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Discussion 4 3 2 06 Question Set 1 For All Groups Properties of Sounds some repeated from last week Answer the following questions about the sounds of English a What are all the nasal consonants of English b What property do the following sounds have in common k g 13 c Describe the way the following sounds are made 7 what they have in common and what distinguishes them 6 6 d Are there any consonants that may never occur at the beginning of a word in English If so what are they e Are there any consonants that may never occur at the end of a word of English If so what are they f Which is the highest front vowel g Which vowels are never rounded h Which is the lowest back vowel Question Set 2 Pronunciation Orthography Spelling and Transcription A Can you read these right the first time Explain any problems you may have had Provide a phonetic transcription of the two forms of each 1ricky word a We must polish the Polish furniture b He could lead if he would get the lead out c When shot at the dove dove into the bushes d I did not object to the object Question Set 3 Pronunciation Orthography Spelling and Transcription B Can you read these right the first time Explain any problems you may have had Provide a phonetic transcription of the two forms of each 1ricky word e A seamstress and a sewer fell down into a sewer line f To help with planting the farmer taught his sow to sow g The wind was too strong to wind the sail h Upon seeing the tear in the painting I shed a tear Question Set 4 Transcription Practice 1 Transcribe the following words using the symbols of the IPA Please note if different members of your group have somewhat different pronunciations If so try to transcribe each pronunciation Remember to transcribe the words as you say them in every day speech a craft g r1c b health h vague c oven i question d bottom j exit e angel k thought f voice 1 price Question Set 5 Transcription Practice 2 Transcribe the following words using the symbols of the IPA Please note if different members of your group have somewhat different pronunciations If so try to transcribe each pronunciation Remember to transcribe the words as you say them in every day speech a beige g thunder b unit h sugar c through i cheese d sighed j frog e joined k church f baby 1 paddle Sounds in Human Language Do NOT trust English spelling It is often very misleading Bernard Shaw on English spelling Q How is the word ghoti pronounced in English A fish gh in laugh tough etc o in women ti in nation creation etc Two Basic Areas in Phonetics 1 Acoustic Phonetics Studies acousticphysicalperceptual properties of sounds used in human language 2 Articulatory Phonetics Studies the mechanism of sound productions in human language It turns out that almost all the relevant properties that govern sound organization in language come from the articulatory domain Hence we only cover 2 in this class Only the sounds made between your lungs and lips are used in language Basics 1 Air is coming out of your lungs It is called egressive pulmonic airstream Note Some languages very few use ingressive airstream You can talk after all even when you are sucking air in 2 If airstream comes out undisturbed it is just breathing Humans make a variety of ways to disturb this airstream which lead to different sounds 3 The airpassage above the larynx Adam s apple area is the place where this disturbance takes place This part of the body is called vocal tract Phonetics Consonants 1 Parameters for Consonant Categorization ln producing consonants we make complete or near complete closure in some point of our vocal tract so that flow of the airstream gets disturbed or alternated A Place of Articulations B Manner of Articulations C Voicing D Nasality 2 Places of Articulation English Consonants in Phonetic Alphabets A Bilabial Both Lips p as in peel b as in beer m as in meat B Labio dental Lower lip and teeth f as in feel v as in veal C lnterdental Teeth and tongue 6 as in thing 6 as in that D Alveolar Alveolar ridge and tongue t as in tea d as in deal s as in seal 2 as in zeal n as in neck I as in luck r as in rock E Palatal Hard palate and tongue I as in shoot 5 as in measure tj as in check d3 as in judge i as in yeast F Velar Velumsoft palate and tongue k as in cool g as in goal r1 as in thing w as in weak G Gottal Glottis h as in heat 7 as in button in American English 3 Manners of Ariticulation A Stops Complete closure at some point of the vocal tract The airstream is blocked and when it is released it often puffs out P b m t d n k 9 n B Fricatives Near complete closure is made so that the airstream is obstructed from flowing freely causing friction T V 9 5 8 Z I 3 C Affricates Complete closure followed by gradual release of the airstream ie stop fricative ti d5 D Liquids Some disturbance in the airstream but not much to cause constriction or friction I r E Glides Even less disturbance In this sense their sound quality is a lot like vowels that s why they are sometimes called semin vowels but unlike vowels they cannot be the center of a syllable y W 4 Voicing Whether the vocal cord is vibrated or not Voicedi b m V 5 d D Z I r 3 d3 i 9 U W Voiceless all the other consonants 5 Nasality When the uvula is raised and blocks the entrance to the nasal cavity the airstream goes through the oral cavity only When it is not raised and some part of the vocal tract is closed the airstream goes through the nasal cavity Nasal n m in Oral all the other consonants Vowels 1 Parameters of Vowel Categorization A How high is the tongue HighMidLow B What part of the tongue FrontCentralBack C What shape of the lips RoundedUnrounded With English vowels C doesn t mean much because high back and mid back vowels are automatically rounded and no other vowels are rounded Front Central back i I e S 9 A a Yellow parts are rounded High and mid vowels have two vowels each How do we distinguish them Tense vs Lax Tense Vowels i u e o Lax Vowels I U 2 o Ling 101 3112008 Satoshi Tomioka Morpholoogy Structure of Words Words are not the smallest units that carry meaning logic logic a logic a y il logic a il logic a y logic ian logic ian s The smallest meaningful unit in language is called a morpheme There are subtypes of morphemes Free Morpheme A morpheme which can be a word by itself logic Bound Morpheme A morpheme which cannot be a word by itself cal il ian s Types of Morphological Structure 1 Affixation A root or sometimes called a stem is the part of a word which cannot be analyzed into smaller parts and constitutes the central meaning of the word A Root Suffix A suffix is a bound morpheme that occurs after the root of a word logic cal L J L J root suffix logic cal ly L J L J LJ root suffix suffix B Prefix Root A prefix is a bound morpheme that occurs before the root of a word dis like L J L J prefix root C Ro lnfix ot An infix is a bound morpheme that occurs in the middle of the root of a word English doesn t seem to have any Bontoc fikas strong fumikas to be strong kilad red kumilad to be red fusul enemy fumusul tobeanenermy f um ikas LJ L J L J ro infix ot 2 Compounds Compounds are words which consist of two free morphemes blackboard greenhouse earring 0 Stress falls on the first morpheme grinhaws vs grinh ws O The second morpheme corresponds to the type of object or action the whole word refers to greenhouse is a kind of structure not kind of green Internal Structure of Words logic logic a logic a y Model 1 Flat Structure logically l logic a y Fact y is almost always attached to an adjective and creates an adverb eg honestIy sadly Model 2 Hierarchical Structure logically adv logical adj y adj a adv logic noun a nounaadj The following sentence is ambiguous My pants are unzippable In one reading I am in trouble and in the other lam not A similar ambiguity is found in This Ken doll is undressable 1 How does this ambiguity come about 2 Why are some of unable words not ambiguous Eg unbelievable unpredictable The two types of the prefix un Un Adjective un means not certain a uncertain not certain conscious a unconscious not conscious pleasant a unpleasant not pleasant Un Verb un means do the reverse action of button a unbutton do the reverse action of buttoning load a unload do the reverse action of loading cover a uncover do the reverse action of covering Back to unzippable Two possible internal structures for unzippable unzippable adj not possible to zip un not zippable adj possible to zip zip verb abe possible to unzippable adj possible to unzip unzip verb unzip able possible to un zip verb do the opposite of Unbelievable and unpredictable are not ambiguous because unbelieve and unpredict are not words or stems Exercise Can you think of a morpheme in English which has the following characteristics 1 A suffix attached to a noun and creates a verb 2 A suffix attached to a verb and creates a noun 3 A suffix attached to an adjective and creates a verb 4 A suffix attached to a verb and creates an adjective 5 A prefix attached to an adjective and means not 6 A prefix attached to a verb and means not 7 A prefix attached to a verb or a noun and means prior before 8 A prefix attached to a verb an