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by: Kenneth Berge

IntroductiontoArchaeologyandBiologicalAnthropology ANTH104

Marketplace > University of Delaware > anthropology, evolution, sphr > ANTH104 > IntroductiontoArchaeologyandBiologicalAnthropology
Kenneth Berge
GPA 3.89


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Class Notes
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenneth Berge on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH104 at University of Delaware taught by ThomasRocek in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see /class/207158/anth104-university-of-delaware in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Delaware.

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Date Created: 09/19/15
Cultural anthro sociocultural anthro cultural evolution linguistic anthro archaeology trying to reconstruct how people lived material culture prehistoric vs historical Biological anthro bio anthro physical anthro bio evolution species Homo Sapiens comparative primates continuing diversity and ongoing evolution of humans Ethnography study of an ethnic group Biocultural evolution cultural evolution influencing biological evolution gt think of the fur reference in class Malthus Lyell 17971875 Uniformitarianism llDeep time the world is old Usher rish According to Bible world created in 4004 bc Dr John Lightfoot tried to improve Usher s calculations 1 mutability of species Buffon Lamarik 2 deep timeuniformatarianism Lyell 3 struggle for existence Malthus 4 interaction with environment Lamorik A Wallace Darwin 1809188 1 Domesticated plants and animals gt natural selection 2 Geographical distribution of organisms 3 Geologicalpaleontological record 4 Comparative anatomy 5 Embryology 6 Vestigial organs Evolution lldecent with modificationquot Malthus llFertility pop stable resources limited gt struggle for existence BuffonDarwin variation heritable gt struggle for existence gt nonrandom outcomes Lyell uniformitarianism gtdeep time gt big changes Herbert Spencer guy Darwin borrowed evolution from llsurvival of the fittestquot refers to natural selection Mortality Fertility Fittest gt successful reproduction February 24 2010 Natural Selection Antibiotic resistance Penicillin Staph 1941 100 1945 75 1947 25 Industrial Melanism Moth Melanin LightgtDark most in the middle type of curve from light to dark variation and heritability Czech Bene Mendel Blending inheritance Gemetics Populational Individualchromosomal Biochemical DNA Hot to make proteins Pass info within organismto new cells Pass infor from parents to offspring Protein Amino acids Polypeptide bonds March 1 2010 Phenotype vs Genotype Ex l39l39 Tt tt Tand t gt alleles Genotype Environment Phenotype Phenotype what you can actually observe about the person T tasting dominant TI39 and Tt T nontasting recessive tt Homozygous same alleles at a given locus can either be homozygous dominant or recessive Heterozygous different alleles at a given locus sometimes referred to as carriers of the recessive alleles they have the little t but they still taste bitter Punnett Square Mendel Segregation Independent assortment what goes on at one locus is completely unrelated to what is going on at another locus different loci operate independently from each other Recombination crossing over happens in meiosis genetic variability Blood types March 5 2010 Allele frequency do the calculations Mechanisms for evolution 1 Natural selection 2 Mutation beneficial mutations provide the raw material for natural selection 3 Gene flow genes moving from one group to another group 4 Drift random Bottleneck effect Founder effect shipwrecked British sailor example HardyWeinberg Equilibrium what you would get if you turned off evolution 4 mechanisms of evolution insignificant Panmictic mating random mating Microevolution Macroevolution Gradualism vs punctuated equilibrium Speciation when a species splits into two March 24 2010 Archaeological evidence Relative dating Stratigraphy further down you go further back you go Assemblages groups of artifacts found together or in close proximity more useful to study groups of artifacts found together Seriation simply a way of putting something into a series putting together a chronology not absolute dating because you don t assign a date in the chronology Battleship curves think of example from class with hula hoop roller skates and skateboard graph point gt V gt bowed out gt upside down V gt point graphing popularity of things over time Modal concept of culture find what is typical find the stuff that patterns with time and leave out the stuff that doesn t Cadillac tail fins Cadillac tail fins to arrow points Flourine Dating Nitrogen Dating and Uranium Dating when bone goes into the ground it absorbs ground water containing fluorine and uranium the bone also loses nitrogen while it is in the ground happens at different speeds at different places fluoridated water uranium in water temperature also