ANE 15 Week 9 Notes
ANE 15 Week 9 Notes Ancient Near East 15
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabel Yin on Sunday March 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ancient Near East 15 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Kathlyn Cooney in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Women and Power in the Ancient World in Classical Studies at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 03/13/16
Final Exam problem Hatchepsut vs Cleopatra ● Regency, on the midterm, somebody who is ideally the mother of a young son who is too young to rule ● Old Egyptian method of maintaining dynastic succession ● Ideally, mother of young king rules on behalf of her own son ● Hatshepsut = not mother of Thutmose III ● Isis = mother of Thutmose III ● Year 7 crowns herself the kiperhaps since she is his aunt she feels the need to extend her regency ● Crowned by year 7 and represented as a man by year 7 ● Justifies as heir to her father Thutmose I, her rule ● Avoiding the connection of being the regent ● Divine birth scene mythology, funerary complex, ways out the methodology ● All her story to justify her rule ● Doesn’t link to a man (biggest difference with Cleopatra), formally deny her sexual power since there is no evidence ● Middle picture masculine clothing, transformation ● Always give herself the power even if she is ruling as coking, displaying herself in front of Thutmose III instead of behind ● Afterwards about 25 years after her reign, Thutmose III is able to wipe out her records, since Hatshepsut was so successful it is easy to appropriate Cleopatra ● Lived 6930 BCE ● Female King to ruled for about 20 yalong the lines of the length as Hatshepsut but with a series of men ● Initially ruled alongside her father Ptolemy XII. ● Then ruled alongside her brothers, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, each of whom she married, no children with her husband ● As sole ruler, linked herself to JuliusCot formal power or union in the eyes of Rome ● Linked herself to Marc Antony ● After their military defeat, Cleopatra killed herself, and Egypt became a province of Roman Empire ● Is this an innovation? or is she an innovative ruler? or is she a product of her time and new time of Egypt Cleopatra’s geographic context ● protected on all four sides, more unified culture and language, in terms of kingship and rule ● Hatshepsut’s era: Egypt value dynastic succession and allow a woman to come in and maintain stability instead of Greek ● Map of Egypt in Cleopatra’s time:gypt part of globalized Mediterranean world, Egypt needs to pay off/placate Romans ● Cleopatra’s father had to pay a lot of tribute to Rome to prevent them from invading, thus Egypt is going into debt ● Strange client stage that they have to pay taxes to the Roman Empire but still independent ● No longer centered inward, it now has to be able to interact in a grander scale with the larger mediterranean Cleopatra’s family context ● Placed in Egypt to control the area after Alexandre the Great ● Macedonians not native Egyptian family: how do they adjust to dynastic succession? Not an easy process, since it is brought from Macedonia to the Egyptian royal family as Cleopatra killed so many relatives Reign of Ptolemy XII ● Deep in debt ● Loss of Cyprus and cyrenaica (eastern Libya) ● On a trip to Rome, attempted coup by his daughter Cleopatra VI, who was killed by Berenike IV, who was executed by Roman intervention ● Cleopatra VII = coregent with her father at age 14 ● Ptolemy XII died 51 BCE, leaving throne to Cleopatra VII (18 years old) and Ptolemy XIII (10 years old) ● These are not just individual actors that are acting on their own will and alone in the mess, all of these people are entourages, advisors, estates, accountants of their own, backing Ptolemy XIII, instigating the infighting or linking, people fight for their interest in their own units, backed with their own group of people, pushing the drive, to assess how much of the motivation came from ● broke down from time period of Hatshepsut, everyone in the palace worships and protects the king, she can bribe people to listen to them ● Elites are not buying into the idea of stasis, and they have more interest in trying to get their royal family member to compete against each other. Politics during early reign ● rule with halfbrother Ptolemy XIII always rocky ● 50 BCE expelled from Alexandria through Roman intervention ● Ptolemy XIII executed Pompey. Backfired with Caesar, Pompey was Caesar’s soninlaw ● Cleopatra VII allies Caesar and thus Alexandria ○ smuggled in a carpet to meet Caesar ○ 9 months after meeting Caesar, Caesarian was born ● Ptolemy XIII assassinated. Cleopatra VII restored to throne with Ptolemy XIV ● When Caesar left for Rome, he left three garrisons ● Visit to Rome with Caesarion when Caesar murdered in 44 BCE ● Returned to Egypt, murdered Ptolemy XIV Politics later in her reign ● 43 30 BCE Directly involved herself in Roman civil war ● 41 BCE Marc Antony brought her on as ally, stayed in Alexandria ● 41 BCE had her sister Arsinoe murdered on steps of Artemis temple at Ephesus ● 40 BCE she bore him twins, Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene II ● 34 BCE after conquest of Armenia by Marc Antony, Cleopatra VII and Caesarion crowned cokings of Egypt and Cyprus. Alexander Helios ruler of Armenia, Parthia, and Media. Cleopatra Selene II ruler of Libya and Cyrenaica and Ptolemy Philadelphus (cleopatra VII and Marc Antony’s youngest child) ruler of Phoenicia, Syria, and Cilicia. ● The East vs. Rome! ● 33 BCE Antony and Octavian (Caesar’s grandnephew) at odds and Octavian declared war against Egypt ● 31 BCE Battle of Actium. Marc Antony commits