adjective or a noun and means against Morphology and Phonology ln phonology we have learned that l The same underlying sound Le a phoneme can surface in more than one phonetic form ie an allophone 2 The conditions on allophonic variations are often very local The neighboring sounds immediately precedding or following or both are the usual suspects Fact Morphological operations often create a new phonological environment It is like a new neighbor is moving next door to you S1 S2 83 84 85 L J L J morpheme morpheme In this structure 83 and S4are new neighbors Hence we should expect to see some phonological alternations in morphologically complex structures English past tense formation ed pronounced as d played plejd pulled pUld feared erd robbed rabd lived lIVd washed waft watched wa t missed mIst sipped stt pronounced as ed wanted wanted needed nided putted peted Rule d becomes t when it is preceded by a voiceless sound except a alveolar stop ed when it is preceded by a alveolar stop d otherwise Allophonic variants of a morpheme are called allomorphs FYI The appearance of e in the second allomorph is the result of dissimilation The vowel is inserted to break down the succession of two very similar sounds Ling 101 Satoshi Tomioka Synchronic Language Variations 1 Dialects 11 Basics How do dialects come about Language Community A a separation amp isolation Community A Community A i language change speak dialect A speaks dialect A 0 Separation can be geographical or social 0 Language changes all the time but no two languages change identically Q When do dialects stop being dialects and become different languages A No easy answer One possible criterion Mutual understandability A and B are dialects of the same language if and only if speakers of A and speakers of B can understand each other This criterion doesn t do too well High German speakers barely understand Swiss German Shanghai Chinese is hardly understandable for Mandarin speakers while Dutch speakers can understand Flemish spoken in Belgium fairly well One cynical criterion A language is a dialect with an army Some Properties of Dialects 1 Everybody speaks a dialect 2 Standard language eg Standard English is a dialect too 3 Linguistically speaking there are no inferior or superior dialects 4 Dialects can be regional social or ethnic 5 One can be a speaker of more than one dialect But not to be confused with registers variations within one individual speaker 6 Dialects differ in terms of phonology morphology syntax semantics and vocabulary 7 Some languages may have influences of other languages to be discussed on Wednesday 12 Regional Dialects It is a bit difficult to define regional dialects in the US because of their social and ethnic diversity Phonological Differences Bostonian Dialect Omit r in places where other dialect pronounce and put r where other dialects don t Examples car ka2 bar ba2 board bo2d law of 1a2rev Asia is eglerlz Vocabulary Differences lsogloss A line which separates regions depending on how one object or abstract concept is expressed Language Contact 1 Lingua Franca Many area in the worlds are inhabited by diverse linguistic population people with different languages In such areas one language is often used for commercialsocial purposes Such a language is called lingua franca Swahili in East Africa Hausa in Nigeria Urdu in Pakistan And of course English in many parts of the world 2 Pidgins Instead of having a lingua franca sometimes a new language is created which has smaller number of lexical items and less complex grammar This kind of marginal language is called pidgin Properties of pidgins 1 Their vocabulary and structure are based on one language of the multiple contact languages 2 It is rudimentary the vocabulary is rather limited and its grammar not as complex This is because the purpose of using a pidgin is or was at least at the beginning very narrow 3 Variability among speakers is much greater in pidgins than in ordinary languages 4 Noticeable influences of the local languages 5 Nevertheless pidgins do have some rulegoverned aspects just like any other ordinary language Tok Pisin Spoken in Melanesia in the Pacific Based on English There are more developed versions of Tok Pisin than others The result of creolization our next topic 3 Creoles Creolization of pidgins Children of pidginspeaking parents learn the pidgin as their first language As a result native speakers of that pidgin come into existence This process is creolization Many pidgins have turned into creoles Creoles of the World Properties of creoles 1 Their vocabulary and structure are based on one language of the multiple contact languages 2 Much smaller variability among speakers 3 Completely rulegoverned The grammar is not identical to its source language 4 Noticeable influences of the local languages However read the file on Creole to see more recent theories of creolization particularly on creolization without pidgin stages 1 African America Vernacular English AAVE The most recent Standard View AAVE started as a pidgin spoken among Africans brought into the US It has eventually become creolized It now has its own grammar which is distinct from Standard English For the alternative 39Dialect of English39 View and the debate between the two hypotheses read File 105 Spoken primarily but not limitedly in the inner city areas The reading It bees dat waysometime Sounds and structure of present day black English by Geneva Smitherman library 11 Phonology of AAVE nitia 9 9 d them 92m 9 dam A phonological rule voiced interdental fricatives 9 alveolar stop Diphthong simplification 0 all 9 0 a nice najs boy39 boj 9 Reserved in the main when bo 9 nas 12 Syntax of AAVE Be deletion vs HabitualFuture be He tired He is tired right now He be tired He is habituallyusually tired or He will be tired He be tired tomorrow He will be tired tomorrow Aspectual done and been He been gone a year He done been gone a year He has been gone a year I done my homework today I did my homework today Done strongly implicates completion of the event whereas Standard English past tense doesn t necessarily have such an implicature 2 Variations within One Speaker Variations within a single speaker are called styles or registers lnformal StyleRegister Slang words often indicate that the informal style is being employed Phonologybased Slang formation Cockney Rhyming Slang Examples We want a couple of Britney here Don t give me that Brad The rules 1 Who is the most famous Britney 2 What word rhymes with that Other examples Ooooh my toms are clicking We had a good steffi What s on the liza tonight Anything interesting Two pints of winona please If you wanna get into that club you d better go there liz I ve read this captain I don t have no scooby The other type A small drop of fine will do for me Rule 1 What is the most common conjunction with fine 2 What word rhymes with the second conjunct The other examples of this type I ve been on my biscuits all day Had a bit of posh with her last night I m taking my trouble dancing tonight MORPHOLOGY 1 Morphology study of the structure of words happy 1 bit of meaning whappy 2 bits of meaning happily 2 bits of meaning whappily 3 bits of meaning You must know parts of speech noun verb adjective adverb 2 Morphemes basics 21 Morphemes smallest units of meaning happy un ly un happi 1y r ot ffixe Root morpheme bearing central meaning of word A ixes morphemes that are added to a rootstem and modify its meaning in a particular way Pre x 7 af x that comes before the root e g un Su ix 7 af x that comes alter the root e g 71y 3 How do we identify morphemes 31 Basic mechanism Look for repeated forms with the same meaning or function e g whappy eriendly usual safe We can identify morpheme pre x which has the meaning of negative when added to an adjective e g walks carries runs analyzes We can identify the morpheme su ix 7swhich has the lnction of marking the 3rd person singular form of a verb eg happiness unhappiness rudeness kindness The morpheme su ix iness is added to an adjective resulting in a noun with the meaning of the quality of Adj Review Singular Plural lst Pers I we 2quotd Pers you you 3rd Pers he she it they 32 Dividing a word into morphemes e g rewashability developmentally dishwashers Note sometimes the spelling will change a bit when morphemes are combined with each other 4 Types of Affixes Pre xes pre x root Suf xes root su ix In xes r in x oot Circum xes circum root Q 41 In x af x inserted within a root Example Bontoc language of the Philippines See FR p 79 42 Circum x af x placed simultaneously before and alter a root Example Chickasaw language of Oklahoma See FR p 80 43 Types of morphemes 7 free bound FREE BOUND some roots all affixes e g un ly s eg happy cat run some roots eg luke warm receive Mable 5 Morphological Rules Rules 7 part of competence knowledge of word structure of language Descriptive rule how words are formed NOT prescriptive rules 51 Word Formation Rules WFRs A ixation root plus af xes Derivation adds meaning content o en changes part of speech eg happy happiness imagin able ir Q plac itl yellow Q Inflection 7 adds grammatical content never changes part of speech only