effects the processes involved March 26 2010 Obsidian Hydration dating Dating when arrowhead was made not when rock was made older obsidian is the thicker the hydration rind or how far the water has worked itself in will be Temperature hotter faster Speed at which water absorbs into obsidian gt and form the rind gt is linear ex if it takes 1000 years to form a 1 micron thick rind then it will take 2000 years to form a 2 micron thick rind Used on flake obsidian event being dated is the flaking of the obsidian not the creation of the obsidian when somebody made that obsidian into a tool good for 0less than 10000 years not great for something much older than that bc the hydration rind will weather away eventually Connection between event dated and event of interest example about arrowhead next to hearth of fireplace with carbon in it Accuracy vs Precision Dead reckoning uneven stratigraphy depths Varves Dendro chronology April 5 2010 14C radiocarbon from WWII study of Abomb effects C carbon comes with 3 isotopes extra neurons 13C stablish 14C most natural 15C not stable Sunlight 14N gt14C 14C gt 14N Speed of decay measured in halflife 5730 years 1lb of shit after 5730 years V2 lb of shit after another 5730 years lb of shit half of what was there at the beginning of that halflife 2 halflives Natural stratigraphy better Arbitrary Stratigraphy April 12 1010 Midterm soon Test is on Friday April 19 Ask questions on Wednesday Prof Rocek s last day here before test Gonna need syllabi and a lot of aderol Paleoecology no notjust elephants Uniformitarianism Moraines Ti Ushaped valleys Straie Erratic boulders Find power point slides on line Evidence of Glaciatio n Glacial Till Size Sorting Rounded Sand Telling us what kind of environment existed in the past Glacial Striae indication of past ice age scratches big boulders make when glaciers push them around HAVE TO READ Varved sediments Annual pulses of water in lakes mainly glacial lakes can actually find out how old each layer is by what artifacts it lays chronometric dating method Faurnal Remains Animal remains mainly bones Macrobotanical Remains Pine cones charcoal Microbotcanical Remains Pollen tell you about foliage of environment Arboreal Nonarboreal Pollen that can tell you the temperature of the water at the time because it is taking oxygen out of the water and using it helps you look at environmental change very systematically Power point slides avg annual temp dropped 3 degrees for 3 years and caused plague and famine Antarctic Icesheets Northern Hemisphere Icesheets power point A Fluctuations in temp are moderate Centigrade 23s of a degree Fossils BonesTeeth Eggshells Imprints of body dinosaur footprints Endocasts Coprolites Fossil Record Small sample Biased sample Taphonomy April 26 2010 Primate continuum Teaching chimpanzees language not used in the wild Using tools sticks to gather ants Using modern humans as a way of thinking about human origins 1 Analogy 2 Homology 3 Analogy Homology Modern huntinggathering InuitEskimos Australians San kung All people who do not farm are all modern peoples Low population density small groups quotbandquot 2550 people kinship flexible llDialect groups not a viable biological group not enough breeding options seasonal movement not controlling the resources living within the resources Egalitarian Consensus not a society in which the richest most important people dominate all others make decisions by talking them out Complexity diet flexibility motherinfant bonds male female bonds gender specific division of labor nondominance Darwins Africa Modern Humans 1 Bipedalism 2 Reduced canines 3 Brain expansion 4 Tool use Darwin hypothesized that these 4 aspects came as a package Mosaic pattern dif things come at dif times these things are not linked together Taung specimen baby austrolopithicus died at age 3 or 4 llAustrolopithicus Africanusquot Dart discovered Asteodontolceratic quotCulturequot Taphonomy proved it was not culture the jagged pieces of bone teeth and horn were created by hyenas and leopards feeding and cracking those bones etc with their teeth 1 Intelligence Brain size not directly related to intelligence Skulls Endocasts Reorganization Lateralization 2 Locomotion Bipedalism Cinco de Dustin 2010 Austrolopithicus read Femur structure evidence of bipedalism Mosaic men walk apes waddle Larger and wider pelvis for birth of larger brained babies bipedalism South Africa read Transvaal 1st Austrolopithicus found in Moderate climate elevated not adapting to jungle 2 time periods Early 325 mya Sterlafontein Makapangat Taung Dynamite early excavation process Late 215 mya Kromdraii Swartkrans gt Primolea Biostratigraphy Robust heavier more muscular ones mid 400 to low 500 cc cubic centimeters Gracile less heavy ones mid 400s to low 500 cc Similarities Both have small skulls both have big faces a lot of chewing muscles small brains both bipedal chewing big molars increasing emphasis on the back of the jaw protruding faces almost like a