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Anthropology 101 Exam 1 Study Sheet The Holistic Perspective We try to take into consideration all aspects of human life and the ways in which the parts are integrated interconnected and influence each other The Four Branches of AnthropologyThe Four Field Approach Archaeology Biologicalphysical anthropology Linguistic anthropology Social and cultural anthropology British Anthropology First invented at Oxford University in England Concentrates on social structures such as rules and organization American Anthropology Was first invented at Colombia University in NYC Concentrates on how people behave how they think and what they believe Cultural anthropology Sir Edward Tylor Anthropologist who gave us classic definition of quotculturequot Culture That complex whole which includes knowledge belief art morals law custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society Culture is Social and shared Ideas examples is time linear or circular Patterns of behavior patterned things we do based on our ideas Learned Anthropologists reject biological deterministic theories They believe we are who we are because of our culture not because of our genes or our race Anthropology39s quot Dark Pastquot The theory of quotSocial evolutionquot based on Darwin39s theory of biological evolution says quotsavagesquot were biologically and mentally inferior to Westerners quot Race determinismquot Said we behavethinkact because of our race Miscegenation Laws Preventing crossracial breeding Franz Boas Said race has no meaning and culture alone matters which really means cultural determinism Studied the size of people39s heads Cephalic Index Measurement ofa certain part of the brain Was believed to be fixed determined your race39s intelligence quotPlasticity of human typesquot means the measurements can change FIELDWORK A TOTAL IMMERSION AND ENGAGEMENT IN EVERYDAY LIFE The central feature ofan anthropologist39s studies Culture Shock Being confronted with vastly different culturesways of doing things CULTURAL RELATIVISM Theory by Franz Boas Said you cannotjudge another culture using ideas and values from your own culture Accept that other cultures are meaningful and relevant to others just as our cultures are to us The opposite of ethnocentrism ETHNOCENTRISM The belief that one39s own cultural practices are quotnormalquot and quotrightquot and other cultures are quotweirdquot and quotbadquot MORAL RELATIVISM Accepting other cultures but not necessarily agreeing with certain aspects of it such as infanticide in China EE EVANSPRITCHARD amp AZANDE WITCHCRAFT He wanted to know how the Azande people explain quotwhy bad things happen to good peoplequot EvansPritchard accepted that the Azande believe in witchcraft but he wants to know why they believe in it He explained that witchcraft provides the Azande with an explanation of the relationship between man and quotrandomquot events A theory of randomness does not exist in their culture EMIC VIEW HOW quotNATIVESquot INSIDERS ANALYZE AND INTERPRET ETIC VIEW HOW OUTSIDERSOBSERVERS ANALYZE AND INTERPRET LATAH In Malay culture it is a physical state an experience of dramatic and intense shock It means at a very basic level that if they are startled they may cry or scream The most extreme form of Latah is to go so crazy that the person quotruns amokquot in a possibly murderous state Armchair Anthropology A definition of the old fashioned kind of anthropology Said you could understand and study another culture without ever leaving your own FOREFATHERS OF ANTHROPOLOGY FRANZ BOAS Father of American cultural anthropology Said you have to study culture by doing fieldwork People criticized his data because although it gave us information it didn39t explain or analyze anything He only talked about what other cultures did and how they did it but he did not answer the question of why they did it Said race has no meaning and culture alone matters which really means cultural determinism Studied the size of people39s heads No student of his studied or even talked about llevolution Margaret Mead Student of Boas one of whom he sent out to accumulate cultural data BRONISLAW MALINOWSKI Father of British social anthropology Polish born went to England to study under Sir Edward Tylor Invented field work and made it the hallmark of anthropological studies Said that culture is a nonbiological response thatfunctions to meet survival needs of the individual PARTICIPANTOBSERVATION Malinowski39s name for field work ETHNOGRAPHY TO WRITE A PEOPLE Malinowski called himself an ethnographer Functionalism Argues that the customs practices and ideas that you see in another culture make sense What we do is functional it meets the daily needs of our existence and they are instrumental in bringing about a result Malinowski s Explanation of the Function of Culture llIN EVERY KIND OF CIVILIZATION EVERY CUSTOM MATERIAL OBJECT IDEA AND BELIEF FULFILLS SOME VITAL FUNCTION HAS SOME TASK TO ACCOMPLISH AND REPRESENTS AN INDISPENSIBLE PART OF THE WORKING WHOLEquot Trobrian Islanders Malinowski wrote about them in his book He said to understand another culture you must stay with them for a year The Kula Ring Malinowski discovered this among