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Date Created: 09/05/14
JMS 408 Final 9514 206 PM Movies 1 The Truman Show Type of theory product placement Meaning of content based on theory the wife would show off the newest products by buying them and using them for viewers to see how they work in real life 2 Wag the Dog agenda setting Hollywood producer cover up sex scandal before election 3 Win a Date with Tad Hamilton Parasocial interaction Three way love triangle after girl wins a date with tad hamilton Elaboration Likelihood Model attitude change because of persuasive messages how we get people to THINK about messages quotwhen the elaboration likelihood is high person is both motivated and able to process a communication the central route to persuasion occurs but as the elaboration likelihood decreases the peripheral route becomes more powerfulquot Definitions of Central vs Peripheral Routes Central Consider virtues of the argument makes the audience think about the message and can possibly change a person39s mind o Results in or attitude o Stable attitude change o Long term effects Peripheral attention grabbing more consideration to context of argument than merits it takes the attention of the audience for a short time and then affect is gone Ex scandalous messages o No attitude change or transient attitude shift o No long term indfluence Effects of these types of processing Anti acoho PSA study many young people convinced by alcohol advertising it was done to get people to think more carefully about their drinking 0 Looked at whether peripheral or central approach was better answer was neither gt needed to develop an advertising program that has both Scher amp Lee 2009 online product reviews 0 Based on what people think of online reviews ex amazon yelp 0 Can be very convincing in attempt of persuasion o The quality of the product and reviews related to central processing while the quantity of reviews related to the peripheral processes 0 The quantity of reviews is the quick way and measures how cynical people were about the product and reviews 0 Cynical people couldn39t care less about reviews which leads to the conclusion that ELM doesn39t always work Message Appeal amp Credibility Credibility Featuresattributes Persuasion that it39s a good product comes from who is showing it Makes viewers think about if the person company is trustworthy loyal believable and professional Celebrity Endorsements advantages vs disadvantages Advantages Celebs appear in about 15 of ads an estimated 50 billion is invested globally on corporate sponsorships and endorsements Crutchfield 2010 o Stopping power attention to messages in cluttered media environment 0 Celebrities said to enhance audience39s perceptions of product imageperformancetrust Disadvantages Overshadowing Concern focus attention on celebrity fail to note brand 0 Overexposure Recognize celebrities endorse product because paid viewers become skeptical 0 Celebrity endorsements are peripheral because people tend to think it always works when it doesn39t 0 Friends family and word of mouth is the most persuasive Fear appeals components Scaring the audience 0 Ex texting and driving clipgtgt very scary and shocking o Credible because first response people were real and do have to deal with this 0 In order to move this type of commercial from just peripheral which is the car crash scene to central they would need to make sure it tells how it could effect the viewers and provide a solution the problem as well 0 Without this us as students walked out of class and most likely forgot about it Product Placement very big business companies invest a lot of money in product placement in all types of media TV movies video games ex reeses pieces used to lure ET out of hiding place Spielberg wanted to use MampMs but they asked too much money to do that reeses was free smart because product placement in this movie boosted their sales exponentially product placement is a peripheral cue we aren39t required to think very hard about this Product placements in ELM would be a Peripheral Cue Why increase Media developments 0 Hard for advertisers to advertise in traditional ways so product placement has become popular Attitudes to PP Business v Opponents 0 business think it is the best way to get attention and persuade people many people have become cynical and it is considered to be a very good way to get products in front of people by business 0 The opposition think it is unethical to advertise this way especially children just see it and are persuaded by it In the SpeersHarris Schwartz reading on average when children were shown a clip with pepsi and then a clip with no soda at all the kids were more likely to choose pepsi over coke when given the option between the two AcceptableNot acceptable Research 0 When viewers were asked what they liked seeing in shows they thought having things like coke or certain candy was acceptable in comparison to a fake madeup soda or candy 0 Prefer real stuff over nonrealistic things 0 Didn39t care for brands on weapons or cigarettes etc Spears et al 2011 Advertising to kids 0 Testing