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7th Weekly Notes, American Revolution

by: Katrina Salamon

7th Weekly Notes, American Revolution HIST 0848-002

Marketplace > Temple University > History > HIST 0848-002 > 7th Weekly Notes American Revolution
Katrina Salamon

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These are the 7th set of notes for American Revolutions.
American Revolutions
Silke Zoller
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katrina Salamon on Sunday March 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 0848-002 at Temple University taught by Silke Zoller in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see American Revolutions in History at Temple University.


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Date Created: 03/13/16
March 8, 2016 The Great Society Questions to Consider:  Trace the role of the federal gov’t in securing civil rights.    What aspects determine the federal government’s version of civil rights?  Early 1960s  Grassroots activists organize to implement civil rights won in courts   Kennedy allows FBI to harass activists  He uses federal troops to desegregate universities of Alabama and Mississippi o James Meredith is protected, but is still attacked by the mob and two  people are killed  o June 1963 George Wallace (governor) resists desegregation  o Birmingham riots had just occurred, as well as hundreds of other  demonstrations o Kennedy doesn’t really care about the civil rights movement, they are  distracting him from his real goal, which is negotiating with the Soviet  Union o Kennedy promises that he will commit the power of the federal  government to secure civil rights, two months before the March on  Washington (largest nonviolent movement thus far) o Kennedy is taking a political risk by making this statement, but he is also  supported by many o SCLC, NAACP, etc. (all groups) are there  Split in the Civil Rights Movement o Older leadership like the NAACP and SCLC advocate for colorblind  version, slower and more gradual road to civil rights—new jobs and rights for AA’s by erasing race as a factor.  o Younger people like CORE and SNCC were impatient, the federal  government was doing too little too late, and were frustrated with  Kennedy’s dilly­dallying.  o They support more militant action   Kennedy’s assassination in 1963—he is turned into a martyr/myth  Lyndon Johnson becomes president  o Congressman for 10 years before becoming senate majority leader in  1954, after which he becomes vice president.  o He has a coarse manner, “randomly drops f bombs all over the place” haha o Knows the mechanics of getting things through congress o Believes the federal government should work actively to improve the lives of citizens  What is the Great Society?   What are his goals for his presidency? How does he plan to achieve them?  abundance and liberty for all, end to poverty and racial injustice, every child can  find knowledge, city of man serves not only the needs of the body and the  demands of commerce but the desire for beauty and the hunger for community,  man can renew contact with nature, men are more concerned with the quality of  their goals than the quantity of their goods, most of all, the Great Society is not a  safe harbor, a resting place, a final objective, a finished work. It is a challenge  constantly renewed, beckoning us toward a destiny where the meaning of our  lives matches the marvelous products of our labor,   Compare and contrast Johnson’s position on civil and social rights with the  position of Kennedy.   Johnson makes his opinions and promises known immediately, and makes many  more of them, although he says he’s fulfilling Kennedy’s legacy. He passes the  Civil Rights Bill   Civil Rights Act o Passes on February 10, 1964, and he shuts down many amendments  designed to weaken the bill o Hes only been president for two months at this point o Getting it passed the Senate is hardest, as they are concerned for the  expansion of federal government  Longest filibuster in American history, 57 days o July 2, 1964, Johnson signed into law the Civil Rights Act of 1964 o The word “Sex” was added to weaken the bill in deliberation, but it ended  up being passed with the word sex included  o This bill contains mechanisms for enforcing its provisions, a novelty in  federal legislation which makes it different from other constitutional  amendments  Freedom Summer o Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) began a major  program of civil mobilization targeting the state of Mississippi o Volunteers helped mobilize voters, form freedom schools, thought literacy and constitutional rights to AA’s, organized a new political party, the  Mississippi Freedom Democratic party o White, middle­class volunteers  o The SNCC counted on the idea that violence against whites would  generate media attention than if only black volunteers had been brutalized  James Cheney, black, and two white volunteers, Michael  Schwerner and Andrew Goodman disappeared, found dead  (brutalized) later   1964 election  o tension between SNCC and Johnson come to a head o Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party sends a delegation to the 1964  Democratic National Convention  o They have a narrative of activism, being brutalized, behind them o The white delegation of southern states threatened to walk out if Johnson  accepted their claims o That would have cost Johnson the votes he needed to be justified for the  civil rights act and being the party’s nominee o He cant risk it, he decides, so he negotiates with the MFDP o Offers them two seats at the table, they say no, we’ve worked too hard to  compromise this.  o They walk out, alienating Johnson from the younger civil rights movement o Loses control and contact quickly with younger strings of the movement  Conservative Backlash o Many whites didn’t believe that it was the fed. Gov’t’s job to end racial  discrimination  o Conservative vision was championed by Barry Goldwater. He was  supported by Ronald Reagan.   Landmark election—future of US and the Federal Government’s role  Resulting election is a landslide victory for Johnson. Goldwater only won his  home state of Arizona, and the deep south.   This is a rejection of the conservative view that liberty is more important than  equality  This is the shift, along with the new deal, of the south abandoning the Democratic  party and towards the republican.   Johnson starts implementing government programs immediately   “Wartime Language” is a good way to get things passed   more money to municipalities and school districts  targets certain urban neighborhoods to improve housing, health, education, and  employment opportunities  “Model Cities” program  Results: o Government spending on social benefits more than doubles, and this trend  increases into the 1970s o War on poverty programs improved the quality of housing, etc., but did  not address the root of the problems, only the symptoms  Further Civil Rights Efforts o March 6, 1965: SCLC organized a march through Selma, Alabama, met  with prodigious violence.  