the Trobrians They traded red shell necklaces from island to island in a predictable and circular manner In addition they traded white armbands from island to island from island in the opposite direction Although there seemed to be nothing special about them people held them at very high value He understood that to them it had a function and met people39s needs The Trobrians believed that they had magical powers but no one should hold onto them for too long as they were so powerful Malinowski said there were vast social needs being met key relationships and key networks were being established between families and islands E E EvansPRITCHARD One of Malinowski39s first and most famous students The Nuer was a study of cattle owners from Sudan It was a description of how doing fieldwork was not always easy The Nuer did not like him and he didn39t like them either Sir James Fraiser An armchair anthropologist Wrote 13 books on quotsavagesquot although he had never actually encountered any quotprimitivequot people Alfred RadcliffeBrown Said that social institutions and social structuresfunction to maintain society aka structural functionalism Did not see the point in looking at people as individuals instead looked at the institutions and organizations that make up a culture Said anthropology is the study of social institutions Why is the Institution of Marriage Prevalent in All Societies Malinowski would have said Marriage fulfills the basic reproductive and psychological needs of humans RadcliffeBrown would have said Why do you need an institution to fulfill those needs Why are the traditions of marriage so elaborate With marriage you are creating an enormous possibility of instability in your society Both Malinowski and RadcliffeBrown Believed Everything in society had a function In fieldwork instead of armchair anthropology All people everywhere had an inherent dignity to their practice They lacked an interest in how people explained their own culture Problems with Functionalism Problem of teleology Problem of reification Problem of moral values Because functionalism states that everything has a purpose it can then say that everything that happens in a society is good Lack of interest in what people thinktotally quoteticquot and possibily also places anthropologist in quotsuperiorquot position PPP Equot Teleology Things are designed for a purpose Reification Means you take something abstract and make sense of it F I y 39 r 39 g Not 3939 39 39 like science but subjectivitylike art Clifford Geertz Said culture is a system of beliefs people share not a scientific system of functions Anthropology is trying to write down another version of a culture Did interpretivehumanistic anthropology because it could llcreate a dialogue between and among people about culturequot The Balinese Cockfight Geertz and his wife had trouble gain access to the cultures they wanted to study They were treated somewhat well by the Balinese but they felt they were being treated as tourists and they were unable to get involved in their lives The Balinese were very private and did not want to share with the Geertzes They then attended a cockfight which is illegal in Bali even though everyone does it The cops showed up and the Geertzes ran away along w the villagers The villagers laughed at this for weeks and it established an identity of their own which allowed them to access Balinese culture Geertz noticed that cockfighting was a symbol of their culture He didn t see it as having a purpose but it did help them meet survival needs He saw how the Balinese people think as they live their lives and what things mean to the people there Zeitgeist The spirit of the times The main zeitgeist of the 19 h century was evolution and social Darwinists The American zeitgeist of the 20 h century was capitalism Edward Sapir Student of Boas SapirWhorf Hypothesis Language shapes our perception and creates our world Gestalt Ruth Benedict said it is a shape pattern or outline of a culture that patterns its members psychology and creates its sense of what is normal Each culture has its own way of creating a Gestalt Margaret Mead Boas wanted her to test a Hall s theory of adolecense So she went to Samoa in 1925 She wanted to know if adolescent girls in Samoa go through a time of storm and stress like American girls She believed Fieldwork is a lllaboratory of culture That her results were verifiable as quotsciencequot That she was conducting a kind of experiment in Samoa by testing the adolescentstress hypothesis and comparing adolescents G Stanley Hall s quot 39 39 amp the quotJ 39 Stress l39 39 Three Key Concepts 1 Conflict with parents 2 Mood disruptions 3 Risky Behavior Hall believed that human nature dictated that these 3 things happen to everyone meaning it is a cultural universal Nine months of fieldwork on Ta u the life cycle of Samoan women from girlhood to adults Revealed that the experience of girlhood in Ta u was very different than in the Western world Teenage girls were burdened by the care of their younger siblings leaving their mothers free to weave fish etc After they finished the childcare they were quotfreequot of it so they could learn skills There was no pressure to learn things quickly or get married