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Pysc-100 (Week 3/7-3/15)Notes

by: Michael Wang

Pysc-100 (Week 3/7-3/15)Notes PSYC 100

Marketplace > University of Southern California > Psychlogy > PSYC 100 > Pysc 100 Week 3 7 3 15 Notes
Michael Wang

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About this Document

These notes are going to cover what's going to be on the exam. Let me know if you have any questions.
Introduction to Psychology
Ann Renken
Class Notes
PSYC 100
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michael Wang on Sunday March 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 100 at University of Southern California taught by Ann Renken in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Southern California.


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Date Created: 03/13/16
2/22/16 Stress: Stress is usually tested subjectively. (Asking “How stressed are you?” Doesn't get optimum  results0  Scientists use stressors as an indicator or index value measurement for testing stress: 1. Major Life Events: a.) Social Readjustment Rating Scale (Holmes Scale)  b.) Common Daily Events c.) Positive and Negative Results  2.) Daily Hassles and Uplifts 3.) Major Life Events vs Daily Hassles i.) Both predict Illness ii.) Hassles have an additive effect (1) Biggest Risks From (a) Negative Events that  are Uncontrollable (b) Positive Events:  Having too many positive events at a fast rate can also  lead to a stressful and disappointed state. Not enough just  to ask.  4.) Individual Difference in the Stress Response: a.) Social vs Isolation i.) “Tend and Befriend” Response: (Most common  in Women) (1) Women tend to try to take care of  others as a therapy for crisis, and they typically fare better than  men.  (2) Socializing, reaching out, emotional  engagement is aided by the release of oxytocin (comfort  hormone)  ii.) Two Types of Social Response to “Fight or Flight”  (1) Social Support (Women)  (2) Isolation (Men) iii.) “Coping” Response:  (1) Problem­Focused “What can I do to  fix this?” (2) Actively­coping, energized, not  stressed (3) Solving the problem at hand (4) High Energy State, but cannot  always be in that state. (a) Ex: Cancer, or  problem that’ can’t always be solved.  iv.) “Emotion­Focused” Response (“What can I do to feel better?”) (1) Distraction­keeping yourself busy to  take mind off the issue (Procrastination) (2) Emotional Disclosure­Talking about  bad memory, initially traumatizing but gradually gets better in the  long run.  (3) Praying for guidance (4) Meditation/Mindfulness  (5) Alcohols/ Drugs ­Numbing of  emotions (6) Journaling­ Writing a gratitude  diary,being helpful (7) Cognitive Reappraisal­changing the  way we are thinking (8) Negative Thoughts/emotions­ Suppressing/Scheduling time.  b.) Psychological Hardiness i.) Challenge (Perspective) ii.) Commit  (Focus) iii.) Control  (Internal/External)  c.) Stress is not the Enemy!  i.) “Believing that stress is bad for you, makes it bad  for you”  ii.) Different Beliefs on Stress (Interpretations)  (1) High Stress + Belief that Stress Kills  You > Leads to Higher risks of death related to stress induced  diseases.  (2) High Stress + Non­Belief that Stress  Kills You> Leads to Lower risks of deaths related to stress  induced diseases.  d.) Behaviors associated to Resilience to Stress i.) Aerobic Exercise ­ Neurogenesis­  Creating/Healing of Mind/Brain ii.) Mindfulness or Loving­Kindness Meditation  (Socialising) iii.) Mood Boosters ­ Laughter, Enjoying Music,  Dancing iv.) Massage e.) Han Selye's’ General Adaptation Syndrome  Hypothalamus­ Pituitary Adrenal Axis (HPA Axis) (Order of Events) 1. Stressful Event 2. Various Brain Areas  3. Hypothalamus 4. Pituitary Gland 5. Adrenal Gland  Corticotropin­ Releasing Hormones (CRH)  Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) **Releases Cortisol  **Also releases epinephrine > Elevates blood pressure.  1. Cortisol “The Stress Hormone”  a. Glucocorticoid (Steroid) b. Receptors on every Cell c. Effects:  i. Increase glucose production in liver ii. Breaks down fat for every production (However this is not good in the long run, as the process actually makes the body store  even more fat in the body)  iii. Immunosuppression (Also Anti­inflammatory)  2. Beneficial Roles of Daily Fluctuations in Cortisol.  a. Morning Peak: Energizing > Coffee not necessary in morning b. “Early Bird” Types generally have higher cortisol levels in the  morning, this is genetically influenced  c. More Glucose for Brain d. Stimulates Hippocampus, amygdala impairment.  3. Harmful Effects of Cortisol Elevation: a. Neuronal Death b. Hippocampus shrinks, fever dendrites c. Disrupts Sleep d. Depression > Clinically Diagnosed e. Related to Post­Tramatic Stress Disorder  4. Sleep Disorders: a. Insomnia may be caused by increasing cortisol levels at night.  b. Somnambulism or sleepwalking > Happens in deep sleep.  c. R.E.M Behavior Disorder: No muscle paralysis when in REM  stage. Mostly aggressive behavior.  d. Sleep Paralysis: Conscious and muscle paralyzed when awoke.  There could also be a feeling of being watched or pressure on chest.  Classical Learning Association  Classical Learning Association Between Stimulus:  Sounds Sight Smell 1. Ivan Pavlov ­ Fore­founder with Dog Experiment. A. unconditioned stimulus (UCS) in classical conditioning, a stimulus that automatically elicits a particular  unconditoned response B. unconditioned response (UCR) in classical conditioning, an unlearned, automatic  response to a particular unconditioned stimulus C.  conditioned stimulus (CS) in classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus that  comes to elicit a particular conditioned response after being paired with a particular unconditioned stimulus  that already elicits that response D.  conditioned response (CR) in classical conditioning, the learned response given  to a particular conditioned stimulus


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