suffixes in English egbook s want g1 read ing so g long est Compounding combining roots eg bluebird grandmother tree house blackberry huckleberry pickpocket Head of a Compound the core meaning of the compound is a condition bluebird bluebird is a bird blackberry cat sh dishwasher pickpocket scare crow Types of compounds Endocentric Compounds 7 head is one of the members of the compound Exocentric Compounds 7 head is NOT part of the compound itself but is only understood e g pickpocket 6 Identifying Morphemes and WFRs in Other Languages Same procedure as in English Look for morphemes root af xes ie repeated forms with the same meaning Determine what type of affixes you nd Determine the part of speech of the root and the part of speech of the result alter the WFR applies 7 Classes of words Open Class Items 7 words of this type may easily be added to the vocabulary N V Adj Adv Closed Class Items 7 words of these types may NOT be added to the vocabulary Pronoun Preposition Article Conjunction 8 Word formation rules W FRs X Y part of speech 81 Types ofWFRs X suf x 9 Y pre x X 9 Y circumX X9 Y in xation just write the rule in words eg infiX is placed a er rst C of the root compounding X Y 9 Z usually Z is the same as Y in English 82 Example unhappiness Divide the word into its morphemes un happi ness Determine the part of speech of the root adjective Look for several similar examples of each of the af xes you have identi ed ness sadness kindness friendlyness brightness un unfriendly unkind un usual uncommon Determine what part of speech results from adding each af x ness makes a noun un makes an adjective Write the WFRs Adj ness 9 N un Adj Adj 9 Representing Word Structure Show the hierarchical structure of words 7 order of alTixation of individual morphemes 91Bracket Notation Enclose root in brackets with part of speech labeled using a subscript Add alTiX that attaches directly to the root enclose in brackets with label Add alTiX that attaches to the new combination enclose in brackets with label Continue until all the af xes of the word are included eg un happylAdjnesslN1Adj 92 Word Tree Structure Write root and label it with part of speech Write rst af x and connect it to the root by drawing lines up to a node Label the node with the part of speech of the combination of root and af x Continue until all the af xes of the word are included e g ADJ ADJ un happy ness Question How do we know which af x to add rst Answer You need to be able to add all the affixes according to their WFRs Usually one order of af xation will work and the others won t E g un happi ness Above we added un rst and the structure worked out ne If we add iness rst which is possible since ness attaches to Adj we cannot then add fun since it needs to attach to an Adj The attachment of iness creates a Noun and thus fun can no longer be attached We are unable to complete the structure of the whole word Structure of a compound 7 combination of two roots Indicate the part of speech of each root then join the two roots together and label the part of the word that results from this combination eg blueberry WFR Adj N 9 N Bracket Structure blueADJ berryN N Tree Structure N ADJ N blue berry 10 Productive vs Unproductive WFRs 101 Productive Rules active in the language can be used to regularly create new words eg Adj 1y 9 Adv happill unusualll new Adjective rovous 9 rovouslv Some other productive WFRs in English V ed 9 V N N 9 102 Unproductive Rules not active in the language cannot be used to regularly create new words eg Adj th 9 N warmwarmth broadbreadth longlengm V N 9 N pickpocket scarecrow BUT cool th 9 coolm narrow th 9 narrowth drivetruck eatme at l l Allomorphy Allomorphs variant forms of a morpheme In English the Plural morpheme can be pronounced in three ways s z oz Consider the distribution of these sounds below 3z dishoz classoz watchoz etc s coats rocks giraffes etc z dogz carz dunez beez etc Generalization 3z is found alter the natural class of sibilants hissing sounds s z j 3 tj d3 s is found alter the natural class of voiceless consonants but not sibilants z is found in all other environments elsewhere The variant of a particular morpheme that is used elsewhere is the one we consider to be the underlying form of that morpheme like the allophone in the elsewhere environment in phonology is considered to be the underlying phoneme Thus in English the underlying allomorph variant of the plural morpheme is z Note curly brackets are used to indicate morphemes We can formulate the morphological rules for plural formation in English as follows Word Formation Rule plural formation N s 9 N Allomorphy Rules 2 9 az sibilant i z 9 s VOICELESS C i z 9 z elsewhere 12 Competence and Performance Mental Lexicon Morphemes Z dag 5 klzes sak oz Morphological Rules Allomorphs dogz klzesaz saks Practice Formulate the relevant WFRS and show bracketing and word trees for the following rewashable indistinguishable irregularities mouse trap highway Discussion 2 2 16 06 Question Set 1 Orthography Spelling Everyone would probably agree that English spelling is not a simple matter That s probably why spelling bees are popular Why do you think English orthography is so hard What do you think leads to the difficulties What do you consider some of worst problems in English orthography In Italian most letters correspond directly and clearly to speci c sounds so children learn to spell correctly very quickly In this language there s no use in having spelling bees Consider Spanish and French or other languages you have studied Do you think children learn to spell these languages quickly like Italian or with more difficulty like English Explain why Do you think spelling bees would be useful and popular for these languages Explain why Question Set 2 Slower vs Faster Speech We all speak at different rates at different times Each rate of speech has somewhat different characteristics Say the following words and phrases is a slow careful way and then in some faster and more casual ways Listen closely and observe any differences you might hear at the different rates of speech Try to describe and explain the differences Words and Phrases a information b potatoes c Invite a friend d He has to leave e What about it I What did you say Question Set 3 Linguistics and the Biology Metaphor We have discussed in lecture that linguists examine language in a way that is like the way a biologist looks at an organism under a microscope Can you think of any other ways in which the study of language and linguistics might be similar to study of biology Some ideas to think about a disappearance of habitats and species that live in them b differences in appearance of a particular species in one location vs another location e g blue jays have slightly different feather colors in NY vs DE c differences in the song of a particular type of bird in different locations d family trees branches relationships histories Any other ideas you can come up with Question Set 4 Decline in the World s Languages The number of languages spoken throughout the world is rapidly declining How many reasons for this can you think of Explain Would you say it is better to have a lot different languages spoken throughout the world or for everyone to end up speaking just one or a few different languages throughout the world Explain Is it useful for linguists to get information about as many languages as possible or is it the same if we just get information about a few of the major languages of the world Explain What would a linguist need to do to get information about languages that are rapidly dying out Question Set 5 Linguistic Competence What is the difference between competence and performance as linguists see these concepts From the perspective of linguistics a Would people who are talented writers e g novelists poets have more linguistic competence than the average person b Would talented actors have better performance skills than the average person c Explain There are still some relatively primitive societies in different locations throughout the world People in such societies don t know about many of the scienti c and technical concepts that we take for granted in our culture Do these people have less advanced linguistic competence andor performance than we do Explain Introduction part 2Languages ofthe World 1 How many languages are there Data and materials below from ethnologuecom and krysstalcom These are great websites 7 look at them for additional information Problems counting languages 0 Remote locations need linguists to go to all locations languages are dying out determining what counts as a language 0 Language vs Dialect how to count Decision is often politicalsocial rather than linguistic Eg Croatian and m linguistically very closely related however a often written in different scripts b spoken in what have recently been established as different countries c spoken by people of different religions Croatian Catholic Serbian Orthodox Thus they are considered different languages for politicalsocial reasons Language Estimate 2003 0 See separate item languagemap 0 Total number of languages in the world was estimated to be 6809 150 200 languages