suicide. Octavian invaded Egypt ● Unique, illlaid plan amongst a bunch of children of how Cleopatra divided her children as king of regions when they are six ● Perceive as a way to build up her own power in her command Politics later in her reign ● 33 BCE Antony and Octavian (Caesar’s grandnephew) at odds and Octavian declared war against Egypt ● 31 BCE Battle of Actium. Marc Antony commits suicide. Octavian invades Egypt Dramatis Personae Cleopatra: Fierce queen of Egypt Caesar: Roman dictator and general, lover of Cleopatra, killed in the senate Antony: Successful Roman general, loyal supporter of Caesar, member of the triumvirate, lover of Cleopatra, eventual rival of Octavian, kills himself in Alexandria Octavian: Nephew and heir of Caesar, member of the triumvirate, eventually rival of Antony, really amazing sneaky brilliant politician, will become Caesar Augustus, the leader of rome Caesarion: Son of Cleopatra and Caesar. Cleopatra tries to set him up to rule Egypt, but he is killed by Octavian Ptolemy XII : Clepatra’s father Ptolemy Egypt and Rome Cleopatra struggled to keep Egypt together under the pressure of Rome, and Egyptian values are different and against Roman values. The story so far Cleopatra steps into power in a time of political and social confusion Rome civil war, assassinations, drama and intrigue Egypt unstable rule, massive debt, and threatened by Rome Connects herself to a series of men to stay in pow there were a lot of women who tried to step into power where people respected but failed Egypt seems to be doing much better under her rule but it’s still richer than other poor areas Ptolemy XII puts her in a bad position Unable to maintain her position under mist of confusion The Sources Largely Roman sources written in order to portray her negatively Horace and a Sibylline Oracle date from her reign Plutarch, Cassius Dio, Josephus written after her death Many overly dramatic Rome portrayed her as desperate This negative, exotic seductress is the Cleopatra of Hollywood Cleopatra was highly intelligent and educated Antonius usually has a very dramatic description of everything She was the first Ptolemy line to speak Egyptian, while her family spoke Greek ● Cleopatra herself! She is quite an accomplished authorThe Cosmetics ○ Treatise known only from fragments ○ Does not get the respect it deserves not really about make up, but a medical guide ○ talks about slaves that can help with hair loss and skin conditions ○ References suggest other medical and scientific knowledge as well Cleopatra’s Ideological Power Divine kingship is not tolerable in Rome, but she needed to use ideological power to gain more power in Egypt entered into the position of divine kingship, as with other Egyptian kings Often shows her piety ● Day after father’s death, travels to instal a Buchis bull ● Described on the Bucheum stele ● Finished the temple of Hathar at Dendera, and used it to further her position and Caesarions’ Convey her children as forefront of religious Egypt Isis wife of Osiris ruler of the gods Convenient because Isis is considered as the female line of Ptolemy ● Linked to Egyptian goddesses during her lifetime ● Placing Cleopatra’s statue as a direction of Isis ● Julius Caesar had statue of her as Isis placed at Venus Genetrix temple in Forum Julium Frequent connections to Isis ● Isis stele ● built her tomb near the temple of Isis ● Depictions at Dendera include attributes ● Built temple to Isis near Ptolemais Hermiouepicted as male similar to Hatshepsut ● According to Plutarch, often appeared as Isis at state functions and on coinUseful medium of propaganda Cleopatra’s Economic Power ● Debt, famine characterized much of her reign ● May have turned this around during her reign ● Reports of economic chaos diminish after few years of her reign, but still had to debased currency ● we know Egypt was relatively rich in her reign because Rome was desperate to take over ● She would be given control of a number of territories ● Antony giving up parts of Roman empire was not happy ● Take control of best timber and bitumen resources as you build ships naval battles are what is going on, not only control money and the navy ● Also gives her trade centers of Phoenicia economic, therefore military, thus political power and pursuits ● Gave certain useful Romans tax exemptions side note: tax exemption for P. Canidius Crassus ● suggest she is involved in politics and economies shows how educated she is and able to take control of what is going on in her homeland Active Leader of Military Lead naval expeditions Commanded egyptian army and borrow her men Telling us Cleopatra’s political power ● In Egypt, she is seen as a pharaoh, and honored by her subjects ● Also written to respectfully by other rulers asking for her help ● Removes political rivals ● Lighthouse has become a very functional status of the port, gymnasia is a place to discuss political and social area ● When alexander takes over and after he died, one of the queens of Seleucid married into a Ptolemy thus Cleopatra does have both ancestry ● Once augustus comes to power he wants roman women to be great mothers and portray roman families as cohesive Sexual Power Overcome Caesar with her charm Cleopatra knows how to manipulate power using children, time her pregnancies very carefully The end: Battle of Actium Unwise military strategies Numbers were superior and Antony as leader, but they still lost. The Final Days Cleopatra tries to distance herself from Antony, put Caesarian on the throne, and leave perhaps for India She puts strong emphasis to put her son in a leader position Epilogue Unclear if infants died of natural causes
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