what corporations are doing with advertising intiative 0 Ex McDonalds and coke promised to not put products for kids under 12 on their shows 0 They were using product placement in kid shows they found a loop hole they were not advertising using commercials like they were asked but they were still using product placement 90 of this product placement was in American Idol 0 Kids watching prime time content supposed to be for adults but kids are still exposed o Determined that Coke39s advertisements were excessive Ta amp Frosch 2008 Pharmaceutical PP o Looking at actual names of drugs that were mentioned in shows such as House o Particularly focused on episode of a House where they were treating a guy with steroids and they prescribed him the wrong prescription 0 Why was it placed no FDA laws in place to provide a solution Internet Addictionquot Problems of definitionresearch 0 Problems based on the variety of definitions for the variety of addictions ex gambling drugs etc tolerance withdral compulsive Contexts for addiction 0 There are different types of addiction experiences ex drug addictions have physical effects such as withdrawls while internet addcition most likely does not Normal usage what is it o deemed as when it does not interfere with work school eating social activity time with friendsfamiy sig other Attributes associated with addiction gender age mental health etc 0 Young males have the biggest problem and they find it very difficult to quit o In the US amp Europe our problematic use isn39t defined as definition 0 Difficult to know whether it this is a mental illness because we don39t know what came first the addiction or the mental iHness 0 Some gaming starts because of anxiety or depression so we ask did the games cause the illness or the illness cause the gaming 0 Some poeople are actually being treated for this ex little baby died because parents were too busy playing an online game Oggins and Sammis 2012 overall findings 0 Online game players look at their addcition 0 Focus on abstract what they did What they found Few players mentioned such signs of addiction as withdrawal symptoms or tolerance and some thought it was not possible to become addicted to video games Sef reported addiction to video games correlated positively with perceptions that video game addiction involved playing a lot or playing to escape problems and correlated negatively with perceptions that addiction involved games interfering with other activities or not being able to stop play Body Image Obesity and Food Advertising Perceptual Distortion Meaning amp influence o Social comparison Young women portrayed with skinny and big boobs so we compare ourselves to them o Women such as the VS models leads to perpetual distortion which means when we look in the mirror we don39t see the correct image of who we really are we appear fatter Harrison et al Pre adoescent girls amp media 0 Girls 810 are surveyed and asked what media they liketo consume o A year later they go ask the same girls what they think of their body image and eating habits o Results the media they were consuming effected the way they viewed their body image Video games MaleFemale character portrayal o women in video games are unrealistic huge boobs tiny waist hourglass figures o looked at just the cover of video games and analyzed them o how do videogame men and women compared to the real population o the most significant issue was that the most unrealistic body shapes were in video games directed towards children Harrison amp Bond 2007 Boysgaming mags o Analysis of young boys who read video game mags 0 White kids vs black kids o Based on characters muscularity o It did create an influence but was only statistically significant to the white boys Obesity amp kids Health implications amp advertising Ethnicity obesity food advertising o Large problem in the US o The worst foods are directed at children and although it has been a point to change this this hasn39t been chnaged Health amp Edutainment ER study Theory goals findings Cultivation theory suggests health info presented in entertainment media could affect ideas about heath reated issues Brodie amp colleagues 2001 worked with writerproducer of ER Neal Baer ER viewers surveyed to evaluate effect of health info Grey39s Anatomy study People became more educated about women getting treatment of HIV during pregnancy and having a 98 chance of having a healthy baby Gender differences in attitudes Comparisons with other health issues Other research on health entertainment QUIZ QampA Sher and Lee 2009 expected that and found that one aspect of ELM would be disconfirmed in their study Which of the following options is true based on this expectation Answer Highly skeptical consumers do not attend to the quality or quantity of the reviews Based on ELM the level of elaboration used in processing a persuasive message depends on the relevance of the message the need for cognition and the ability to process the message Answer True Sher and Lee 2009 investigated consumer skepticism and online reviews using ELM as a theoretical guide Which of the following results did