are spoken by more than a million people 90 of total languages are spoken by fewer than 100000 people 357 languages fewer than 50 speakers as of 2003 Oambap language Central Cameroon 30 speakers language Bolivian Andes 20 speakers M language northern Australia 4 speakers Atotal of 46 languages have just ONE speaker 10 Most Widely Spoken Languages i 7 7 7 Speakers Rank Language Family 1 Scripts Used Millions Where Spoken Major 1 Mandarin Sin lChinese Characters 885 China Malaysia Taiwan T1betan 739 ilndo if South America Central 2 SpamSh European Latm 332 America Spain ndo USA UK Australia 3 EnghSh European iLatm 322 Canada New Zealand 10 Arabic Afro Mddle East Arabia North iArabic 235 Asiatic Africa Indo Bengali lBengali 189 Bangladesh Eastern India European Hindi I do Devanagari 182 North and Central India European Portuguese Indo Latin 170 Brazil Portugal Southern European A 1ca Russian In Cyrillic 170 Russia Central Asia European Chinese Characters Japanese Altaic and 2 Japanese 125 Japan Alphabets German In 0 Latin 98 Germany Austria Central European Europe 2 Language Families 0 See separate item languagefamilies 0 Facts about some Language Families over 100 lang families in the world Note underlined languages in following lists are spoken by your TAs The IndoEuropean Family Most widely studied lang family family with the largest number of speakers Langs include English Spanish Portuguese French Italian Russian Serbian Greek Hindi Bengali classical langs Latin Sanskrit Persian The SineTibetan Family Important Asian family of languages that includes the world39s most spoken language Mandarin These languages are monosyllabic and tonal The MalayoPolynesian Family Lang family consisting of over 1000 langs spread throughout Indian and Pacific Oceans and S E Asia Langs include Malay Indonesian Maori Hawaiian 0 Example Indo European Languages mont English month French mois Dutch maand Spanish mes German Monat Portuguese mes Swedish manad Italian mese Welsh mis Polish miesiac Gaelic mi Russian myesyat Greek minas Lithuanian menuo Farsi mah Albanian muaj Hindi mahina o NonIndoEuropean Languages mont Arabic AfroAsiatic Family shahr Finnish Uralic Family kuukausi Basque Independent hilabethe Turkish Altaic Family ay Malay MalaoPolynesian Family bulan Zulu NigerCongo Family inyanga Mandarin SinoTibetan Family yue Kannada Dravidian Family timgalu Vietnamese AustroAsiatic Family thang Cherokee Iroquoian Family iyanvda 3 Universality Language structure determined by human biology brain articulators muscles same throughout the human species There is NO such thing as primitive language even in cultures that are not advanced in technology the languages still share the basic linguistic properties of all other human languages the absence of vocabulary items e g for scientific or technological concepts does not affect the basic underlying linguistic structures and mechanisms of a language Discussion 1 2 9 06 Question Set 1 Descriptive Grammar vs Prescriptive Grammar What is the difference between prescriptive and descriptive grammar Give illustrations of each Which are English teachers and which are linguists interested in Explain why there is this difference Do you think one of the approaches is more useful or more valid than the other one Explain Question Set 2 Dialects What do we mean by dialect What are some examples of dialect differences thing about things like sentence structures pronunciations word usage Some associate different stereotypes with different dialects What might be some examples of this Do you think there is any support for the stereotypes associated with different dialects Explain Question Set 3 Languagesaccents of others Does it help when speaking to a foreigner to speak louder than usual Does this help Do you think some foreign accents more appreciated than others consider such accents as British English French Spanish Chinese etc Why do you think this is Is this a good thing or not Explain Do you speak any other languages If so do you have an accent How do you think it is regarded Question Set 4 Natural Language FRl6 What do the barking of dogs the meowing of cats and the singing of birds have in common with human language What are some of the basic differences FRl8 Suppose you taught a god to heel sit up roll over play dead stay jump and bark on command using the italicized words as cues Would you be teaching it language Why or why not FRl7 A wolf is able to able to express subtle gradations of emotion by different positions of the ears lips and the tail There are eleven postures of the tail that express such emotions as selfconfidence confident threat lack of tension uncertain threat depression defensiveness active submission and complete submission This system seems to be complex Suppose that there were a thousand different emotions that the wolf could express in this way Would you then say a wolfhad a language similar to a human s If not why not Deedmem Prdddeed Edy deekPDF Unregistered hl tpiMWWd UdeSK m Question Set 5 Linguistic Knowledge and Competence Does the brain store all the sentences of a language Does someone who is very eloquent have more linguistic competence than others Do some languages have more sentences than others FR15 Consider these two statement I learned a new word today I learned a new sentence today Do you think the two statements are equally probable and if not why not Deedmenr Prdddeed Edy deekPDF Unregistered hdpzrWwwdeeddeekeern Discussions 4 13 06 Question Set 1 Word Structure all groups For each of the words below provide the following information Words a identify all the morphemes b tell if the morphemes are roots pre xes suffixes c in the case of affixes tell if they are derivational or in ectional d write the necessary WFRs Word Formation Rules and give 2 additional examples for each to show it is a general rule e show the bracket structure for the word f show the tree structure for the word remodernization disentanglements Question Set 2 Data Analysis all groups Consider the following data from the Fore language of Papua New Guinea and answer the questions below on the basis of these data Notes in ectional affixes in many languages are o en translated as separate words in Data natuwi nagasuwi nakuwi l 2 3 4 nataani 5 6 7 English the past present and lture tenses are indicated in the English translations with yesterday today and tomorrow respectively dual is a type of special plural form used in some languages referring to only TWO there is always another plural in such language which refers to more than two I ate yesterday 8 natuni we ate yesterday I ate today 9 nagasuni we ate today 10 nagasusi we dual ate today 1 l nakuni I will eat tomorrow you ate yesterday we will eat tomorrow nataanaw you ate yesterday 12 nakusi we dual will eat tomorrow nakiyi he will eat tomorrow 13 nataawi they ate yesterday nakiyaw he will eat tomorrow 14 nataasi they dual ate yesterday Questions a Identify the Fore morphemes corresponding to the following English meanings 41 WW 4they O V he we dual they dual eat present lture past What morphemes mark Questions Statements Specify the order in which morphemes appear in the word structures of Fore refer to general morpheme types personal pronouns question statement markers verbs tense How would you say the following items in Fore He ate yesterday They dual will eat They ate to day Question Set 3 Allomorphy all groups Consider the following words of English and answer the questions below m inadequate inelegant inactive intolerable indecent innumerable impossible improbable immature i1jcorrect i1jcomplete i1jcompetent illogical illegal illegitimate irregular irresponsible irreplaceable 3 Questions a Each of these words contains a negative morpheme List the different allomorphs this morpheme exhibits and for each one tell in what context it is found Refer to natural classes whenever possible b What is the underlying morpheme Why c What is the WFR for the negative morpheme in question d How would you write the allomorphy rules for this negative morpheme Data Set 4 Allomorphy in other language all groups Consider the following words of MalayIndonesian and answer the questions below Data bawa bring mambawa bringing dapat get mandapat getting galjgu bother maljgaljgu bothering doro 13 push mandorolj pushing ambil take maljambil taking bwat do mambwat doing utS ap say maljut 3 ap saying a Each of these words contains a morpheme with the meaning of present tense or ing in English List the diiTerent allomorphs this morpheme exhibits and for each one tell in what context it is found Refer to natural classes whenever possible b What is the underlying morpheme Why c What is the WFR for the morpheme in question d How would you write the allomorphy rules for this morpheme Animal Communication Language or else 1 The Emergence of Human Language It seems that key component of this language ability is focused in the left hemisphere of the human brain and a specific gene called protocadherinXY FOXP2 is claimed to play a crucial role in this languagecapacity It is possible that a freak mutation in a single male member of early Homo sapiens about 100000150000 years ago was responsible