muzzle big teeth 1st found was Taung baby version of a Gracile called Austrolopithicus southern ape person Africanus from Africa disproved many previously held notions of what races and humans were Paranthropus robustus llDietary hypothesis so different that they belong in different genus Australopitherus Africanus typically came from Early caves Paranthropus robustus typically came from Late caves Sexual dimorphism should be considered when applied to Africanus llsingle species hypothesis came to light just said what if one is just a male and one is a female of the same species instead of 2 different species Not the case Chewing muscles run out of skull to grow up with a smaller brain and they grow into each other creating a saginal crest Size of canines male larger the female did not support single species concept Dating does not help either Males in 1 time period and females in another doesn t make sense Could determine male and female that fit the sexual dimorphism pattern within the two categories 2 species same genus Becomes Austrolopithicus robustus Name problem Read about diversification of Austrolopithicus in East Africa derived Autstolopithicus Good preservation in the limestone caves that got blown up 14 or 15 cubic cm typical human brain May 14 2010 Lower Paleolithic Oldowan quot9 early Homo Acheulian gt llpebble industry n9 Homo erectus West East Presence of bamboo in the east is likely why there are no fancy stone tools in the east Premodern humans Bodo Ethiopia Alapuerca Spain Kabwe Zambia Steinheim Germany Upper Pleistocene 128K10K 1350cc Neanderthal found in Germany in 1815 Fully modern brain sizes La Chapelle aux Saints La Ferrashe both France Tabun Kebara both Israel Shandor Iraq Neanderthal lower forehead longer skull big brow ridges ce ages cyclic all start with a W Prognathic Occipital bun 1 Multiregional continuity A partial replacement 2 complete replacement not a complete replacement disproved very recently 14 Neandertal Tabun Kebara both Israel Qafseh Skhul both Israel Herto Ethiopia Neandertal bodies take damage like rodeo riders suited for cold weather May 17 2010 ChronologyBiologyArcheology Big picture cultural evolution starts speeding up In the last 150000 yrs culture change has sped up exponentially how culture changes result of pressures Middle Paleolithic 25 mya750000 ya period following Lower Paleolithic corresponds to Upper Pleistocene also corresponds to Upper Pleistocene Premodern humans gt Neandertals Muusterian 12800040000 ya Elaboration of flake tool modification flake industry scrapers convex concave etc scrapers Disk core represented preplanning and efficiency used the triangle shaped flakes reflects cognitive capacity Leuallois Prepared core evidence of multistage thought making spears making spears mounted on to handles WILL BE MAPS ON TEST SHOWED AFRICA MAP OF FOSSIL DISCOVERIES OF NEANDERTALS will be in book Know places where they are burying their dead TeshnikTash Uzbekistan child Kebava Israel Shanidar Iraq found pollen from flower blossoms can t date it though La Ferrasie France Hints of burial goods including some of the shells probably used for a necklace Upper Paleolithic clear evidence of pictorial art Environmental context Weicshel Wurm Wisconsin the most recent ice age 10000010000 ya Middle Paleolithic Upper Pleistocene Upper Paleolithic Late Upper Pleistocene modern humans Upper Paleolithic Symbolic behavior is obvious Upper Paleolithic cultures subdivisions of UP Chate l peronian Solutrean Aorgnacian Gravetition read to get correct spelling Blades Indirect percussion hit the middle piece gives more control Pressure flaking instead of hitting the rock take the tip of an antler and just apply pressure until you can pop off flakes much control Burin engraving tools used to work bone bone is the plastic of Upper Paleolithic can be carved into any shape comes with important technology Atlatl spear thrower Barbed harpoons Congo Katanda barbed harpoons about 75K before Art explosion in art pictures ofanimals and humans in many caves Humans in Siberia around 27000 also in Australia around 40000 by 12000 people are in Americas with Upper Paleolithic technologies Weischel ice age gets a little warmer around 40000 ya around the transition from Middle to Upper Paleolithic Mesolithic Post iceage conditions new categories of resources sea levels rise and large herds of prey migrate Big jump in obvious use of plant materials gt grinding stones or stones to crack open nuts More use of aquatic resources fish Now hunting smaller more dispersed animals instead of bigger herds Pressure builds on rapidly growing human population manipulation of plant resources out of all this comes Neolithic READ New technology AGRICULTURE pottery etc farming is the big thing here could no longer rely on natural plant growth and gathering to feed the growing population same processes happening all over the world at the same time period


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