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Auihwyubgy 222 Saws 1193 Basalla George 1988 The Evolution of Technology New York Cambridge University Press Chapter 2 Continuity versus Discontinuity Popular CultureBelief in the quotHeroicquot quotTitularquot Inventor eg Alexander Graham Bell and Telephone Thomas A Edison and the Electric Light Henry Ford and the Assembly Line39 a conservative approach featuring quotSocial Agencyquot and the importance of the individual Scholarly ApproachBelief in the Role of Society the quotAnonymousquot Inventor eg metallurgy a liberal approach often rooted in Marxism the quotsocial massquot not the individual quotlaborquot not quotworkquot 0 but these authorities cannot deal with Leonardo da Vinchi or with Tesla The Philosophical DebatequotRevolutionsquot in Science the Thomas Kuhn approach major disjunctions and paradigmn shifts like Gould s quotpunctuated equilibriumquot in evolutionary biology versus the Karl Popper approach to slow cumulative growth like Darwinian evolution and the quotuniformitarianismquot that came out of Lyell s new quotpreDiluvialistquot geology Thomas KuhnquotThe Structure of Scientific Revolutionsquot 1962 Edward W ConstantquotThe Origins of the Turbojet Revolutionquot 1980 again tech is modeled after science But while a turbojet appears to be a revolutionary idea since no propeller was involved the inventors were not part of the aeroengine community and new theories assumes technologyknowledge from aerodynamics and thermodynamics were involved it may have drawn on pre39existent ideas out of a 200 yearold history of water turnbines turbine water pumps steam turbines internal combustion engine gas turbines piston engine superchargers and turbosuperchargers ie w principle whatever their uses or energy sources therefore quotinnovationsquot not quotinventionsquot o 130 BC Hero of Alexandriaquotaeolipilequotprinciple of quotreactionquot and heated gas expands precocious gas turbine o 1630 ADGiovanni Branca principle of quotde ectionquota jet of steam Anthropology 222 Professor Roe Basalla Ch 2 Notes Page 1 of5 spins wheel with blades shaped like water wheel like Norwegian vertical water wheelsteam boilers couldn t produce pressures o 1883 ADCharles Parson abandons work on gas turbine shifts to steam quotatmosphericquot low pressure engines moving piston not turbine blade 0 1884 ADCharles Parsonquotturbogeneratorquot 1st practical steam turbine The PriorityCentrality 0f the ArtifactBasalla s principle the goal is some novel tangible thing not a delivered paper publication or idea39 it exists before the revolutionary act theory Humans think haptically Eugene Ferguson s point about engineers and Carol Links about the act of making an artifactan act of quotcommunicationquot with raw materials Science and Technologythe modem belief that technology is quotapplied sciencequot but metallurgy came in at 6000 BC just out of iterative learning trial and error and play most metallurgical processes could only be understood quotscientificallyquot via chemistry in the late 18th century and even today there are processes that defy chemical explication The Priority 0f Technologymy example from Hero of Alexandria and the Aeolipile Greek materials science technology was not up to the levels of its speculative thought science39 other examples show the opposite Industrial Revoluti0nin textiles in 18th century had more to do with craft processes than with science even in computer science the 1 st computer was not the quotDifference Enginequot of the speculative science Charles Babbage s Mechanical Computer39 but Jacquard s loom which was the 1st to use punched card input which came out of the trades Case Studies in Continuity 0 Stone Tools 25 million in humans existent as quotchimpportsquot before that but this is debateable his historic examples are better 0 Eli Whitney and Cotton GinThe problem was short staple Inland cotton39 it took a slave 3 hrs to produce 1 pound of cotton by hand therefore cotton was not a maj or crop in the south until after Whitney before it was rice and indigo The occasion was trip of Whitney s to Georgia in 1793 heralded the quotinspirationquot but Basalla says the pre39existent artifact was the Indian charkagpe of gin which was already in widespread use therefore continuity39 The BC Indian charka was used to process long staple or Sea Island cotton and that was limited in distribution but Whitney must have known of it it goes back to the evenearlier sugar cane roller press The social context was a demand for cheap cotton cloth is a world dominated by wool and linen but is also required genius Anthropology 222 Professor Roe Basalla Ch 2 Notes Page 2 of5 The quotTitularquot or quotHeroicquot inventorJames Watt and steam enginefell asleep and dreamed based on steaming kettle folklore In actuality there was the Newcomen steam engine already around continuity again 1712Thomas Newcomen s working atmospheric steam engine which utilized the condensation of steam to create a partial vacuum under a huge piston in a lever arm a beam as it was lowered a pump rod on the other end raised to its maximum height then the steam condensed and weight of the pump drove the lever arm up for another cycleused as a pump in coal mines 1763Watt begins haptically by repairing a studying a model Newcomen engine39 he realized efficiency could be improved by keeping the piston hot which he did by insulating it and condensing the steam in an adjacent cylinder kept cool39 he abandoned the atmospheric quotsingle actingquot Newcomen pump by applying steam to both ends of the piston to do work a quotdoubleactingquot pump 1784James Watt s doubleacting steam engine with a separate condensor thought at the time to be revolutionary and it was in terms of transport if not in design 0 Seminal Innovati0nlike the Steam Engine spawns a whole set of quotbranching developmentsquot like the railroad steam engine and the Stanley Steamer o 1860Jean Joseph Lenoir s a Belgian internal combustion engine fueled by illuminating gas and based on doubleacting steam engine based on explosions of mixture of fuel and hot air produces lst internal combustion engine that like Watt s drives the piston on both ends 0 O O O o 1876This leads to Nikolaus Otto s refinement of the gas engine to produce the 4cycle internal combustion engine 0 PrecociousCanonical Tech the latter because of quottechnological coherencequot can be built upon by other tech andor scienceturbojet ex