieve goals McDonaldization presence of the fast food model in most organizations that shape daily life Normative Organization people join to accomplish goals they deem worthwhile Receive no monetary reward for membership only personal satisfaction Primary Group group consisting of intimate facetoface interaction and relatively longlasting relationships Reference Group groups may or may not belong to but use as a standard for evaluating your values attitudes and behaviors Risky Shift the general tendency for groups to be more risky than individual alone Secondary Group larger in membership less intimate Social Network links between individuals groups or other social units Tenure a guarantee of continued employment until retirement from organization Total institution organization cut off from rest of society and one in which resident individuals are subject to strict social control Triad group of3 people Triadic Segregation tendency of triad to isolate into a pair and isolate one person Utilitarian Organization large organization that individuals join for specific purposes such as monetary reward ex Large businesses Chapter 7 Altruistic Suicide occurs when there is excessive regulation of individuals by social forces Anomic Suicide occurs when the disintegrating forces in society make individuals feel lost or alone Anomie the condition that exists when social regulations in a society break down Bioterrorism the form of terrorism involving the dispersion of chemical or biological substances intended to cause widespread disease and death Crime one form of deviance specifically behavior that violates particular criminal laws Criminology the study of crime from a scientific perspective Cyberterrorism the use of the computer to commit terrorist acts Deviance behavior that violates expected rules and norms Deviant Career a direct outgrowth of the labeling process the sequence of movements people make through a particular subculture of deviance Deviant Communities groups organize around particular forms of social deviance Deviant Identity definition a person has of themselves as a deviant Differential Association Theory a type of symbolic interaction theory interprets deviance including criminal behavior as behavior one learns through interaction with others Egoistic Suicide occurs when people feel totally detached from society Elite Deviance wrongdoing of wealthy and powerful individuals and organization Hate Crime assaults and other acts based on social bias including race religion sex ethnicnational origin or disability Index Crimes violent crimes of murder manslaughter rape robbery and aggravated assault plus property crimes of burglary larcenytheft and auto theft Labeling Theory a branch of symbolic interaction theory interprets the responses of others as the most significant factor in understanding how deviant behavior is both created and sustained Master Status a characteristic of a person that overrides all other features of the person s identity Medicalization of deviance ppl say some1 who commits very deviant act is quotsickquot Organized Crime crime committed by structured groups typically involving the provision ofillegal goods and services to others Personal Crimes violent or nonviolent crimes directed against ppl murder rape robbery assault Ponzi Scheme a con game whereby a central person collects money form a large number ofpeople including friends and relatives and then promises to invest their dollars with a high rate of interest for them Property Crimes involve theft of property without threat of bodily harm Racial Profiling race alone as criterion for deciding whether to stop and detain someone on suspicion of committing a crime Social Control process by which groups and individuals within those groups are brought into conformity with dominant social expectations Social Control Agents are those who regulate and administer the response to deviance Social Control Theory a type of functionalist theory suggests that deviance occurs when a person s attachment to social bonds is weakened Stigma an attribute that is socially devalued and discredited Structural Strain Theory traces the origins of deviance to the tensions caused by the gap between cultural goals and the means people have available to achieve those goals Victimless Crimes violate laws but are not listed in FBI crime index gambling illegal drug use prostitution etc Key Terms Con ict theory a group s ability to exercise in uence and control over others in producing social order Debunking looking behind the facades of everyday life Diversity studying group differences in society s opportunities shaping social institutions by different social factors the formation of group and individual identity and the process of social change Emperical based on careful and systematic observations Enlightenment Age of Reason characterized by faith in the ability of human reason to solve society s problems Feminist theory analyzes the status ofwomen and men in society with the purpose of using that knowledge to better women s lives Functionalism interprets each part of society in terms ofhow it contributes to the stability of the whole Durkheim Issues affect large numb er of people and have origins in institutional arrangements and history ofa society Organic metaphor society is an organism a system ofinterrelated functions and parts that work together to create the whole Positivism just as science had discovered laws of nature sociology could discover laws of human social behavior and thus and thus help solve society s problems Postmodernism society is not an objective thing instead it is found in the words and images people use to represent behavior and ideas Social change the alteration of society over time Social Darwinism application of