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History 202 Notes WEEK 5

by: kiara campbell

History 202 Notes WEEK 5 History 202

kiara campbell

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These notes cover topic 4 from class days 03/02 to 03/11. In here you'll find information on Immigration, Acculturation, Nativists Reaction to Immigration and the Emergence of the American Cities.
American History to 1877
Class Notes
Americanization, immigrants, Reformers, Irish, Russians, Cities, Nativists, acculturation, Ellis Island
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by kiara campbell on Sunday March 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 202 at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by DR. ROWLAND in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see American History to 1877 in History at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.


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Date Created: 03/13/16
History 202 Study Guide WEEK 5 (Exam 2 info) Professor: Rowland Section: 003 Topic 4 IMMIGRATION AND RISE OF THE CITY I. Waves of Immigration 1815-1860 “Old Immigration”  Constant stream largely from the same place (British Isles)  Integrated into culture and mindset without difficulty  By 1840-1870 dominated by Irish and Germans o They came over for specific reasons o Were discriminated against because they are Catholic o Irish came due to Potato Famine and Germans came because over over population Middle Immigration: Irish, Germans, Lowlanders, Scandinavians  Basically had the same type of reasons for coming over (Poverty, Persecution, over population, etc.) 1. Shift in Volume- coming in tidal waves 2. Shift in place of origin- coming from Russia, Greece, Italy, etc.  Perceived as very foreign II. Journey and Arrival  Steam powered vessels now can bring immigrants in volume  Comfortable Journey for 1 Class Passengers (Suites, better treatment, etc.)  2ndclass was mostly a professional class (doctors, lawyers, business types)  3 class had it the worst o Mostly immigrants o No rooms, have cots to sleep on, crowded, disease spread easily Castle Garden with Steamships at Anchor  New York attracted the most immigrants  Big ships needed a deep harbor which is why NY was the place to port Ellis Island Built to Handle Immigrants 1. When they arrived they’d have to line up in Great Hall to be processed a. Were checked of illnesses, condition, and for a wild look (anarchist) b. Marked by a letter that indicated their status 2. Had Quarantine and Hospital a. Checked for Trachoma (blindness disease) 3. Declaration of Intention Form a. Had to renounce all former loyalty to former government/ ruler b. State living arrangements and financial situation 4. Complete Character Chart a. Checked mental history 5. Released into U.S. in 1910 a. Many took residence on Eastern seaboard II. Stimulants for Immigration 1. Railroads during 1860-1880 a. Rise of cities attracted many immigrants as manual laborers and other jobs (policemen, mailmen, etc.) 2. Heavy Industry Stimulates Immigration 1880-1920 a. Industry flourishing and the fuel was coal b. Steel industry flourishing VI. Acculturation: Becoming American  Native borns can’t stop the issue of immigration  Turn to acculturation to make them American A. Immigrant Aid Societies a. Greeted, served drinks, acted as translators b. Assisted with housing, provided charity, searched for jobs c. During great immigrant rush they couldn’t keep up d. Societies based on ethnicity and religion B. Catholic Church and Fortress Mentality a. Irish virtually all Catholic b. Traditional native borns were opposed to Catholicism c. Church formed protective field for Catholic Immigrants d. Made it clear that Catholics were loyal and respective Jewish Experience  Coming from Poland, Ukraine, Russia, etc.  Very poor and no real opportunities  Lived in Ghettos (lower east side of Manhattan)  Was very dirty, unsanitary, disease rampant and crowded C. Rise of Urban Bosses and Irish Hegemony a. No language barriers for Irish b. Made connection to voting to political power quickly 1. Shared power with others 2. W.A.S.P. losing control of political power c. How they Held Power: 1. Understood power of Vote and politics 2. Charles F. Murphy (City Boss) worked behind the scenes 3. Very organized o Controlled how people vote o Made sure everyone voted 4. Seized control of polls (fraudulent ways) Getting Vote Out  1960 election in Chicago is an example of this:  People who died even voted (cemetery vote)  Fake street addresses (Lake Vote) Why So Popular?  