from Basalla by WH Constant o quotThe Inherited Prototype the quotSeminal Machinequot 0 What of the Role of Science the Electric Motor 0 Even tho electricity was revolutionary the machines that employed it were evolutionary Discovery of electromagnetism by Hans Christian Oersted in 1820 stimulates American physicist Joseph Hemy in 1831 even in later machines using a quotpistonquot and quotcylindersquot Equally quotanalogical thinkingquot was present in brand new transistor 0 0 Anthropology 222 Professor Roe Basalla Ch 2 Notes Page 3 of5 O O Anquotemitterquot and quotcollectorquot from vacuum tubes even tho no quotemittingquot or quotcollectingquot were taking place Even whole new industries were patterned after existing industries eg Edison s lighting system 1882 establishment of 1st power station in NYC as a centralized facility feeding electricity for lighting to homes was based on private gas light industry feeding to houses Via tubes underground electric industry had to apply as quotgasquot industry since they were the only ones to get permission to bury cables under streets down to the power of weak yellowish light of 16 quotcandlepowerquot note atavistic like quothorsepowerquot12 watt bulb modeled after gas burner and not after the public arclight industry consumers would need their own generating plant o Biomemesis the Origin of the 1 st thing madethe unbroken quotchainquot has to begin somewhere eg quotBarbed Wirequot on quotnaturfactsquot p50 0 O o The It could have been made much earlier inventions not quotinevitablequot possibly as early as the 1st wiredrawing machines in the Renaissance Instead it occurred simultaneously in late 19th cen America 1st fences based on English experience from the Old Worldstone fences wood fences or hedgerows But the movement into the prairies where none of these materials were available created a crisis of cost in 1871 the combined cost of fences equaled the national debt However quotOsage Orangequot a short tree did exist with its barbs and people grew it for hedgerows quotliving fencesquot but it grew slowly could not be moved cast shadows and formed refuges for quotpestquot species 1868Michael Kelly s quotthomy fencequot straight wire with diamond sheet metal quotthomsquot 1873DeKalb Illinois County Fair on the edge of the prairie Henry Rose exhibited a primitve device of a strip of wood on smooth wire with brads but this quotinspiredquot Jacob Haish a Germanbom lumberman and two Americans independently who formed separate companies within a year Role of FantasyquotDream Techquot eg Jonathan Swift in quotGulliver s Travelsquot of 1726 on an automated quotBookwriting machinequot based on children s alphabet blocks recently introduced but now set in square arrays operated by cranks with words glued on their surfacesan act of satire ridiculing notion that machines could emulate humans The Origins of the Discontinuous Argument Evolutionary versus Revolutionary ideas of Technical Development 0 lose memory of precursors cars came from bicycles39 Hemy Ford called his car Anthropology 222 Basalla Ch 2 Notes Professor Roe Page 4 of5 a quotquadracyclequot as the cart had earlier come from the travois or dragcar confuse tech with its social consequences as in the quotIndustrial quotRevolutionquot seems to imply the tech that made it up was revolutionary Instead it was evolutionary the patent system promotes idea of single idea as property of a single creative individual the concept of progress the quotcult of the heroic inventorquotSamuel Smiles wrote books celebrating the lives of famous inventors in the Industrial Revolution Age thus beginning the new genre to add to artist s lives from the Renaissance The 1 st International Industrial Exhibits like the British quotCystal Palacequot Exhibit of 1851 promotes novelties nationalism even Russia touted its own quotinventorquot of Edison s incandescent light bulb O O O O 0 Anthropology 222 Professor Roe Basalla Ch 2 Notes Page 5 of5 lnimupoJogy 222 Course Mule Lecture Notes Subsistence Bates and Plog Adaptation Biological species Carrying capacity Cultural relativism Ecology Ecosystem equilibrium ethnography Evolutionary ecology evolution fossils Genetics Habitat Holism Homo sapiens Horticulture Hunting and gathering industrialism Intensive agriculture natural selection niche Pastoralism resilience Stability Culture of Poverty Leslie White l949 Fuel Age Specialization HomogenizationquotWorld Culturequot Anthropology 222 Professor Roe Lecture Notes Subsistence Page 1 of 8 Demographic Transition Europe 16501800 grew from 100 to 187 million Europe 18001900 Coal Age 187 million to doubling every 35 yrs El Salvador45 per 1000 Matrifocal Mechanization Industrialization Middle Ages Anthropology 222 Lecture Notes Subsistence 120 BCToe stirrup in India 100 BCBall bearings in Europetech experimentation 100 ADPaper in China 378 ADEmperor Valens loses to Fritigen39s Goths at Adrianople 477 ADStirrup in China 520 ADTriangular lateen sails amp big keels on Western ships 600 ADSeigneur amp vassalage Feudalism 694 ADArabs get stirrup from Persians 732 ADBattle of PoitiersCharles Martel amp Stirrup heavy cavalry routes Moors 757 ADByzantine Greek Emperor sends pipe organ to Pepin the Short 816 ADPipe Organ manpowered bellows crank wicebent lever appears in Utrecht Psalter 950 ADHurdyGurdy in Europe 950 ADVertical aXis windmill in Persia 960 ADMotte enclosure amp Bailey keep becomes chateau 980 ADElfeg Bishop of Winchester commissions 1st monster organ70 men pumping 26 bellows for 400 pipes 990 AD1st use of water power for smithy bellows water power for fulling cloth a step in fabric manufacturing 1010 ADEnglish monk builds glider 1185 ADHorizontal aXle windmill 1242 ADEnglish Friar Roger Bacon describes gunpowder Professor Roe Page 2 of 8 1250 ADFan escapements 120 water mills near Ypres Flanders 1320 ADFirst bombards bottleshaped shooting big bolts amp cannon tubes pictured Canon already known earlier 1350 ADBy this date Europe surpasses China in Tech 1384 ADBellows got big enough at Liege Flanders to produce high temperatures to cast iron in 1st known blast furnace cast iron 1420 ADShoulder red quothand canonquot in widespread useuses the quottouch holequot system 1450 ADIron canonballs replace stones French artillery train blasts English out of their castles in Normandy amp ends 100 years war 1470 ADMatchlock in use quotarquebusquot Uses a quotserpentinequot to arc taper into the ash pan loaded with a ner grade