they find in their study Answer Consumers with low skepticism adopt the peripheral route in assessing online reviews Spears et al 2011 attempted to quantify incidence and youth exposure to food and beverage brand appearances within shows on primetime TV Answer True According to the market research accessed during the Message Appeal lecture celebrity endorsement is always a sure bet with regard to brand affiliation among consumers Answer False Ta and Frosch 2008 examined pharmaceutical product placement The authors suggest that this type of product placement may work because Answer A sense of mainstream acceptance for the brand which may affect prescription patterns According to Ta and Frosch 2008 at the time of their study the FCC FTC and FDA guidelines specifically addressed prescription drug inclusions in fictional entertainment thus reducing the possibility for abuse Answer False According to Sher and Lee 2009 highly skeptical consumers tended to base their attitudes on source credibility argument quality and number of reviews rather than their intrinsic beliefs about online reviews Answer False What did Spears et al conclude from their investigation about child and adolescent exposure to food and beverage brand appearances Answer Coke appearances are common in prime time TV in comparison to other companies products Think about the ELM lecture and chose ONE of the following options that a more persuasive anti acoho message will contain Answer Peripheral and central processing cues According to the Product Placement lecture there has been a steady rise in product placement in TV programming because potential consumers are able to avoid traditional advertising by changing channels and recording TV shows Answer True Which of the following definitions of product placement would be most likely to be used by people by in the business Answer The art of finding exposure opportunities that are aligned with marketing goals and target audiences an inexpensive way to increase brand awareness NOTES FROM READINGS Spears et al looking at what large corps coke Mickey Dees etc say they will not direct their marketing at children Many children are still exposed Determined if corps were abiding by these rules They found that coke was directing their products in shows that are watched by children much more than any other large companies Ta amp Frosh particularly concerned with the HOUSE episode the drug that house prescribed patient was not supposed to be used for those symptoms FDA had no rules for this issue at the time JMS 408 Readings 1 Overview Ienkins 2006 1 State of media now compared to preInternet o Old media never dieswhat dies is the tools we use to access media content o Each old medium tv radio cinema and theater were forced to co exist with new emerging media o The Black Box Fallacy Idea insert explanation definition here Old media used to be the same and there was only one way of communicating but now there is a variety of information 247 o Convergence Something that happens over time and with time We are living in an era of convergence 2 Social Cognitive Theory Pajares Prestin Chen and Nabi 2012 3 Behavior Assumptions underlying SCT 0 You assume the real world is violent Factors determining actionbehavior 0 environmental in uences 0 personal factors 0 self efficacy Entertainment education learning process 0 Soap Operas that contain a message within it 0 Helps people reiterate the message 0 Rehearsal of the message 3 Cultivation Morgan amp Shanahan 2010 3 A defense of cultivation Importance of aggregate of media content 0 1st Category Original ideas of the theory Related to OVERALL consumption of television content Containing several mainstream themes for heavy viewers 0 Barker during her review session 0 Reality vs News vs Crime 0 Argument Not really cultivation because they choose the type of programming they want to see 0 Selectivity goes against cultivation theory 0 Heavy viewers watch lot of different things not just a lot of one thing Genre specific cultivation 0 Studies continue to find associations between overall viewing and fear of crime 0 Also lower levels of social trust overestimation of overall crime rates and the misperception that juvenile sentencing is race neutral 0 Viewing reality police shows produces similar patterns including not only greater fear of crime cultivated exaggerated perceptions of the prevalence of violence 0 Heightened Mean World perceptions 0 Intentions to take protective measures against crime and actually taking such measures o Makeover shows are negatively related to self esteem and positively related to body dissatisfaction 4 Agenda setting Guo Hong amp McCombs 2012 3 3 Levels of agenda setting o Level 1 Answers the question what are the pictures about o Level 2 Answers the question what are the dominant characteristics of these pictures o Level 3 Come closer to literally answering the question what are the pictures in our heads This level asserts that individual s cognitive representation of objects and attributes is presented as a network like structure where any particular node will be connected to numerous