o March 16: Johnson announces the voting rights act which outlaws  practices that prevented most blacks from voting previously  o October 3: Johnson signs the Immigration and Nationalities Act  Replaces quotas based on national origins with a preferences  system based on skill and family reunification   Summary: o Federal government introduced large, formal programs against radical  discrimination and poverty, based on giving each American quals  opportunities… March 10, 2016  Vietnam, from an international perspective o Readings: Who are the speakers? Place them into their contemporary  context  The first was Charles de Gaulle, who was the leader of Free France during World War II. He has a generally positive view on French  imperialism, only acknowledging that reforms and improvements  would be made.   The second was the declaration of independence of Vietnam. They  were completely rejecting imperialistic rule o Analyze both text’s views on French colonialism.  o What kinds of ideas about liberty/independence/freedom are visible in  each text?  Questions to consider: o What is the Vietnam War? o Why was the Vietnam War controversial?  In 1887 France created French Indochina, including Vietnam, Cambodia and laos,  etc.   French colonial interests were interested in extracting raw goods, which damaged  the indigenous populations  Introduced Catholicism   “Western looking Vietnamese nationalism” inspired by Wilsonian internationalism  in WWII Japanese conquered Vietnam   Ho Chi Minh founds the Viet Minh (league for the independence of Vietnam)  Uses guerilla tactics  Viet. Declaration of independence past Japanese surrender  France then tries to regain colonial possessions   1945­54: “mightiest nations in the world intervene powerfully in Vietnam to  destroy or sustain Ho Chi Minh o France v. Vietnam is seen as capitalism v. communism  At this time Vietnam begins exploiting international tensions to advance the cause   China forces France to negotiate with Viet. In 1945   Both sides seek international support, which they both succeed at  U.S. is asked to stand with France—technically the US as the leader of the free  world should back Vietnam and their fight for liberty   BUT cold war considerations, stopping communism, is at the forefront of the US’s world role as well. They back France.   Vietnamese turn to China and Soviet Union for support   Military stalemate (French military superiority vs. Viet Minh popular support,  endurance, and guerilla tactics)  Vietnamese defeat French majorly at Dien Bien Phu  o Textbook example of strategic errors committed by the French   Geneva Accords, 1954 o American diplomats take over they are willing to do a lot to prevent what  happened in china and Korea o The promote separation between north and south Vietnam o Independent elections take place in both, and the goals is that ho chi Minh  will win the election (freedom fighter hero) o American diplomats achieve their goals o The convention lays down the division o Balance of power, neither side has entire control of the country, but this is  not a recipe for sustained peace and stability  North: basic unity and stability, ho chi minh wins and begins to build a communist state, which takes a long time  South: US stepped in and will not allow a communist state develop in south  Vietnam. Instead of elections, it stops free elections in south Vietnam. They  instead establish a state that will be anti communist. The American leaders throw  their weight behind Ngo Dinh Diem despite his corruption and lack of popular  support, and alienation of the countryside.   The US wants to stop reunification and win enough time to build a democratic  state in the south. They engage in a state building mission despite the lack of  support from the Vietnamese.   Renewed Fighting: o Diem cracks down on southern communists, and basically creates a police  state that persecutes communist supporters o As a result, a communist insurrection forms o By 59 north Vietnam has stabilized enough that they have resources to  help the south Vietnamese communists.  o Conflict has acquired its distinctive feature: simultaneously a civil war  among southerners and a cross­border effort by the north to reunify the  country on its own terms.    US leaders are prone to missing the local complexities of the conflict  The US streamlines the problems and thinks in “Good vs. Evil”, Machiavellian  terms.   By 1961 JFK is in office, and Kennedy and the north Vietnamese are wary of  escalation but think that it will bring them the most profit o He doesn’t escalate because he's confident that he will build a democratic  state, and doesn’t want to pull out and have a result of south Vietnam’s  loss: domino theory: if they pull out south Vietnam will fall, followed by  surrounding nations. This will dirty the US’s international reputation o The US in the meantime is doing its best to build up a strong South  Vietnam o Kennedy is concerned because Laos is negotiating with communists o They commit more and more resources because they are afraid to fail   US feels like they can no longer control Ngo Dinh Diem in 1963, so they allow a  coup to overthrow him.   August 2 and 4: golf of Tonkin incident, resolved on august 7: Johnson uses this  incident to secure his position before his election. Two American military ships  were patrolling here, in international borders. Both reported anomalies in their  radar tracking systems (we now know it was probably a glitch), but the boat  captains report them as torpedo attacks. Johnson takes it to congress to get  congress to pass the Golf of Tonkin Resolution, which declares that he can use  any means necessary to defeat Vietnam without asking permission or formally  declaring war. He wins the election in 1964. He decides to escalate American  involvement with his new congressionally given power.  He sends troops and  increases bombing.   All sides go into the fight with the attitude of trying to wear down the other side.   NV assumes that US isn’t prepared to fight guerillas, and there is a stalemate even  as US power grows  Goal of fighting in the South: root out Communists o Body count: this was the measure of victory over communists, but how do  you prove that a corpse was a communist in life? o Resettlement of populations sympathetic to communists into “strategic  hamlets”  In the south the US is trying to kill and weaken communists, who are still being  supported with supplies from the North.   North Vietnam spreads out and disperses their population, so they aren’t really that affected by the American bombing  Tet Offensive  January 30, 1968,  north and south Vietnamese’s communists launched  simultaneous attacks throughout South Vietnam o Completely undermined the US’s claims that they were making progress  in Vietnam  Confirms open opposition in US society to war, persuades Johnson to end gradual  escalation, leads US and North Vietnam to finally open negotiations 


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