of gun powder 1515 ADBattle of Marignano Swiss Pikemen 18 ft pikes stopped by artillery 1517 ADWheellock introduced Johann Keifuss of Nurenburg invents uses iron pyrite rather than int now cavalry has gun 1534 ADSpanish invent the tercio 3000 man pike amp arquebus they led the way for the arquebus wanting to reincamate the Roman legion 1540 ADquotCorningquot of gunpowder makes it coarser better burn 1550 ADSnaphause lock is invented simpler 1610 ADFlintlock invented by Marin le Bourgeoys King Louis the 13th 1631 ADSwedish King Gustavus Adolphus levee en masse retained from Middle Ageshad been abandoned on continent defeats imperial general Tilly battle of Breitenfeld 1752 ADFrederick the Great of Prussia 50 of budget to war 1795 AD Napoleon rises to power using eld guns in the streets to suppress mobs 1807 ADScottish Presbetyrian minister Forsyth an avid fowler invents percussion lock as amateur chemist invents a quotfulminatequot 1841 ADvon Dreyse breechloading needle gun Prussia 1st gun with ring pin 1858 ADSmith amp Wesson invent 1st practical selfcontained cartridge a rimfire too small in calibre then the center re Anthropology 222 Professor Roe Lecture Notes Subsistence Page 3 of 8 o 1860 ADThe Henry Repeating carbine successor ofthe Volcanic Arms invention and predecessor to the Winchester USA Tech in China 0 Mark ElvinquotHighLevel Equilibrium Trapquot 0 Very Intensive Farming 0 Complete Transportation Network roads amp waterways 0 Low per capita income 1500 BC Bronze Casting Kaolin amp Feldspathic Glazes 850 BC White Iron not grey of west high carbon content reduces melting point otherwise not melted in the west until the l9Lh cen This ore also has a high phosphorous content hence it is brittle and biased toward casting 800 BCStack casting is innovated lling a dozen molds at the same time for small at pieces like coins harness buckles a possible production line forms first true factory 1 an open smelter with bellows 2 stacked molds 3 separate kilns This is l2 of industrial revolution mass production 300 BCCast Iron Plow Tips hence could break more land 202 BCFoundation of Han Dynasty the parallel to Rome building standards for structures begin to be enacted as part of Wang AnShih39s reforms to rationalize administrative expenditures 200 BCDoubleaction Piston Bellows are in use very effective for metallurgy because they allow a continuous jet of air 220 ADThe Han Dynasty falls China fragments into petty kingdoms 100 ADPaper is invented 450 ADSteel is in use 589 ADPaddlewheel Boats are cited 600 ADT ang Dynasty openness to west via the silk road Gunpowder invented 648 ADCh ang An is the 1st grid city layout making it the 1st example oftrue city planning it has a population of 1 million and measures 5X6 Square Miles Anthropology 222 Professor Roe Lecture Notes Subsistence Page 4 of 8 750 ADXylography Wood Block Printing InventedWestem Typography 5000 Chinese Characters 900 ADCoal used in smelting 953 ADConfucian classics printed in 130 volumes sparks a renaissance 1000 ADSung Dynasty ships have bulkheads Mines amp Hand Grenades Developed This partially compensated for the Sung lack of cavalry against nomads 1024 ADPaper money in use 1091 ADBuilding Standards are Codi ed in Li Chieh39s 1078 page work Bracket arm assemblies have 43 carved pieces not counting the lintels White cedar has 4X the tensile strength of steel 1100 ADHigh point in population then falls causing labor shortages This leads to waterpowered machine for spinning hemp for rope 1119 ADMagnetic Compass is in use 1200 ADGunpowder goes west with Chinese traveling in Mongol Empire 1221 ADMovable type in use for blockprinting 1242 ADEnglish Friar Roger Bacon describes gunpowder 1250 ADSouthem Sung Dynasty explosive bombs fired from catapults are used against invading Mongols 1270 ADMongols conquer all of China 1350 ADBy this date Europe surpasses China in technology 1354 ADTraditional date for the German monk Berthold Schwartz to quotinventquot gunpowder 1368 ADMing Dynasty retakes China from the Mongols but are conservative amp xenophobic as a reaction 1371 ADFirst ironclad ships appear their prows are sheathed in iron population is recovering 1403 ADKoreans using cast metal type but in China it never replaces xylographyby this date there are still more printed pages using xylography in the east than there are printed pages using typography in the West 0 1414 ADMing use portable canon in punitive expeditions against Tartars Anthropology 222 Professor Roe Lecture Notes Subsistence Page 5 of 8 1446 ADIn west the first practical canon quotbombardsquot appear but they are clumsy amp shoot stone canon balls 1540 ADIn west the quotcomingquot of gunpowder is invented This coarsens gunpowder allowing it to burn quicker amp more effectively 1600 ADLate Ming continuing on into Manchu Dynasty employs western canon cast for them by Jesuits 1650 ADWith crops from New World pop grows to new high point This is the time of the quotHighLevel Equilibrium Trapquot 1662 ADManchus take China Market Towns grow faster than popthus inhibiting adoption of new technology 1741 ADFrom this date to 1770 Britain triples cotton production 1750 ADThe elite mounted archerslancers the Manchu Bannermen are militarily paramount until around this date threatened by guns in the hands of Chinese insurgents 1757 ADMuskets authorized by Manchus to protect grain ships on great canal from Chinese bandits 1785 ADAn illustration of quotHighLevel Trapquot in this year a single province of China Kwangtung imports 6X as much cotton from India as Britain uses 1850 ADChina39s population is now 400 million 1870 ADKwangtung39s silk machines are now steampowered inspired by French in Annam Vietnam but in a form of quotOriental Ludditismquot 600 factory workers rebell Tech in Ja pan Anthropology 222 Lecture Notes Subsistence 1543 ADPortuguese land with 2 arque buses in Tanegashima Japanese so impressed they are bought on the spot 1560 ADOda 1 39 g uses 139 J of 39 39 39 firing to decimate cavalry charges 1575 ADOda Nobunaga now triumphant using gun at battle of Nagashino 1590 AD he commoner general Hideyoshi unifies all Japan after 25 centuries of feudal disunity 1591 ADHe rigidif1es class structure 1597 ADHideyoshi throws out the Portuguese missionaries and launches the 2nd Korean invasion the quotPottery Warsquot from whence come the kidnapped Onda potters 1600 ADThe Battle of Sekigahara where Ieyasu wins decisively Professor Roe Page 6 of 8 1603 ADIeyasu