other nodes 0 Things bundle together Third level definition example 0 Example September 11 attacks Iraq war o Drawing from Lang s2000 theoretical framework the NAS model hypothesizes that the more likely the news media mention two elements in tandem the greater chance that the audience will perceive these two elements as interconnected For example if the news media always report the Second Iraq War and September 11 attacks together in the same news stories audiences tend to associate these two events in their minds o This level asserts that individual s cognitive representation of objects and attributes is presented as a network like structure where any particular node will be connected to numerous other nodes o This new theoretical approach asserts that to describe a political candidate a person generates a network shaped picture composed of various attributes which are connected to each other in his her mind Pictures in our heads meaning for the 3 levels o Different levels doing different things for us in terms of talking about pictures in our head 5 Medium is the Message Carr and Stefaniak 2012 2 What was tested theories and how o Professionalism presented in OOOOOO 0 Face management Front stage self eg an impressive previous job You forgive a message typo more on a cellphone Warrant theory Impression Management over stating job related abilities Identity Cues Direct manipulation of message System generated cues Assumptions underlying O O The idea that you will forgive someone of their typos if it is from a smartphone What was their findings and study 6 Uamp G Weng Lim and Ting 2012 2 The U amp G theory 0 A time honored media use theory helpful for understanding consumer motivations for media use and has been applied to scenarios ranging from radio to television cable TV and now the Internet With its emphasis on active media use and its ability to span both mass and interpersonal communication uses and gratifications is regarded as a natural paradigm for understanding the use of the Internet What other theory might work 0 O SGT If you find benefits from a behavior you act like it What about TRA as a theory 7 Parasocial Interaction Hartmann amp Goldhoorn 2011 3 Definition amp variables investigated 0 O Parasocial Interaction is one sided non dialectical controlled by the performer and not susceptible of mutual development Social norms less likely to pick your nose in the presence of celebrities Variables O O 0 Commitment to social norms Enjoyment Parasocial Experience In uence of parasocial interaction 0 By the behavior of a TV performer 0 Addressing style of TV performer OOOO Bodily addressing Verbal Addressing Perceived Attractiveness Perspective taking ability 8 Gray 2012 2 Focus demographics for the study 0 O 0 Many males believe that girls should not game Women in the studies lagged behind males in their rates of adoption Gamers indicated that the level of education had no bearing on one s ability to adopt innovation Yet those with lower education and lacked employment had more time to spend in Xbox Live Key findings from the study 0 O The numbers of hours per week was the most significant factor The communication features help users embrace change which is an important aspect of media convergence the public39s willingness to adopt new technologies and embrace the change The decision process does not apply to users within xbox live The innovation is forced on them by the administrator 4 types of innovation decisions optional collective authority contingent 9 Partner Monitoring Darvell Walsh amp White 2011 3 Theory o theory of planned behavior The TPB posits that intentions are the most proximal determinant of behavior Intention is in uenced by three constructs attitudes an individual s positive or negative evaluation of performing a behavior subjective norms an individual s perceived social pressure to perform the behavior and perceived behavioral control PBC an individual s perception of control over performing the behavior also posited to directly predict behavior Variables investigated 0 O 0 Self esteem Trust Demographic factors Outcomes about intention to monitor partner o Attitude and subjective norm significantly predicted intention to partner monitoring 10 SNS amp Identity Barker studies 2009 2012 2 each 2009 sample and motivations Sample o 734 freshmen students o 68 18 years of age o 44 used Myspace 44 used facebook others used different sites Motivations o Communication most common motive o High positive collective self esteem were motivated to communicate with peer group o Females positive collective self esteem greater overall use and SNS to communicate with peers o Females higher means for group in self passing time and entertainment o Negative collective self esteem correlated with social compensation suggesting that those who felt negatively about their social groups used SNS as an alternative to communicating with other group members o Males more likely to report negative self esteem and SNS use for social compensation and social identity gratifications o Learning was NOT a motive 2012 differences similarities Differences o Young