Irish bosses capitalized on distance and distrust of W.A.S.P.s  Patronage- handed out jobs and labor  Controlled contractors who built buildings V. Nativists Reaction  First W.A.S.P.s in colonial era refer to themselves as 1 Natives  Fear mostly directed at Catholic Aspect  Creation of Know-Nothing movement in 50s o Ran candidates based on being native born, anti immigrant and anti Catholic Various Concerns/Fears of Nativists 1. Anti-Catholicism- particularly with Irish a. Fear of Catholicism taking over/infecting culture b. Fear immigrants who lived under despotism weren’t able to live in a land with popular government and institutions 2. Fear of Being Culturally Washed Over a. Scared so many immigrants will wash over W.A.S.P. culture b. Thought they could never assimilate 3. U.S. Becoming Garbage Dump for Europe’s unwanted a. Unwanted elements coming to U.S. (Chronically ill, poor people) b. Sick/Destitute will place burden upon U.S. tax payers 4. Contaminating Republican Process a. Immigrants coming from under oppressive governments b. Think they wont respect the political power of popular government Expectation: Government needs to stem flow & Insist Upon Americanization  Pledge of Allegiance created in 1893  T. Roosevelt made a statement saying to drop the hyphenated last name because its un-American  Wilson makes Flag Day in 1916  Many other programs instituted to promote “100% Americanization” Limits and Exclusions  Chinese Exclusion act  National Origins Act 1924 o Assigns certain % of ethnics to come into country o Strictest quotas on Italians, Russians, etc. VI. The Emerging City  Completion of Brooklyn Bridge 1883  Sign of emergence of steel A. Organizing the Growth  Cant expand horizontally so build vertically (Dumb bell Tenement)  Switching predominately from rural to urban  Chicago 1 city to have skyscraper Rapid Population increases & introduced Dreadful Conditions  Sanitation- streets are filthy  Plumbing not universal  Streets reeked especially during summer  Filth on streets got dumped/washed into lakes and rivers Crime  Ethnic street gangs  Police offers are corrupt or turned blind eye to crime (1870s) Segregating Various Purposes  Industrial centers on rivers/ports  Commercial districts (shops, restaurants, etc.)  Residential districts (homes) Creating Green Space in Big Cities  “The City Beautiful Movement”  Creates parks to balance chaotic city  Fredrick Law Olmstead o Developed Central Park in NY and Washington Mall in D.C. Cities adopt Boards of Health  By 1900 most cities develop sanitation departments to take trash off streets  Board of Health: o Deals with diseases in over crowded areas and tries to isolate diseases o “Typhoid Mary” – a cook who unknowingly started typhoid outbreak Advent of Salaried Professionals  By 1900 had salaried police officers  Fire Dept. no longer voluntary and now salaried Cultural and Entertainment Centers th  By end of 19 century cities were becoming centers for culture and entertainment  Restaurants/theater are emerging/flourish  Stadium building and professional sports era Social Reformers and the Cities: The Mugwumps  Reformers: Native borns (middle class to wealthy) W.A.S.P. th 1919 Social Reformers Early 20 Progressives 1. Not willing to see 1. Believes the system fundamental issue in needs to change system (wages, 2. Force people to housing, etc.) change 2. Thinks it’s the 3. Coercion (laws) that immigrant forced change 3. Problem with people, not our system 4. Persuasion to Change Protestant Social Reform Groups:  Salvation Army  YMCA Reformers  Carry Nation o Conviction for good morals/behavior o Pointed out delinquents and persuade them to self reform  Jane Adams o Pushed for many reforms o Joined N.W.A.A.C.P. o Established settlement house for abandoned women and children o The Hull House becomes a complex (part residents, part club, part school) o The Hull House provided overall essential social services of welfare, relief, and entertainment Limitations  Jane realized she couldn’t win immigrants over completely  They seen her as part of the governments system  Couldn’t take on Urban bosses/machine  Tried to run against Johnny Powers but plans foiled


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