for an evolutional jump according to the study by Dr Tim Crow A specific mutation outlined by Crow is one that widened the gulf between the two hemispheres of the human brain a gap that freed one half to take over and develop the power of speech 2 Human Language vs Animal Communication Q Are the differences categorical or gradient Bantam Chickens Go to Dr Chris Evans Animal Behaviour Lab s website httpgalliformbhsmgeduau and check out different alarm calls of bantamsl The bantams also show Audience Effects alarm calls are less frequent when no other bantams are around When the recorded alarms are played in front of other bantams they do respond to them accordingly The bantams two calls trigger two clearly different responses meaning that the alarm calls are conventionalized to some extent Honey Bees Go to North Carolina States University s Entomology Department s web and see the dance yourself Read the following web page which has a comprehensive introduction to the bee dance At the end of the page there is a great demonstration httpwwwcalsncsueduentomologyapicultureDance languagehtml Alex the Parrot See Alex do amazing stuff in the video If you missed it at the lecture please let me know I can lend you a copy In addition to what we see in the video Alex also practices while alone Pepperberg recorded all Alex s vocalizations each evening after the trainers had left Included in the monologues were words that his trainers had been teaching during the day but that he had never spoken before This pattern parallels with human children s behavior at the preverbal stage Rico the dog He knows about 200 words and the names of each toy in his hundredstrong collection and can retrieve items called out to him with over 90 accuracy The video that we saw shows his talent when he encounters a new word 3 A Big Question Still not answered satisfactorily Are the differences between human language and animal communication categorical or gradient Phonology Notes cont d 4 Phonological Rules Part of Competence knowledge of language express a generalization or pattern of speci c sounds in a language 41 Illustration English Recall from the phonetics chapter 7 In English t is pronounced as t h a at beginning of a word and b at beginning of stressed syllable t is pronounced as t elsewhere Remember this is true of all voiceless stops of English p t k State the generalization to cover all the cases Phonological Rule Voiceless stops are pronounced as aspirated a at the beginning of a word b at the beginning of a stressed syllable They are pronounced as unaspirateal in all other contexts elsewhere phonemes allophones Competence vs Performance in Phonology ph th kh 7 beginning of word beginning of stressed syllable p t k 7 elsewhere pIn ston CD spIn ton kIn skIn CD phonological PERFORMANCE Speech output aplication phIn spIn thon ston khIn skIn L V 43 More on Phonological Rules P Rules should be as general as possible Refer to Natural Classes general categories groupings of sounds Examples stops voiceless stops vowels nasals fricatives etc Also Sononmts sounds made with spontaneous voicing nasals liquids glides vowels Obstruents sounds in which voicing contrasts stops fricatives affricates Choosing underlying representation phoneme Underlying Representation abstract representation of sound in the brain phoneme a 100k for simpler sound unmarked sound e g p is simpler than ph b 100k for most general sound sound in elsewhere environment e g ph is found at the beginning of a word or at the beginning of a stressed syllable p is found elsewhere more general 44 Formulating Phonological Rules Using words Eg In English the phoneme p is pronounced as the allophone ph when it is found at the beginning of a word or at the beginning of a stressed syllable it is pronounced as the allophone p elsewhere Using the Phonological Rule Formalism i e writing phonological rules General format of a phonological rule A 9 B C 7 D A underlying representation phoneme natural class of phonemes phonological features e g voiceless stops B phonetic form 7 pronunciation phone specifically allophone of A natural class of sounds phonetic features eg aspirated C and D context environment of the rule may be sounds natural classes of sounds phonological features or word boundary possibilities only C present only D present both C and D present 9 is pronounced as or becomes in the context environment i location of target sound NOTE In this class we will NOT use the features in the textbook you may skip pp 299300 instead we will refer to the phonetic properties of natural classes of sounds when we write phonological rules Phonological Analysis Kalaba Dialect AK from Pike K 1968 Phonemics sugki treachery giggi inside tuntu meanwhile pimon raccoon nusan to remember kuminu to leave kinki dry magkas stalk puggi bride mintu siXteen Question Are 11 and 1 are in complementary or contrastive distribution Step 1 First note whether there are any minimal pairs with n and 1 There are no minimal pairs so we cann0t immediately claim that these sounds are contrastive distribution Step 2 Identify the contexts of the sounds n and 1 Le context n Ri ht context u t u a o 1 u 1 t Repeat the same procedure for the other sound Le context 1 Right context ll g rmmrr Step 3 Compare the contexts of the sounds n and 1 We observe that 11 may occur in many different contexts but that 1 always occurs in two very specific contexts before k and g regardless of the vowel that precedes it We also observe that even though 11 occurs in a variety of contexts it NEVER occurs before k or g Thus we can say that n and 1 occupy different contexts i e 1 occurs only before k or g 11 occurs elsewhere ie in any context as long as it is NOT before k or g Step 4 Identify type of distribution Since 11 and 1 are in different contexts they are in complementary distribution Step 5 Are the sounds separate phonemes or allophones of one phoneme Since 11 and 1 are in complementary distribution they are allophones of the same phoneme We will choose n to be this phoneme underlying representation since it is more general 7 found in more varied contexts Step 6 Formulate the generalization We see that the velar nasal ie 13 is found precisely before the two velar stops ie k and g in the data Step 7 Write the phonological rule n 9 1 iCVaar n 9 n elsewhere PRACTICE Analeis ofP39 39 39 39 Data Try these on your own answers are given at the end so you can see if you have understood the problem Consider the following somewhat simpli ed data from Tagalog a language of the Philippines Focus on h and 9 a kahon box d fari property b hari39r king e ka r on to fetch c umagos to flow f humagos to paint 1 Are h and 9 in contrastive distribution complementary distribution or free variation Explain why 2 Are h and 9 allophones of the same phoneme or di erent phonemes Explain why Now consider some additional hypothetical data from Tagalog Focus on d and r a datir to arrive d marumi dirty b dami amount e daratiIJ will arrive c dumi dirt f datir often 3 Are d and r in contrastive distribution complementary distribution or free variation Explain why 4 Are d and r allophones of the same phoneme or di erent phonemes Explain why 5 If d and r are allophones of the same phoneme which is the underlying representation phoneme form Explain why 6 Write a phonological rule that accounts for the distribution of the different allophones Now consider some additional hypothetical data from Tagalog Focus on s and Z a dasi to ask d marusi far away b dami amount e daruzi far away 0 dazi to ask f marami many 7 Are s and Z in contrastive distribution complementary distribution or free variation Explain why Answers to Practice Phonologv Questions Ta alo Focus on h and 1 a kahon box d fari property b hari king e kaon to fetch c umagos to flow f humagos to paint 1 Are h and 9 in contrastive distribution complementary distribution or free variation Explain why Ans h and 1 are in contrastive distribution since there is a minimal pair with these two sounds kahon box and kaon to fetch 2 Are h and 9 allophones of the same phoneme or di erent phonemes Explain why Ans h and 1 are allophones of different phonemes since they are in contrastive distribution ie they are in the same context and they account for a distinction in meaning Now consider some additional hypothetical data from Tagalog Focus on d and r a datir to arrive d marumi dirty b dami amount e daratiIJ will arrive c dumi dirt f datir often 3 Are d and r in contrastive distribution complementary distribution or free variation Explain why Ans List showing contexts Le Right Le Right Before d After Before r After a note this occurs 4x no a u need to list it more than once a a u a d and r are in complementary distribution They occur in different contexts d always occurs at the beginning ofa word ie between on the left and a vowel on the right while r never does You could say r occurs elsewhere Alternatively you could mention the contexts as follows r always occurs after a while d never does You could say d occurs elsewhere 4 Are d and r allophones of the same phoneme or di erent phonemes Explain why Ans They are allophones ofthe same phoneme since they