I More likely to own social networking profiles connect to the internet wirelessly and to post personal video online I Reported higher positive collective self esteem social networking site use for peer communication and social compensation I Higher social identity 0 Old I Opportunity to reconnect with people from their past and also to bridge gaps between generations o Similarities I Group belonging and social identity are important attributes to all age groups I All participants reporting high positive collective self esteem and strong group identity were more likely to report SNS use to communicate with valued peer group members I Negative collective self esteem was a strong predictor of social compensation I Generally positive environment for all JMS 408 Lecture MS 408 Midterm Review LECTURE Some scenario questions included as well as definitiontruefalse 1 Direct Effects Occasionally media can change peoples attitudes behaviors Behaviors are harder to change Example of Direct Effects 0 War of the Worlds Orson Welles o Broadcasted a fake invasion however people believed it to be real 0 Not everyone believed the broadcast Those who were educated did not believe it was real 2 Factors involved in effects eg Context Family Attention etc 3 Types of and most likely effects Conditional social categories individual differences 0 A big it depends Cumulative over time with frequency of exposure Cognitive state cognitive schema moods goals and emotions Indirect limited effects more considered in its interpretation and effects 4 Changes in perspective over time from direct to limited eg Two Step Flow Media to opinion leaders to other followers 5 Social cognitive theory Factors required for modeling Predictions Tools for Observational Learning OOOO 0 Attention Retention must code info into long term memory for retrieval MotivationReinforcement Self regulation Motor Reproduction Observer learns plus self efficacy can do behavior Principles of reinforcement reward and punishment People learn by observing others like them or who they like Cognitive processes affect social learning 0 Variety of other variables that feed into whether people will learn from a role model Reward getting paid lots of money for being an athlete Punishment Athlete who does celebrity endorsement who fails from grace and sponsorships are gone Children see children do 0 Bobo Doll Experience The more people39s images of reality depend on the media39s symbolic environment the greater its social impact 0 The more you rely on media the more likely you experience some in uence However if you could care less about media it doesn39t have nearly any in uence Multifaceted strategy 6 Differences between SCT amp cultivation theory Cultivation Theory 0 0 SCT How we learn attitudes and behaviors Entertainers are conscience that the components they include tell a story People respond in a complex way when they consume media content Cumulative Effects perceptions of viewers Affects attitudes NOT behavior Effects behavior re ective on if people consume more media they are often to re ect the behavior of something or someone they idolize 7 Cultivation Concepts of mainstreaming amp resonance Response to media content is a limited effect cultivation theory More people who consumer news media are more likely to have a mean world view Mainstreaming 0 heavy viewing leads to homogenous or convergent opinions leveling or homogenizing opinion Resonance double dose effect boosts cultivation o Viewer s life experiences congruent with the TV worlds 0 eg Strongest effects of heavy viewing on attitudes to violence likely among those in high crime areas of cities Their personal experience tells them the world is a terrible place as well as their consumption of media resonance CRITICISMS Correlation between TV exposure and beliefs not casual Selectivity different content different realities cultivation analysis assumes homogeneity of TV TV open to varying interpretation and id with characters Interacting factors contribute to way TV interpreted Age type of attention motivation education gender ethnicity viewing contexts family attitudes socio economic background Agenda setting early basic principles McCombs amp Shaw 1972 coined the term News media put a frame around issues and prime us for issues Clash of agenda settings people who use media do have an agenda Mass media transfer salience of items on news agendas to public agenda News may not be successful in telling people what to thinkingbut rather what to think about Gate keeping journalists have a role in the sense that they are the people that they have decide what is important to report as news Correlation NOT causation Must show public priorities lag behind media agenda ournalists may be responding to what the public see as important as oppose to the other way around Who sets the agenda Gatekeepers in uential bloggers youtube twitter Politicians public relations professionals Interest aggregations interest groups who demand center stage for one overriding concern single issue advocates Not just the news media who set the agenda anymore Delivery systems we have