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by: Wendy Tremblay
Wendy Tremblay
GPA 3.91


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Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Wendy Tremblay on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KAAP310 at University of Delaware taught by DavidEdwards in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/207167/kaap310-university-of-delaware in Physiology at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
KAAP310 21014 Endocrine System Endocrine System 0 Acts with the nervous system to coordinate and integrate the activity of body cells 0 Influences metabolic activities by means of hormones transported in the blood 0 Responses occur more slowly but tend to last longer than those of the nervous system 0 NS is quicker than ES Endocrinology 0 Study of hormones and endocrine organs 0 Some organs are primarily endocrine some are secondary Chemical Messengers Hormones travel by fluid 0 Hormones longdistance chemical signals that travel in the blood or lymph o Autocrines chemicals that exert effects on the same cells that secrete them 0 Paracrines locally acting chemicals that affect cells other than those that secrete them I doesn t have to get into fluid to have effect local 0 Autocrines and paracrines are local chemical messengers and will not be considered part of the endocrine system 0 Mechanisms of Hormone Action 0 Hormone action on target cells may be to 0 Alter plasma membrane permeability of membrane potential by opening or closing ion channels 0 Stimulate synthesis of proteins or regulatory molecules 0 Activate or deactivate enzyme systems 0 Induce secretory activity 0 Stimulate mitosis Chemistry of Hormones Two main classes 1 Amino acidbased hormones a Amino acid derivatives peptides and proteins 2 Steroids a Synthesized from cholesterol i Gonadal and adrenocortical hormones ii Adrenocortical adrenal glandcortex Watersoluble hormones all amino acid based hormones except thyroid hormone 0 Two mechanisms depending on their chemical nature 1 Watersoluble hormones all amino acid based hormones except thyroid hormone 0 Cannot enter the target cells 0 Act on plasma membrane receptors 0 Coupled by G proteins to intracellular second messengers that mediate the target cell s response Lipidsoluble hormones steroidthyroid 39 Plasma Membrane Receptors and SecondMessenger Systems cAMP cAMP signaling mechanism 1 Activated kinases phosphorylate various proteins activating some and inactivating others 0 Phosphorylate breaks down cAMP 2 cAMP is rapidly degraded by the enzyme phosphodiesterase 3 Intracellular enzymatic cascades have a huge amplification effect Plasma Membrane Receptors and SecondMessenger Systems 1 PP29 DAG P3 broken down 2 DAG causes activated protein kinases 3 P3 triggers release of calcium which alters enzymes Other Signaling Mechanisms Cyclic guanosine monophosphate cGMP is second messenger for some hormones Some work without second messengers 1 Eg insulin receptor is tyrosine kinase enzyme that autophosphorylates upon insulin binding 9 docking for relay proteins that trigger cell responses Target Cell Specificity Target cells must have specific receptors to which the hormone binds 1 ACTH receptors are only found on certain cells of the adrenal cortex 2 Thyroxin receptors are found on nearly all cells of the body 0 Thyroxin thyroid hormone Ta rget Cell Activation Target cell activation depends on three factors 1 Blood levels of the hormone 2 Relative number of receptors on or in the target cell 3 Affinity of binding between receptor and hormone 0 Some hormones have more than 1 option for binding 0 Upregulation an increase in receptors 0 Downregulation lowhigh hormone response etc Hormones in the Blood Hormones circulate in the blood either free or bound 1 Steroids and thyroid hormone are attached to plasma proteins 2 All others circulate without carriers The concentration of a circulating hormone reflects 1 Rate of release 2 Speed of inactivation and removal from the body Interaction of Hormones at Target Cells Multiple hormones may interact in several ways Control of Hormone Release Blood levels of hormones 1 Are controlled by negative feedback systems 2 Vary only within a narrow desirable range Hormones are synthesized and released in response to Humoral Stimuli Changing blood levels of ions and nutrients directly stimulates secretion of hormones Examples Humoral Stimuli Neural Stimuli Nerve fibers stimulate hormone release 1 Sympathetic nervous system fibers stimulate the adrenal medulla to secrete catecholamines Hormonal Stimuli Hormones stimulate other endocrine organs to release their hormones 1 Hypothalamic hormones stimulate the release of most anterior pituitary hormones 2 Anterior pituitary hormones stimulate targets to secrete still more hormones 3 Hypothalamicpituitarytarget endocrine organ feedback loop hormones from the final target organs inhibit the release of the anterior pituitary hormones Nervous System Modulation The nervous system modifies the stimulation of endocrine glands and their negative feedback mechanisms 1 Example under severe stress the hypothalamus and the sympathetic nervous system are activated 0 As a result body glucose levels rise


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