are in complementary distribution 5 If d and r are allophones of the same phoneme which is the underlying representation phoneme form Explain why Ans We would choose r for the underlying representation phoneme since it occurs in the elsewhere context This is if we use the rst answer to question 3 Alternatively if we use the alternative answer to question 3 we would say that d is the underlying representation phoneme since we indicated that it occurs in the elsewhere context 6 Write a phonological rule that accounts for the distribution of the different allophones Ans Using rst option r is underlying representation r 9 d ie r is pronounced as d at the beginning ofa word r 9 r elsewhere ie r is pronounced as r elsewhere Using second option d is underlying representation d 9 r a ie d is pronounced as r alter a d 9 d elsewhere ie d is pronounced as d elsewhere Now consider some additional hypothetical data from Tagalog Focus on s and Z a dasi to ask d marusi far away b dami amount e maruzi far away c dazi to ask 1 marami m ny 7 Are s and Z in contrastive distribution complementary distribution or free variation Explain why Ans s and z are in free variation since they both occur in the same contexts and do not give rise to meaning differences between the words ie dasi and dazi both mean to ask maruzi and marusi both mean far away Ling 101 Satoshi Tomioka May 6 2008 Language Acquisition Big questions How do we learn to speak The Logical Problem of Language Acquisition Chomsky s question Why is language acquisition so easy rapid and uniform How can children achieve what they achieve even when the stimuli they get are not rich More Specific Questions 1 When do children start speaking What kinds of developmental stage do they go through When do they complete the acquisition 2 When do they exhibit language differences 3 How much can instruction be helpful in children s acquisition of language 4 Is children s grammar simply an incorrect premature version of adults grammar 5 Why is learning a language more difficult in adulthood Stages of Language Acquisition 1 Prelinguistic Stages Babies make soundsnoises but The noises produced by the infants in all language communities sound the same O Such noises are completely stimulus controlled They are children s involuntary responses to hunger discomfort etc Experimental results show that O Children are responsive to phonetic differences which are not phonologically distinctive in their language For instance babies in an English speaking community like in the States respond to the pph distinction 2 Babbling State 0 The pitch intonation contour similar to the pattern spoken by adults 0 Not all babblings are stimulicontrolled 3 OneWord Stage One word One sentence Holophrastic What we think Brenda meant Hearing that car reminds me that we went on the bus yesterday No not on a bicycle Phonological Properties of One Word Stage 1 Phonological inventory still incomplete b k m d are there for example and ca aren t 2 Words they utter are mostly monosyllabic consisting of only one syllable and they tend to be open syllables ie an open syllable ends with a vowel 4 TwoWord Stage 0 Word 1 Word 2 Many possible semantic relations between the two words Daddy car Daddy has a car Subj Obj Daddy is in athe car Subj Locative PP lt s Daddy s car Possessor possessee Daddy and athe car Conjunction Phonological Properties 1 More sounds are added but still incomplete Often T a d such as dis for this 2 Syllable structures are more complex 5 Telegraphic Stage There is no observable Threeword Stage Once children go over two words they start making sentences with 3 or more words 0 Utterances become more sentencelike 0 Function words such as to in the is are are often missing 0 lnflectional morphology such as the plural s past tense ed are often missing But 0 The basic Phrase Structure Rules are already learnt Mommy talk cat Mommy is talking to athe cat Mommy cat talk VP a V NP VP a NP V No play this toy Don t play with this toy No play toy this NP a Det N NP a N Det 6 Towards Completion O lnflectional and derivational morphemes enter children s speech in a particular order The progressive ing is the first of the verbal morphology The prepositions on in come around the same time as ing Prepositions like behind above come later The present tense s enters next The past tense ed comes the last of the three verbal morphemes 0 Start learning transformational rules such as Whfronting and SubjAux inversion Theories of Language Acquisition 1 Is Instruction helpful Instruction though it may appear to be effective turns out to play a very minor role at best 2 Do Children learn language by imitating adults Unlikely Utterances produced by children are sometimes very different from those by adults How could they produce sentences that we never ever say to them Big question again How do we learn to speak The Logical Problem of Language Acquisition Chomsky s question Why is language acquisition so easy rapid and uniform How can children achieve what they achieve even when the stimuli they get are not rich More Specific Questions 1 When do children start speaking What kinds of developmental stage do they go through When do they complete the acquisition 2 When do they exhibit language differences 3 How much can instruction be helpful in children s acquisition of language 4 Is children s grammar simply an incorrect premature version of adults grammar 5 Why is learning a language more difficult in adulthood What is the main drive of language acquisition Active Construction of a Grammar Model aka Children as Little Grammarians Model Input data a Generalization a Constructing Grammar Discussion 6 3 23 06 Question Set 1 Data Analysis based on problem 3 in text p 330 You have already done the rst part of this problem Consider the following words from Korean and answer the questions about these data below 7 focus on the r and l sounds rupi ruby mul water kiri road pal leg saram person seul Seoul ir III mi name ilkop seven ratio radio ipalsa barber Note III is a high back unrounded vowel 7 it does not affect your analysis a Are there any minimal pairs with l and r in the data If so what are they b Are there any instances of free variation in the data If so what are they c In what contexts do you nd r and l d Based on what you just observed what type of distribution are r and l in for Korean e Are r and 1 separate phonemes in Korean or are they allophones of one phoneme f If r and l are allophones of the same phoneme what is this phoneme Explain g If r and l are allophones of the same phoneme write any phonological rules you need to express the pattern and account for the pronunciation of the correct allophones Question Set 2 Data Analysis Reconsider the Hebrew problem you did last time text p 335 12 State the contexts for the different sounds 7 as you did previously Look for any patterns in terms of natural classes If any of the sounds in question are in complementary distribution determine what would the underlying representation phonemes would be What rules would you need in order to arrive at the appropriate allophones in pronunciation Remember to refer to natural classes whenever possible Question Set 3 Data Analysis Reconsider the Southern Kongo problem you did last time text p 331 5 State the contexts for the different sounds 7 as you did previously Look for any patterns in terms of natural classes Since you are told that the two groups of sounds in question are in complementary distribution what would the underlying representation phoneme be What rules would you need in order to arrive at the appropriate allophones in pronunciation Remember to refer to natural classes whenever possible Question Set 4 Reconsider the Japanese problem you did last time text p 333 8 State the contexts for the different sounds 7 as you did previously Look for any patterns in terms of natural classes What is the underlying phoneme What are the allophones What rules would you need in order to arrive at the appropriate allophones in pronunciation Remember to refer to natural classes if necessary Question Set 5 Morphology Textbook p 109 2 Question Set 6 Morphology Textbook p 110 6 SYNTAX 1 Syntax 7 study of phrasesentence structure 11 Syntactic Rules rules for combining words into phrases sentences a Sentences are NOT random combinations of words e g The cow ate the grass The ate cow the grass ungrammatical structure b Syntactic Rules Phrase Structure Rules PS Rules i Generate ALL the grammatical sentences of a language and ii ONLY the grammatical sentences c Grammatical Sentences those sentences generated by our internalized rules of grammar syntax d Syntax 7 source of in nity infinite creativity 12 Syntax 7 descriptive rules a Not good school grammar prescriptive grammar eg It s I vs It s me b Not based on meaning e g Colorless green ideas sleep furiously Compare Large green toads jump quickly c Not dependent on truth e g George Washington is president of the US d Not based on whether you have heard the sentence before e g Tiny elephants usually have spotted tails e Not based on whether you understand the sentence e g The boy quickly in the house the ball found 13 Syntax 7 