Darwinism thought to society Social facts social facts that are external to individuals customs values Social institution established and organized system of social behavior with a particular and recognized purpose Social interaction behavior between 2 or more people that is given meaning Social structure social relationships and social institution that make up society Sociological imagination ability to see patters that in uence individuals or groups ofindividuals Sociology study of human behavior in society Symbolic interaction theory society is constructed through the process of face to face interaction Troubles affect individual Verstehen understanding social behavior from point ofview of those engaged in it Beliefs shared ideas held collectively by people within a given culture about what is true Counterculture subcultures created as a reaction against the values of the dominant culture Members of the counterculture reject the dominant cultural values often for political or moral reasons and develop cultural practices that explicitly defy the norms Cultural Capital cultural resource that are deemed worthy and that give advantages to groups possessing such capital Cultural Diffusion transmission of culture from one society to another Cultural Hegemony pervasive and excessive in uence of one culture throughout society Cultural Relativism idea that something can be understood and judged only in relation to the cultural context in which it appears Culture complex system ofmeaning and behavior that defines the way oflife for a given group or society Culture Lag cultures adjust slowly to changing cultural conditions Culture Shock the feeling of disorientation when one encounters a new or rapidly changed cultural situation Dominant Culture culture of the most powerful group in society constitutes major belief system Ethnocentrism habit of seeing things only from the point ofview of one s own group Ethnomethodology theoretical approach in sociology based on the idea that you can discover the normal social order through disrupting it Folkways The general standards ofbehavior adhered to by a group Global Culture Diffusion of a single culture through the world Language a set of symbols and rules that combined in a meaningful way provides a complex communication system Laws written set of guidelines that define right and wrong in society Mass Media The channels of communication that are available to wide segments of the population Material Culture objects created in a given society its buildings art tools toys print tangible objects Mores strict norms that control moral and ethical behavior killing is wrong Nonmaterial Culture norms laws customs ideas beliefs Norms specific cultural expectations for how to behave in a given situation Popular Culture beliefs practices and objects that are part of everyday traditions Re ection Hypothesis mass media re ects the values of the general population SapirWhorf Hypothesis language determines other aspects of culture because language provides the categories through which social reality is defined Social Sanctions mechanisms of social control that enforce norms Subculture culture of groups whose values and norms ofbehavior differ to some degree from those of the dominant culture Symbols things or behaviors to which people give meaning Taboos those behaviors that bring the most serious sanctions Values abstract standards in a society or group that define ideal principles Concept any abstract characteristic that can be measured Content Analysis a way of measuring by examining the cultural artifacts of what people write say see and hear Controlled Experiment highly focused ways of collecting data and are especially useful for determining a pattern of cause and effect CrossTabulation a way of seeing if two variables are related by breaking them down into categories for comparison Debriefing reveal true purpose of experiment after completion Deductive reasoning creating a specific research question about a focused point that is based on a more general or universal principle Generalization ability to draw conclusions from specific data and to apply them to a broader population Informed Consent getting agreement beforehand Indicator something that points to or re ects an abstract concept Inductive reasoning arrives at general conclusion from specific observation Replication Study research that is repeated exactly yet on a different group of people or at a different place or time Serendipity an unexpected finding while pursuing another question Spurious Correlation no meaningful connection between apparently associated variables Age Cohort group ofpeople born during same period Age Discrimination behavior toward group baby talk to baby Age Prejudice attitude toward group Age Stratification ranking of different age groups in society Ageism practice of age prejudice and discrimination Anticipatory Socialization learning of expectations associated with a role a person expects to enter in the future Disengagement Theory as people age they gradually withdraw from participation in society and are simultaneously relieved of responsibility Ego seat of reason and common sense balancing act between id and superego Id deep drives and impulses sexual component Superego dimension of the self that represents the standards of society Psychoanalytic Theory id sup erego ego Social Learning Theory Formation ofidentity is learned response to stimuli Stockholm Syndrome captured person under extreme circumstances identifies with the captor People C Wright Mills Sociological Imag Agustus Compte coined term sociology positivism Durkheim larger than sum of parts sui generis social facts customs values Marx Economy Weber Politics Cultural Economy
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