Tokugawa founds the Bakufu or quotTent Governmentquot and is named Shogun He used canon to batter down resisting Daimyo s castles 1638 ADHidetada the 2nd Shogun quells the Shimabara Peninsula uprising crushing the Christians 1641 ADThe Dutch are quarantined in Deshima island in port of Nagasaki 1643 ADAn ordnance limits local lords to silk pongee hemp amp cotton quotsumptuary lawsquot and the military technology comes to a full stop shokunin craftsmen segregate from other laborers 1720 ADFrom this time on quotDutch learningquot ourishes surreptiously 1853 ADAdmiral Perry forces ports open with the quotBlack Fleetquot 1867 ADMeat is advertised for the 1st time as quotMountain Whalequot 1868 ADThe Meiji Era begins 1869 ADThe 1st rickshaw factory opens 1872 ADThe quotperiod of Intoxicationquot begins and foreign dress has to be proscribed from ceremonies The 1st train appears 1882 ADThe Rickshaw is exported to Hong Kong and Singapore 1884 ADquotThe Improvement of the Japanese Racequot is published by Takahashi Yoshio but the battle is joined marking the end of the quotPeriod of Intoxicationquot with the publication of Sada Kaiseki s quotOn Lamps As A National Disasterquot Western gas lamps versus the traditional paper lanterns quotandonquot 1890 ADquotKogakuquot Academy of National Learning founded the indigenistnationalist reaction 1894 ADThe quotunequal Treatiesquot are renegotiated successfully 1903 ADThe train opens in Tokyo the death knell of rickshaw it still survives in Hong Kong and Singapore 1907 ADSea Battle where Admiral Togo defeats the Russian quotWhite Fleetquot and Japan thus defeats a major albeit 2quotd rank European power 1950 ADRickshaw outlawed in Hong Kong remains in Singapore The Old amp the New quotIntermittant Durationquot TechBasalla notes sword as Kubler s idea of intermittant tech an item that appears then disappears then reappears either at a later time in the original area or hangs on in a peripheral area eg steam trains in China quotBattleship Curvesquot amp relative chronology from typological seriation 4 Types of Intermittant Tech Anthropology 222 Professor Roe Lecture Notes Subsistence Page 7 of 8 Technological Archaism as quotnostalgic affectquot Retrotech artifacts that do not pretend such as bakelite phonbes that are touchtone altho they look like rotary Agearea Archaic tech the steam trains in China because they have lots of coal not alot of oil the tech is easier to master Old Fashioned Tech or tech Simpli cation Germany sells deisel sub tech to China China then sells that tech to Iraq or quotLong Marchquot Russian SSTs in China for sale to Iraq quotexotic affectquot Anthropology 222 Professor Roe Lecture Notes Subsistence Page 8 of 8 Aniimpubgy 222 991m Muir Lecture Notes Modern Technological Chaos 0 Modern quotthrowawayquot society based on 1 black box 2 increasing infotech improvementsobsolescence 3 lack of m 4 fragility of quotfinite element engineeringquot 0 Airbuslst plane to leapfrog prototype stage via infor tech amp CAD CAM design Technological Unemployment e g linotype industry moves labor from manufacturing to service at cost of increased education requirements quotHITquotquotHobbled Intentionally Technicallyquot l for commercial reasons eg MiniDisc 2 for entertainment reasons e g recumbant bikes outlawed in racing 3 for security reasons eg GPS or the overlay map of NYC 4 for religious reasons eg How do you get from precocious tech to canonical tech technical pushgovemment may boost tech out of quotchicken or the eggquot problem no market therefore expensive therefore noncompetitive as in California mandates for clean vehicles lead to hybrids Honda amp Toyota 2 market pullbecomes profitable hence adopted rapidly by market quotAge of the Foreseeablequot by the technology writer Chris O39MalleyThe mantra of the age quotIf you can dream it you can build itquot results in tech that is mere novelty ie doesn t work well Two easy questions are ignored 1 will it work 2 will people pay for it or is it affordable quotTechnological Chaosquot 0 The result is that we live in a world of the chaos of competing and doomed systems Companies that only seek to be first in the market place to produce Anthropology 222 Professor Roe Lecture Notes Modern Technological Chaos Page 1 of 2 unproven or nonworkable tech set themselves up for bankruptcy and consumers for inconvenience amp financial loss eg o Iridium a satellite phone company with a great ideause your phone anywhere on earth and on airplanes it failed because its phones were too bulky too expensive 100000 or more for the phone and didn39t work inside buildings 0 Tablet PCs like Apple s Newton that disappeared in the 1990s because hand writing recognition didn39t work Bill Gates recently announced that Microsoft would try again having abandoned quotPen Windowsquot a number of years agothe simple keyboard is superior amp now comes in miniature folding versions for PDAs 0 Voice recognition in computers like Dragon or Kurzweil that claim 90 accuracy or better at even 95 every 20th word would be garbage 0 Or to reillustrate a short fourline column of text would have 4050 illegible words tedious voiceprint quottrainingquot is required or wireless tech is another despite wireless computers printers Intemet access audio amp video systems only 2 things in the home currently work on wireless tech cordless phones amp TV remotes perhaps the recent introduction of quotBluetoothquot software will make this precocious tech canonical as in a cover on the new Motorola Timeport 270 cellphonecan use it to dial up the Intemet on your portable computer or talk handsfree on a bluetooth headset 0 Or HDTV and DVD have come out halfbaked the first due to a dirth of programming amp cost and the second without until recently the capacity to record which VCRs can do at 10000 Anthropology 222 Professor Roe Lecture Notes Modern Technological Chaos Page 2 of 2 Aniluopubyy Anthropology 222 Basalla Ch 1 Notes 222 99115311913 Basalla George 1988 The Evolution of Technology New York Cambridge University Press Chapter 1 Diversity Necessity and Evolution DiversityThere are 15 million species of Flora and Fauna as an imperfect analogy in the US alone more than 47 million patents have been issued since 1790 therefore tech diversity is very high 0 O O 0 e g Hammers in 1867 Karl Marx was surprised to nd that 500 different kinds of hammers alone were manufactured in Birmingham England Necessity The traditional explanation for the diversity