both Universal and Language Speci c Properties Some Universa s a sentences have a subject and a verb b words are combined into phrases in a systematic way c certain rules provide for an infmite number of grammatical sentences 132 Some Language Speci c Properties a the actual rules for constructing phrases b the word order in phrases c whether a subject is required in all sentences d whether a verb is required in all sentences 2 Types of Words Phrases 22 Words a Open Class Items Lexical Items content words N V Adj Adv b Closed Class Items Function Words small words Prepositions conjunctions articles etc 23 Phrases Phrasal Categories Note Sentences are composed of phrases NOT just individual words a NP Noun Phrase head 7 N b VP Verb Phrase head 7 V c PP Prepositional Phrase head 7 P d AP Adjective Phrase head 7 A 3 Syntactic Rules Phrase Structure PS Rules 3 1 Basic Sentence N V eg Sue ran PS Rule Sentence 9 Noun Phrase and V Phrase VP head N head V NP 9 N VP 9 V 3 2 Syntactic tree structure basic sentence S 9 NP VP NP 9 N VP 9 V S NP VP N V Sue ran 4 Noun Phrases a E ran b The girl ran NP Article N article Determiner PS Rule NP 9 Det N parentheses indicate optional element c The smart girl ran NP Det Adj N PS Rule NP 9 Det Adj N indicates any number possible A The smart girl ran d The smart short girl ran S VP Det Adj Adj N i7 lThe slmart slhort Igirl rim 4 l Digression l 7 NP constituency Question How do you know if you have a NP You must have a head Nounpronoun Then check string for constituency i e do you have a single NP constituent If you can replace a string of words with a single pronoun he she it they etc you have a NP constituent Examples Constituency Test The girlshe ran Constituency Test The smart girlshe ran Constituency Test The smart short girlshe ran 42 More NPs e The g39rl with glasses ran NP Det N PP Constituency Test The girl with glassesshe ran PS Rule NP 9 Det Adj N PP 43 Digression 2 7 Prepositional Phrases Head Preposition Preposition is always followed by a Noun Phrase PS PP 9 P NP ANY constituent that is a NP can appear within a PP 43 More NPs e The g39rl with glasses ran PS Rule NP 9 Det Adj N PP S Det N K P NP l V The girl with glaslses ran f The girl with glasses with gold rims ran She ran Question Do we need any additional PS Rules Answer NO i e The NP with glasses as its head contains another PP we already have the appropriate PS Rules for both the NP and the PP NP P NP PP NP Det N P N P Adj N V The girl with glasses with gold rims ran g She ran PS Rule NP 9 Pronoun S NP VP l l Pron V l l She ran 5 Verb Phrases 51 Building up the VP a She PS Rule VP 9 V b She loves owers V noun PS Rule VP 9 V NP S NP VP NP Pron V N l l l She loves owers 0 She loves the red owers S NP VP N Pron V Det Adj N She loves the red owers d She ran quickly Adverbs modify verbs Adv PS Rule VP 9 V NP Adv S IlaP Pron Adv She ran quickly e She ate the cake quickly VP verb noun phrase adverb NP VP m Pron V Det N Adv l l l She ate the cake quickly f She ate the cake with a fork quickly Ps Rule VP 9 v NP PP Adv S Pron V Det N P Det N Adv l l l l l l She ate the cake with a fork quickly 52 Practice She loves the red owers with yellow stripes N V P P NP P Adj N Pron V Det Adj N She loves the red owers with yellow stripes 53PracticeShe ate the cake with the icing quickly 3 NP Pron V Det N P Det N Adv l l She ate the cake with the icing quickly 6 Recursivity 9 In nity Definition the property by which a phrasal category can dominate material that includes itself NP can dominate a PP the PP dominates another NP this NP can dominate another PP the PP contains another NP etc 7 Recursivity is the property of syntax that results in infinity 7 ie an infinite number of possible sentences Recursivity is a property of ALL human languages Competence amp Performance 71 Schematic representation Girl ran the Mental Lexicon Phrase the word girl S tru ctur word shoe saw van word SPEECH grammatical sentences quotThe girl ran quotThe girl saw the shoe Shoe girl the saw 82 Competence vs Performance and the issue ofin nity Competence includes the rules that yield an infinite number of sentences While linguistic competence permits in nite sentences due to embedding we usually only produce relatively short sentences without much embedding This is due to limitations of our performance 9 Ambiguity 91 De nition ONE sentence or one word or phrase has TWO or more meanings 911 Lexical Ambiguity an individual word lexical item has 2 or more meanings She stood neat the bank place with money side of a river Would you like a M special plan to go out dried fruit 912 Structural Ambiguity individual words have the same meanings but there are two or more different syntactic structures possible with these words American history teachers teachers of American history American history teachers history teachers who are American The boy watched the girl with the binoculars watched with binoculars The boy watched the 1rl with the binocu rs the girl had binoculars N 92 Practice ambiguous sentence He chased the dog with the stick a meaning 1 he chased with the stick S NP VP NP PP i NP Pron V Det N P Det N He chased the dog with the stick b meaning 2 the dog had the stick S V PP NP e N P Det N Pron V D t He chased the dog with the stick 9 Embedded Sentences 91 Definition sentence that includes another sentence Example Sue knows that Mary loves cats sentence sentence Sue knows the fact the fact object of verb knows V NP Sue knows that Marv loves cats that Marv loves cats like the object of verb knows V VP 9 V 1CP1 PP Adv CP that sentence that complementizer PS Rule CP 9 Comp S S NPVP S NP VP CP S NP P m N V comp N V IL Sile kriows tliat Mary loves cais Practice Sue knows that Anne knows that Mary loves cats 10 Auxiliary verbs Aux 101 Two Aux in English to be to have Aux lnctions as a helping verb 7 NOT the main verb of a sentence Main verb only verb in the sentence Gloria is smart George l three cats 102 Auxiliary verb shows tensenumber there is a different main verb Martha E swimming They m already eaten 103 Location of the Auxiliary between the NP and the VP of the sentence PS Rule S 9 NP Aux VP NP VP NP VP l A vs l N A v N A x Adv l l l l l l l Martha swims quickly Martha was swimming quickly NP VP NP VP NP vs P N V Det N N Au Det N l l l l l l l l l They ate the cake They have eaten the cake 11 Transitive vs Intransitive Verbs 111 De nitions Transitive verbs 7 take an object Intransitive verbs 7 do not take an object 112 Ps Rule VP 9 V NP PP Adv Presence or absence of NP in this PS rule determines if a verb is a transitive 7 has an object or b intransitive 7 does NOT have an object AP NVP N V Sue slept DA Sue bought a car 12 Subcategorization Frames 121 Part of lexical entry ofa word in the brain ie lexical representation in mental lexicon Tells what type of structure MUST follow a given word sleep V 7 intransitive verb 7 NOTHING needs to follow V nd V 7 NP transitive verb 7 an NP MUST follow V put V i NP PP transitive verb with obligatory PP 7 both NP and PP MUST follow V Note Other constituents MAY follow each type of verb but the subcategorization frame indicates obligatory constituents Clara slept Clara slept the babyNp Clara slept in the chairpp Clara slept in the chairpp quietlyAdV Eugene found Eugene found a mouseN Eugene found a mouseN in the WOOdSpP Eugene found a mouseN in the woodspp with his friendpp Susan m Susan m the bookNp Susan m in her bagpp Susan he b00kNp in her bagpp Susan he b00kNp in her bagpp hastily Adv Susan m the b00kNp in her bagpp with trembling handspp PHONOLOGY 1 Phonology Abstract Study of Sounds Vs phonetics concrete knowledge of sounds Focus of phonology patterns of sounds competence knowledge of sounds patterns and functions of sounds transcription 11 Patterning of sounds Consider the following patterns of English at the beginning of a word we nd tip rip lipsip NOT mip accidental gap gip systematic gap at the beginning of a word we nd trip gip NOT ip accidental gap tlip systematic gap ip systematic gap 12 Functioning of sounds Fundamental issue is a distinction between two sounds corresponds to a distinction between meanings Eg English b Vs V distinguish meanings b as in ban bat robe V as in Van Vat roVe b and V phonemes 2 Phonology is language speci c Sounds that are phonemes in one language may not be phonemes in another language Compare English and Spanish 7 both haVe b and V In English b and V are separate phonemes Consider the lnction of b and V in Spanish my I go boj or Voj Both pronunciations haVe the same meaning In Spanish b and V do not lnction to distinguish meaning In Spanish b and V are Variants of pronunciation of the same phoneme allophones Thus the function of b and V in English and in Spanish is different 3 How do we know if 2 sounds correspond to two different phonemes or allophones of the same phoneme We must determine if they can distinguish the meanings of words 31 Identi cation of phonemes Look for minimal pairs pairs of words that differ in ONE sound only and have a difference in meaning eg ban vs van b 7 v pan vs pin ae I Phonemes are found in the same phonetic contexts they provide a distinction or contrast in meaning Thus