now enable anyone to try to be a gatekeeper Celebrities have become very adept to becoming their own publicist through mediums like Twitter Uses amp Grats underlying principles Ritual vs instrumental use Optimists view of media focuses on why people use particular media not concerned with what media do to people Audiences use media to obtain gratifications and fulfill needs Key Points Determined by socialpsychological motives needs of individual audience members egz music that fits mood Audience members actively select attend to media content and ignore reject other content Allows for variety of responses and interpretations In uence of mood emotion on media choice stress encourages relaxed content Ritual vs Instrumental Use Instrumental Use Involves paying attention to media content to seek info Goal Directed assumes rational choice of media for predetermined purpose Ritual Use media serves diversionary purposes eg as an end in itself habitual non selective Diffusion of Innovations see innovation adoption curve distribution of adopter categories Getting a new idea adopted even when it has obvious advantages is often very difficulta common problem for many individuals and organizations is how to speed up the rate of diffusion of innovation Good ideas do not sell themselves 4 MAIN ELEMENTS The innovation an idea practice or object perceived as new by an individual or group Communication Channels means by which messages move from one person to another Over time rate of adoption by adopter categories of a social system A social system set of interrelated units engages in joint problem solving to accomplish a common goal ADOPTION CURVE The Innovation Decision Process What it takes t0 decide The Innovation Adoption Curve to use an innovation Knowledge Saturation Persuasion Decision to adopt oZ V Implementation A Con rmation TakeO Innovation Adopter Categories Innovator 25 Venturesome risk takers Good contacts outside peer group Can cope with high uncertainty Internally motivated Solely interested in what is internally driving them May or may not be respected by peers Launches new idea into the system by importing innovation from outside of system39s boundaries ie Steve Iobs Bill Gates Early Adopters 135 Respected More intergrated into local social system than innovators Greatest degree of opinion leadership Make juidcious innovation decision Internally motivated Potential adopters look to early adopters for advice and infor about the innovation Early Majority 34 Deliberate Adopts innovations justt before the average Follows others in adopting innovations but seldom lead Externally motivated In uenced by social norms Late Majority 34 Skeptical Adopts slightly later than average Adopts for economic peer pressure reasons not usefulness Unwilling to risk scarce resources Externally motivated Demand that most uncertainty about a new idea must be removed before they39ll about it Laggards 16 Traditional Last to adopt Have almost no opinion leadership Point of reference past Have limited resources unwilling to risk Guardians of traditional McLuhan Medium is Message Message Key points New media don39t just offer new way to communicate change the way people communicate the message itself Emphases on how cool the medium Societies have always been shaped more by the nature of the media by which men communicate than by the content of the communicate McLuhan believe that electronic media creates a global village The content of any message is always the medium The effect comes before the causemedium is the message We look at the present through a rear view mirror We march backwards into future Theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior Similarities and differences Meaning of key concepts TRA used to predict behavioral intention egz marketing health Behavioral intention signal that shows readiness to perform a particular behavior a behavioral predictor TPB An extension of TRA Ajzen added concepts in order to predict behavior not just intention Similarities concerned with individual motivational factors as determinations of the likelihood of performing a specific behavior SUBECTIVE NORMS Differences TRA includes measures of attitudes and social normative perceptions that determine behavioral intention which in turn is said to affect behavior TPB contains an additional construct perceived control over performance of the behavior Meaning of Key Concepts Behavioral belief behavioral performance is associated w certain attributions outcomes Evaluation of behavioral outcomes value attached to behavioral outcome Normative beliefs perception about opinions of others regarding this belief Motivation to comply motivation to carry out act Attitude toward behavior evaluation of act being positive or negative Both positive likely to lead to intention Subjective norm conclusion about whether most people approve or disapprove of the behavior Behavioral intention perceived likelihood of performing the behavior Self efficacy helps us understand the relationship between beliefs amp attitudes and intentions amp behaviors
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