of the made world But quotnecessityquot is more cultural than we think We might sat ha there are two different kinds of necessity I Absolute necessity where unless the basic requirements of food clothing amp shelter as well as health are met then the individuals die or are going to die 0 This is what defines true poverty not some arbitrary no like a 100 per day meaningless in a pure subsistence economy or the fact that the family lacks a TV set Versus I Relative derivation necessity Relative to others one is poor a cultural notion Here even billionaires can feel themselves to be poor e g Aesop39s fable he Western concept a crow is dying of thirst tries to drink from a tall pitcher can39t and then insight occurs and it drops nearby pebbles in the pitcher causing the water level to rise via Archimedes39 principle and successfully gets a drinkabsolute necessity and quotbasicquot needs eg the autowve are told is absolutely necessary but it s only a century old Nikolaus A Otto atraveling salesman devised his 4stroke internal combustion engine in 1876 in Germany thanks to no grave horse crisis in fact during its 1st decade of existence 18951905 the auto was just a toy ofthe rich ie this is a case of cultural necessity e g the truckadopted even more slowly than the auto WWI use of trucks was the result of intensive lobbying effort from the manufacturers Post hoc Needmy term for in both cases the need arose after not before the invention that is quotinvention is the Mother of necessityquot not quotNecessity is the Mother of Inventionquot as the adage goes UtilityThe other traditional explanation for artifactual diversity but again utility for what purpose Professor Roe Page 1 of5 o e g the wheel he best candidate for necessity since it is listed as the most important invention since re in comic strips both attributed to the Stone Age erroneously re is at least 15 million years old as an invention the wheel only 5000 years Most people take the use of the wheelcivilization a major index of progress there is no wheel in nature It came from sledges with smoothed logs as rollers Basalla says appears in 4th millennium rst in Mesopotamia then in Europe but earliest evidence is from the steppes of Russia far to the north lst wheels were either solid or tripartite planks fastened with cleats Oldest were godcars which carried ef gies of deities important persons and in war the 4wheeled quotbattle wagonquot and the twowheeled quotstraddle carquot a precursor of the chariot both used for hurling javelins by the 3rd millennium it had passed to India the spoked wheel comes in the 2nd millennium for war chariots and also appears for the rst time in Egypt and northern China its use in transporting goods is 1000 years after its invention circa 2400 BC 0 Not only that wheel are absent in all the rest of the world until recently and especially in the Amerindian New World Wheels lst appears there in Western Mexico from 3001400 AD for toys or votive objects only and continued by Aztecs may be diffusion from Asia He ascribes the wheels lack to mountainous terrain debatable and lack of draft animals agreed as Diamond will point outithere were only camelids in SA not Mesoamerica and they aren39t draft animals 0 Moreover from 350650 AD the wheel actually disappeared from Near East and North Africa with the adoption of the camel over the bullock only the Western Imperialists reintroduced the wheel there There is a Western bias for the wheel because I argue it is an old Aryan invention 0 Basalla in contrast asserts that it was not until the late 19th and early 20th centuries that Western writers elevated the wheel It is not a necessity Functionalist Fallacymy term he critiques functionalist anthropologists who trace every aspect of culture to some basic need e g Bronislaw Malinowski but this has obvious dif ulties art religion magic and science have tenuous connections to human survival quotA skysraper is not simply a structure to protect people from the vagaries of the weatherquot Biological Necessityoperates negatively it determines what is impossible not what is possible his argument that we don t need any tech to survive like animals however is incorrect given the fossil record and our current anatomy quotAnimal tool behavior is so rudimentary and limited that it can scarcely be compared with the technology of the simplest of human cultures false There are no reusing animals true nor are there animals that routinely fashion new tools partly true improve upon old tool designs true use tools to make other tools true or pass on accumulated technical knowledge to offspring falsequot p 13 Alienation from Naturemy term Basalla approvingly quotes Karl Marx who asserted that quotthe worst human architect is superior to the best insect nest or hive builder because only humans are able to envision structures in their imagination before erecting themquot p 13 this early Industrial Revolution worldview would contrast with the modern trend toward Biomemesisimitate nature as the quotmaster builder and inventorquot quotProduction of the Super uousquotJose Ortega y Gasset echnology Anthropology 222 Professor Roe Basalla Ch 1 Notes Page 2 of5 Evolutiona metaphor not just an omament of rhetoric quotMetaphors or analogies are at the heart of all extended analytical and critical thoughtquot not just poetic discourse Basalla sees it as useful to apply this concept from organic evolution to evolution in technology Organic Mechanical Analogiesp 15 Initially these analogies owed from technology to biology Structures and processes in living organisms were described and explained in mechanical terms the quotmechanical metaphorquot present since the Industrial Revolution and applied also to human society as in quotsocial forcesquot quotsocial inertiaquot quotsocial massesquot In the middle of the 19th cen the analogy went in the opposite direction technology was described in organic terms as in technical evolution embedded in the quotVictorian Chronologyquot which began in the 18th century Enlightenment 1748 ADMontesquieu The Spirit of the Laws protoevolutionary savageshuntersbarbarians herdsmen based on subsistence strategies 1848 ADThe birth of modern quotARCHEOLOGYquot the Dane C Thomsen 0 quotVictorian Chronologyquot 0 quotStone AgequotquotThe Bronze Agequot 0 quotThe Iron Agequot human technology evolves Copenhagen lst Natural History Museum Social DarwinismHerbert Spencer nature quotred in tooth and clawquot Darwinian quotreproductive