Phonemes are in contrastive distribution 32 Identi cation of allophones No minimal pairs no distinction in meaning In English p and ph m distinguish meaning eg pot phat not pat spot spat not sphat They are NOT found in the same context ph at the beginning ofword p a er s Thus Allophones are in complementary distribution the two sounds complemen each other In English p and ph are NOT separate phonemes they are variants of the same phoneme allophones of the same phoneme That is the phoneme p has two variants allophones p and ph NOTE the same pattern holds for the other voiceless stops of English t 1d gtllt Compare the situation in Thai Thai paa forest phaa to split tam to pound tham to do kat to bite khat to interrupt In Thai p vs ph does distinguish meaning the same is true for the other voiceless stops Thus they are separate phonemes in Thai 33 Free variation note 7this is neither contrastive nor complementary distribution Sounds are in the same context but NO change in meaning Italian r alveolar trill B 7 uvular trill caro dear expensive karo kaBo puro pure puro puBo English either i68r ajaer alata dere do39ere economics Skenamlks ikenamlks 4 Phonological Rules Part of Competence knowledge of language express a generalization or pattern of speci c sounds in a language 41 Illustration English Recall from the phonetics chapter 7 In English t is pronounced as t h a at beginning of a word and b at beginning of stressed syllable t is pronounced as t elsewhere Remember this is true of all voiceless stops of English p t 1d State the generalization to cover all the cases Phonological Rule Voiceless stops are pronounced as aspirated a at the beginning of a word b at the beginning of a stressed syllable They are pronounced as unaspirateal in all other contexts elsewhere phonemes allophones ph th kh 7 beginning of word beginning of stressed syllable p t klt 13 t k 7 elsewhere 42 Competence vs Performance in Phonology CquotPETENCELinguistic kno edge Underlyingphonologicalrepres tations amp rules spIn ton kIn pIn ston skIn PERFORMANCE Speech output aplicat39on phIn spIn thon ston khIn skIn Introduction 1 Basic Concepts Linguistics scienti c study of language Language system of communication system of conventions Natural language language that develops automatically in humans Modes of natural language Oral spoken language main topic of study in this class Manual sign language ASL American sign lang Note We will NOT be concerned in this class with body language gestures Spoken vs Written language Spoken language natural system biologically determined develops automatically acquired 7 not learned Written language extra superimposed system culturally determined optional learned Note We will NOT be concerned in this class with written language 2 Linguistics as a scienti c study of language Descriptive study not a prescriptive study of language Biology metaphor look at language under a microscope observe in detail goals identify components of language organism understand how the various components lnction retain neutral attitude of observation Eg Biologist studying insects simply note color dimensions lnctioning of parts behavior not if you like the color if the insects are aesthetically pleasing if they should do something differently if it is good or bad etc Linguist studying languages simply note sounds words structures how the structures are used not if you like the sounds if they seem strange if they seem lnny if they should be used differently etc Crucial concept in linguistics we do not evaluate language 3 Generative grammar Noam Chomsky developer of theory of generative grammar Grammar linguistic knowledge sounds words phrases meanings representations in brain mental representation rules for producing grammatical speech Generative speakers generate or produce language by using their mental representations and their rules of grammar Results newnovel outputs speech linguistic creativity in nity Universality language structure determined by human biology brain articulators muscles are the same throughout human species NO such thing as primitive language 4 Linguistic Competence vs Linguistic Performance COMPETENCE LINGUISTIC KNOWLEDGE represe ntatio ns amp rules PERFORMANCE Speech 0 utp ut Think about this We can t store in nity in a nite brain Phonetics 1 Phonetics science of sounds also true of phonology Phonology organization lnction of sounds more abstract analysis of sounds Phonetics concrete study of sounds 7 types acoustic phonetics physical properties of sound waves articulatory phonetics how sounds are made articulated Focus in this course articulatory phonetics Articulatory apparatus phonetic transcription consonants and vowels of English diacritics some additional sounds tonestone languages 2 How speech sounds are made Air Stream Mechanism source of air for sounds Pulmonic Egressive Air Stream Mechanism English sounds most common across languages Pulmonic of the lungs Egressive going out Nonpulmonic Air Stream Mechanisms 7 found in other languages Pulmonic Ingressive implosives Velaric clicks Making speech sounds Air comes up from lungs goes out through oral and or nasal cavity Vocal cords either vibrate or do not as air comes out voiced vs voiceless sounds As air passes out various articulators assume dilTerent positions to make different vowel and consonant sounds 3 Alticulatory apparatus see diagram in text Spaces nasal cavity oral cavity Movable articulators lips tongue so palate velum uvula Fixed articulators teeth alveolar ridge hard palate Other pharynx larynx glottisvocal cords passage to lungs 4 Phonetic transcription Transcription system for writing down sounds Orthography spelling system Problems with Orthography for writing pronunciations of words most languages don t have orthography different symbols for same sound eg English f fill Phillip laugl1 different sounds have same symbol eg English s loose lose migion vision different languages use the same symbols for different sounds eg Italian che ke Spanish che tje some languages use nonalphabetic systems eg Chinese characters symbol does not represent sound at all Trick Question How do we pronounce the following word in English ghoti Answer like fish Explain why 5 IPA International Phonetic Alphabet 1 sound l symbol unambiguous system 7 not geared to any one language phonetic transcription English consonants IPA Symbols see list in FR inside the front cover English vowels IPA Symbols see list in FR inside front cover English diphthongs IPA Symbols see list in FR inside front cover Diphthong vowel sound that changes articulation between beginning and end of sound 6 Additional Phenomena in English 61 Flap r in certain cases t and d may be pronounced as a ap I water lager sitting leader lager da y When is the I used Between 2 vowels when the first is stressedaccented eg water daddy V 7 V stressed Note aps may also be found between words in a phrase get it did I 62 Aspiration Diacritic symbol Ch consonant with superscript h certain p t k are pronounced as aspirated ie certain voiceless stops are pronounced as aspirated pill phll till 9 11 13m 1311 apend othsnd appear ophir regall rokhol When is aspiration used At the beginning ofa word pill till kill NOT spill still slgill At the beginning of a stressed syllable agend appear recall Not astound matter happen bapon Compare atom aegom atomic othamlk 63 Glottal stop 1 as in uhoh Ao O en 2 replaces a t e g button bAon cotton kaon When is 2 used When t occurs before n sound cotton kaon Sometimes when t occurs before 1 sound bogle baol or barol Sometimes when t occurs at the end of a syllable bat bze Batman bzemaen 64 Syllabic consonants The nucleus core of most syllables is a vowel occasionally the nucleus of a syllable is consonant syllabic consonant Diacritic Symbol under a consonant symbol Only sonorants may be syllabic consonants Ir bird blrd father fa lr 1 apple aepll bagel begl 1 button bArll cotton kar1 r11 rhythm I I nil Note It is often difficult to distinguish between a syllabic consonant and a sequence of 9 C Either will be accepted in a transcription eg Ir or faqr or fa or Note the line should be directly under the consonant symbol due to typographical problems the lines may be a bit off in the above examples 65 Nasalized vowels we did not cover this in class read the section in the book and the following notes 7 you are responsible for the basic concepts only Diacritic symbol N vowel symbol with tilde above it Vowels are nasalized before a nasal consonant m n 1 in the same syllable bead bid vs bean bin bag baeg vs bang men rib rIb vs rim rNIm campus khaempos fountain f wnt5n 7 Tone Languages you are responsible for the basic concept but you do not need to learn the specific items in Chinese Tone Languages 7 commonly found in Africa Asia Americas A change in pitch changes the meaning of a word e g Chinese the same syllable m can have different meanings according to the tone pitch H high mother M mid hemp MLH fallingris ing horse HL falling scold e g Yoruba the same syllable bo can have different meanings according to the tone Tones ko high build k6 mid sing ko low refuse
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