The girls resolved conflict by moving around from house to house as opposed to staying with their families Children regularly saw adults having intercourse and the concept was not considered shameful or to be hidden People masturbate freely and openly and have sex prior to marriage They don t make a big deal out of virginity Moetotolo Samoan word for when a boy crawls into a girl s bed when she is expecting her boyfriend and has sex The Samoans don t consider it rape they think it s funny because the boy in the situation was acting stupid Margaret mead believed Fieldwork is a quotlaboratory of culture That her results were verifiable as quotsciencequot That she was conducting a kind of experiment in samoatesting the adolescentstress hypothesis and comparing adolescences Cultural Relativists You should not judge other people s cultures based on your own The Mountain Arapesh pleasant The Mundugumor unpleasant quotheadhuntersquot and quotcannibalsquot terms we don t use anymore Opposite of Arapesh Mean to their children The Tchambuli Also quotheadhuntersquot who killed criminals and orphans and used the dead for rituals but they weren t violent or warlike The women had more power than the men the men acted like women Sex and Temperament Margaret Mead s second book written in 1935 Two levelsdimensions of sexual difference 1 Sex biologically determined 2 Sex Role culturally determined today we call this quotgenderquot Derek Freeman quotMargaret Mead and Samoa The Making and Unmaking ofan Anthropological Myth 1983 Said Margaret Mead was wrong All her work was to please Boas The Samoan girls lied about what they told her The Samoans did not believe in free love They were violent and frequently raped women Her work was fabricated and really meant to prove that free love and homosexuality were alright because she participated in those things In reality Mead and Freeman studied two different places at different times Mead American Samoa in 1920 s Freeman Western British Samoa in 1940 s 1960 s Extreme Cultural Determinism With culture as the only factor determines all other factors in human behavior Lewis Henry Morgan Tools for surviving Evolutionary Stages Each has quotlower middle and upper level Savagery Barba rism Civilization Lower Savagery no domestication simplest tools Middle Savagery fishing nets Upper Savagery bows and arrows traps Nisa is not our stone age ancestor Four Best Known Hunting amp Gathering Peoples Eskimo Inuit amp Yupik Mbuti Pygmies Australian Aborignies Kalahari peoples eg Kung or Dobe Ju hoansi What All Hunting and Gathering Societies Share Simple technologysimple material culture Mobility Sexual division of labor Demography low population through fission split up and fusion get back together The arts and skills of subsistence Band Refers to a small mobile flexible group of hunters and gatherers also refers to their kind of social political and economic organization Three Rules ofa Band Society The rule of kinship The rule of egalitarianism The rule of reciprocity Fictive Kinship That you call people you aren t really related to by a kinship term to create a social intimacy that isn t really there Societies Can Be Egalitarian Equality for all people are social political amp economic equals eg the kung Ranked societies Formal differences in prestige eg Samoa but not access to means of survival Stratified Permanent amp formal social political and economic inequality eg caste system in hindu society Bride Service When Kung husbands work for wife s family Reverse Dominance A love of dominance was so bred into the human species that they developed an innate distaste of being dominated by others Ostracism A form of reverse dominance The exclusion of someone from a society or group The Leisure Theory Why hunting and gathering societies don t evolve Richard Lee Surprising results of foodandwork study among the kung Mongongo Nut Rich in protein and good fats John Marshall Filmmaker of anthropological documentaries Hottentots People who lived in the Calahari Polygenesis Poly means quotmanyquot Believed there were many creations meaning that humans arose at different times from different origins Monogenisis Mono means quotoriginquot Believed there is only one origin of human beings Unilineal Evolution Progress in one direction all societies on the same ladder Monogenosis Sara Baartman Member of the people of whom the Kung are a part She had steatopygia which is significant padding of fat on the buttocks She was then sold to a group of men in London who put her on display as the llHottentot Venusquot In Paris she attracted the attention of George Cuvier George Cuvier French naturalistanthropologist 19 h century He was the first anthropologist to explore the different stages of evolution among the people around the world His interest in Sara Baartman was limited to the different parts of her body He believed that she was part of a subhuman race because of her different voice and body He studied her and determined that she was part baboon and part human Pubic Apron Hottentot women were said to have this a particularly large labia Robert Gordon s The Bushman Myth 2000 Accuses anthropologists of ignoring evidence that culture change is not new among the Kung