tnessquot was misunderstood as quotpowerphysical mightquot and he noted a teleology in evolution whereas modem evolutionary theorists deny that there is any goa to evolution pointing out that it is opportunistic amp merely responds to changes in nature as proof of which they point to animals amp insects acquiring then losing then acquiring again various characteristics In contrast Spencer said that evolution went from o the simple to the complex 0 the generalized to the specialized 0 but evolution is adventitious it has no quotgoalquot except adaptation to current conditions all goals can only be reconstructed post hoc 0 except perhaps for cultural evolution and quotapical choicesquot in atechnological quotstylequot after that ancient historical selection from amidst known alternatives many further decisions become 0 stochastic ones ie limited by the prior decisions The Birth of quotScience Fictionquot the quotorganic metaphorquot for tech enters lit Samuel Butler his novel Erewhon and essay quotDarwin Among the Machinesquot posits that machines developed like organic beings and that such rapidly evolving machines would supplant humans Developmental Sequences for ToolsGeneral 0 General A LaneFox PittRivers who in 1852 was assigned by the british military to test a new ri e saw gradual and progressive modi cation in weapons traditional and otherwise which he arranged formally into developmental sequences typology Anthropology 222 Professor Roe Basalla Ch 1 Notes Page 3 of5 O This was the classificatory period of collecting and classifying the quotMuseum Approachquot 0 The Marxist PerspectiveSC Gil llan an American sociologist in uenced by Marxism in the 1930s battled the popular belief in quotTitulary Inventorsquot like Leonardo Da Vinci to suggest inventions were inevitable and heroes were cultural fabrications Published a study of just shipsThe problem was the steamship powered by paddles which seemed to be a radical invention and break with the pasthe emphasized continuity and traced it back to a Byzantine ship of the early 6th cen AD that used oxen to turn a windlass connected to paddle wheels but that was just precocious tech 0 Since Marxism was uncomfortable with individuals preferring the masses Marxists are critical of the Great Man model pointing to 0 simultaneous inventions that once the knowledge and the social conditions are in place inventions automatically happen Their problem however is dealing with precocious figures like Leonardo Da Vinci o Capitalists and cultural conservatives in contrast like the Great Man approach since it emphasizes personal social agency They emphasize the contingencies of history approach 0 The Cumulative Synthesis Approach the economic historian Abbott P Usher found this Marxist approach too mechanistic and used Gestalt psychology the enemy of Marxism39s tabula raza epistemology for Marxists the only appropriate psychology would be behaviorism amp operant conditioning like Pavlovp23 Usher broke creativity down into several stages 0 Perception of the Problem 0 Setting the Stage data collecting 0 Act of Insight an essentially individual act 0 Critical Revision cumulative change 0 Basalla s Modern Theory He combines several of these approaches and emphasizes o The continuity within a technological tradition the fact that there is often a known intermediary a precursor that connects the chain of innovation creativity seldom comes out of the blue instead individuals tinker with what is known and change it adding new features or functions 0 Like Darwin he is a gradualist Butler PittRivers Gil llan Ogbum and Usher all stressed the accumulation over time of small variations that finially yielded novel artifacts p24 0 But like the modem critics of Darwin who are also evolutionists like and the theory of punctuated equilibrium he also believes partly in the discontinuous position that specific individuals can create quantum leas over short periods of time My theory of technological evolution recognizes the larger changes often associated with name inventors as well as smaller changes made over a long duration Hence I accept periods of rapid technological change and times of relative stability p25 Anthropology 222 Professor Roe Basalla Ch 1 Notes Page 4 of5 Basalla employs 4 key concepts 1 diversity 2 continuity 3 novelty which I relabel creativity because novelty is a technical term with another meaning and 4 selection Diversity This refers to the fact that the made world contains a far greater variety of things than are required to meet fundamental human needs I will argue later that this super uity excess is the direct result of the play impulse driven by the need for creativity see below Continuity Is another explanation for this diversity the inheritance of multiple solutions from the past via the already preexistent prototypes Creativity Novelty An integral part of the made word artifacts what I call the aesthetic imperative the hardwired human desire to inject new ways of doing things into old ways of doing things to raise the threshold of boredom Selection The mechanism cultural rather than natural that leads to certain new things being selected amp other new things being rejected This has to do with another key notion that ties Basalla the historian to anthropology his notion of o The Good Life this is Basalla s key concept the notion that every culture has an idea of the best way to live one s life and how technology can help realize that This will be the chief selection pressure that will be exerted on technology which items will help members of that culture realize the good life and which ones will not or not to the same extent Anthropology 222 Professor Roe Basalla Ch 1 Notes Page 5 of5 Aniimpulugy 232 391133 flying Basalla George 1988 The Evolution of Technology New York Cambridge University Press Chapter 3 Novelty 1 Psychological and Intellectual Factors 0 Why are some societies more innovative than others 0 US currently issues 70000 patents annually others like Tikopia studied by Raymond Firth in the 1920s exhibit greater stasis o Borrowing and quotartifactual isomorphism selecting a better material for a similar traditional artifact or artifact component eg the Tikopia fitted Western steel carpenter planes into their traditional stone adzes o Borrowing and a subclass of the quottransformed objectquot the quotaesthetic transformquot ie turning something that was technical effective tech into affective art e g the Tikopians shaped the handles of discarded toothbrushes into earrings 0 quotHomo faberquotquotMan the Makerquot emphasizes the physical necessity argument quotHomo ludensquotquotMan the Playerquot is utilized by Basalla instead the quotgamequot of innovationinventionnovelty pleasure from solving puzzles overcoming challenges beating nature or human competitorsquot the role of makebelieve or fantasy o Technological Dreams 0 the proposals and dreams of the technological community their propensity to quot go beyond what is technically feasiblequotquotThe Technical Imperativequot Roe 0 this contradicts the quotconventional depiction of the technologist as a rational pragmatic an unemotional person dominated by a utilitarian outlookquot p67 Technological Extrapolations O consevative ventures well within the realm of possibility just a step or two beyond current practice imaginative exercizes or elegant variations of quotthemeandvariationsquot 0 Anthropology 222 Professor Roe Basalla Ch 3 Notes Page 1 of8 e g the quotMachine Booksquot of the Renaissance 14001600 published in Germany France and Italy hundreds of novel machines extrapolated from current practice because of their entertainment function they were called Theatrum machinarumquotTheater of Machinesquota clear case of novelty most popular by the French military engineer Agostino Ramelli 110 water pumps alone Not a product of necessity 0 Patents better representations of technical potentiality rather than actuality in 1869 only 10 of patents had practical potential again the rest are novelties39 market economic incentives don t eXplain them quotpsychic rewardsquot do They are quottechnological dreamersquot p71 0 Technological Visions 0 bold and fantastic ideas that really push the envelope but not a literary genre like science fiction earliest date to the 15th century e g Conrad Kyeser s BellifortisI fantastic war machines quotmilitary enfatuationquot or Leonardo da Vinci s 14521519 unpublished until the 19th century personal notebooks all quotprecocious techquot like ying machines and gliders parachutes helicopters armored tanks gigantic crossbows and catapults multibarreled guns a steam engine and steampowered gun paddle boats diving suits a selfpropelled springpowered wagon in old age he deplored war never upscaled from models to prototypes o Impossible Machines 0 They can never be actualized because they violate fundamental scientific laws like perpetualmotion machines a selfrotating wheel as early as the Sanskrit treatise Siddhanta Ciromani 400500 AD reaching an apogee again in the Rennaissance all closedcycle operations reached a peak in the 19th cen as steam power became evident would free industry from dependence upon imported raw materials and fuels 500 patents in energypoor England from 1 855 1 903 quotcold fusionquot in the US as late as the end of the 20th century 0 Popular Fantasies of the public outside of the technological community can Anthropology 222 Basalla Ch 3 Notes Professor Roe Page 2 of8 be traced back to the quotprecursorquot Roger Bacon the 13th cen English philosopher who prophesied that large ships without oars or sails would navigate the oceans or ying machines with beating wings like a birds that would y thru the skys or diving bells that would allow people to investigate the bottom of the seas technological prophesies o quotunfindable objectsquot like the quotstaircase cyclequot a bicycle for climbing stairs with X shaped wheels science fiction from the 19th cen Jules Verne s submarines HG Wells s time machine or Carel Capek s robots O O technological critiques e g cartoons like Rube Goldberg who highlighted the absurdity of technological civilization that creates compleX machines toward trivial ends and naively believes all human problems have a quottechnological fiXquot Francis Hsu s an American anthropologist quotextemalization of affectquot rather than teaching people not to steal we put up surveillance cameras 0 popular science journalism the concept of progress in Popular Science Science and Mechanics MechaniX Illustrated Popular Mechanics for the lowbrow Omni and Scientific American Discover Magazine for highbrow readers 0 quotProgressquot 0 the concept of quotprogressquot JB Bury and its relationship to the Western Linear Time conception O widespread fantasization of technology is primarily a Western phenomenon with the addition of modern Japan and may be related to Western hegemony 0 may exact hidden cultural costs eg enthusiasts of nuclear energy as a fantasized solution to energy problems may persuade govemments and the public to embark without a full consideration of its problems waste storage 0 Technology Transfer I Borrowing or quotdiffusionquot is a cultural universal no society completely isolated and selfsufficient I cultural contact via 0 Exploration 0 1543 3 Portuguese Adventurers bring 2 Anthropology 222 Professor Roe Basalla Ch 3 Notes Page 3 of8 Anthropology 222 Basalla Ch 3 Notes 0 O 0 Trade 0 O O matchlocksarquebuses with them 1560 Japanese matchlocks used routinely in the eld 1575 Matchlocks prove decisive in the great battle of Nagashino Legal exportation of tech In 1748 no steam engines operated in America altho they were common in England39 When Colonel John Schuyler of New Jersey wanted to drain water from his copper mines he contacted the Homblowers an experienced family of English mechanics who sent a son with the machine thus inaugurating the Age of Steam in the USA by 1755 Similar mechanics went all over Europe including Russia and Italy two of the least advanced regions technologically Development and Commercialization can be Undertaken by a country that lacks the industrial and scientific base to originate an item of technology e g the Japanese legal purchase of the rights to the transistor from Western Electric to transform Tokyo Telecommunica tions into SONY with the birth of the small transistor radio in 1955 Americans concentrated on the pure science developing better and different kinds of transistors for the military market while commercial companies were reluctant to adopt the new technology because it would compete with their vacumum tube sales and they needed to be replaced often due to heat failure making them lucrative and thus lost the market Illegal exportation of tech English traders illegally exported textile tech to America39 to protect its industry England had made exportation of machines and plans illegal by 178139 in 1783 several machines are smuggled to Philadelphia but no one could be found to assemble them and they had to be shipped back Early machines up to 1812 had no quotmanualsquot nor were they even pictured or drawn This hampered transmission as they needed the Professor Roe Page 4 of8 experienced mechanic to go along with the machine assemble it and teach locals to use and repair it the role of quotpractical knowledgequot 0 Travel and quotEnvironmental Influencesquot to spur Innovation First settlers to New World in 1600s brought with them axes from Germany and Britain both of which lacked quotpollsquotthe counterbalanced mass on the back of the haft39 they were suitable for shaping timbers but not felling the huge trees of American Virgin forests by 1715 the rst hint of a poll appeared and by 1780s it was fully developed39 by 1863 one manufacturer listed 13 kinds of axes All save 2 are gone today axes being replaced by chain saws or the classic atbottomed American steamboat from deep hulled keeled English protoytpes by 1850 or the American steam locomotive that defeated the river steamboat39 the 1 st one imported from England in 1829 resulting in the unique American quotleading truckquot the English had rigid driving wheels because they had a smaller country and therefore could prepare the track better with straighter runs tunnels and bridges that did not require those wheeels to turn39 the rougher American steep hills sharp curves and lowcost crude track made it necessary to have a forward set of turning wheels on its independentlytuming truck also immense distances eventually produced some of the largest and most powerful steam locomotives in the world or modern car micro cars in Europe and Japan not in USA 0 Relation of Technology to Science often overemphasized in Basalla s views Anthropology 222 Basalla Ch 3 Notes Connection between the 2 is complex and seldom hierarchical Science that spurs tech need not be the latest or the purest Science dictates the limits of the artifacts physical possibilities but not its physical form 0 The atmospheric steam engine vacuum not part of tech traditions but of speculative science of pneumatics a French scientist Denis Papin 1700 also a skilled mechanic who built his own devices He discovered the atmospheric steam engine and predicted several uses like Professor Roe Page 5 of 8 draining mines but did not implement it39 the workingclass ironmonger of little education Thomas Newcomen of Dartmouth England was more successful precisely because of his lack of education and his trade contacts He probably indirectly heard of Papin s discoveries and made a real workable machine from a simple lab apparatus not a mere translation of theory into practiceboth equal39 his pivoting beam was original Eugene Ferguson s theory of nonverbal quotvisual thinkingquot that characterizes the innovative stage of engineering models Marconi s 1 st true radio of little formal education and far inferior in his knowledge of physics than Maxwell Hertz and other scientists he was obsessed simply with getting better range highly empirical by tinkering with antenna design with the help of wealthy British relatives he founded the Wireless Telegraph and Signal Company in 1897 after having moved to England39 first sold to British army and navy technology went in advance of science 0 Importance of quotintennediariesquot 0 War Papin was close to those scientists doing pure pneumatic research yet his wider experiences and abilities led him to a successful lab apparatus that in turn inspired the mechanic Newcomen more so than were pure scientists like Torricelli Hertz turns Maxwell s pure theory into electromagnetic transmission into a lab demonstration where Marconi completes the process as a marketing and empirical system chains of communication 0 lligration voluntary or forced Anthropology 222 Basalla Ch 3 Notes 1685 Louis XIV revokes the Edict of Nantes ending a century of limited religious tolerance in France the French Huguenots Protestants many of whom were skilled craftsmen were forced to migrate to England Ireland Holland Germany and Switzerland transferring tech in the textile business silks velvets and laces and in related apparelhats stockings ribbons and gloves they improved the technology of fine papers and blown and cast plate glass Professor Roe Page 6 of8 Missionization 0 Technology Missions Industrial Espionage 0 Silk industry in England dates to arrival of the French Huguenots but the English were still hampered by irregular handthrown thread and needed to copy superior waterpowered machinethrown Italian thread to make more regular cloth but the latter had tumed that into a state secret they even permitted a book illustration of their machine but so much was not and could not be conveyed in the drawing that the secret was safe until 1715 when a mechanic was sent to Italy to secretly observe the machine in operation and learn its secrets Modern companies make employees sign quotrestrictive covenants the recent case of 3 Chinese who worked for Argilent exporting to China new phone patching software 0 Intellectual Property Infringement o Imperialism 17401947 the 200 year rule of the British rule of India the role of steamship and railroad Anthropology 222 Basalla Ch 3 Notes 1801 Age of steam propulsion in England begins with the steam tuboat quotCharlotte Dundasquot 1819 1 st steamboat in India a small Britishbuilt pleasure craft for an Indian prince 1824 River steamboats proved decisive in defeating Burmese in the AngloBurmese War 1840 Ganges steamers built but local level of income so low that it could not generate sufficient revenue and service curtailed nevertheless steamboats were a potent symbol of English might magical techthey sailed upriver without use of sails or oars as if by magic Railroad in India1 of the largest tech projects by any Colonial power 0 1845 Huge source of funds invested 95 million pounds sterling from this date to 1875 alone 1863 2500 miles of track by this date Professor Roe Page 7 of8 o 1936 43000 miles by this date the 4th largest system in the world It was accompanied by a telegraph system very important in transfering information paradoxically India eXposed to Western tech earliest 25 years before Japanese railroad but utilized it less 1947 Indian independence industrialization lags due to the utilization of a socialist model until nearly the present Professor Roe Anthropology 222 Page 8 of 8 Basalla Ch 3 Notes
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