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by: Tatyana Bartell

PrinciplesofCommunicationTheory COMM256

Marketplace > University of Delaware > Communication > COMM256 > PrinciplesofCommunicationTheory
Tatyana Bartell
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This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tatyana Bartell on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM256 at University of Delaware taught by StevenMortenson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see /class/207170/comm256-university-of-delaware in Communication at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
Communications 256 Test 2 Depth PSYCl lOlOgy foundations in romantic thought quotUnderstanding the subconscious Bearing witness to emotion restraint of the conscious mind Attachment patterns 9 you remember things from being little when you re olderhow you acted as a child predicts future as adult Romanticist employs metaphors of essence depth and intensity 9 to find a meaningful life searching for ones deep essences They seek the authentic life Avoid contrived experienceslook for real ones quotA moral ideal which informs numerous practices and beliefs in contemporary American and Western Cultures Page 3031 You must develop your consciousness in order to have relationship with self and ultimately others Archetype essential idea in society across history 9 universalism Monarch energy decisiveness Human essence Mythology navigates emotions relate the stories to life story of the psych coming to integrate with person Depth psychology tries to point you to the authentic life romanticists seek passionate emotional experiencesart poetry etc Logic and reason are cold hard devoid ethics and morals Failure gives us gifts however we are afraid ofpower u u quotMyths religion and artarchetypal blue print for quotmaking life live Don t be seduced by your feelingshave a relationship with them pg 31 Senex old one 9 melancholy grief wisdom sedentariness heaviness patina ofa life time honor these emotions because they give us depth ex Lincoln after Civil War Puer youth 9 lithe full of energy ambition mischief and optimism sensuality and foolishness ex Peter Pan Puer says to embrace life while cautioning us against becoming seduced away from emotional depth by youth and ambition A dream is our own personal myth 9 myths help us navigate emotions I Feelings and experiences are constant jung and Campbell authentic experience in touch with Transcendent Sacred and Divine ifyou are in touch with mythic symbols you are consciously and emotionally able to chart your own life Bottom line of DS according to ungian notion of constancy 9 archetypes have essence that does not change Perennial myth is told over and over Hillman meaningful life is about finding ones essential character Show consistence and reliability Childhood to adulthood Romantic thought and existentialism differ over primary essence of existence one shared belief ones own lives experiences are both the grounds and the guide toward the meaningful life you choose ones path no one can choose it for you What is the meaning il life Pragmatist any idea faith or philosophy is only as good as the consequences that it brings about Lecture 8 Self Esteem and Social Constructionism Human Drive Towards Heroism humans can t just be they are always striving towards something with meaning quotHumans can t be the primary valuemust be the hero pg 60 Cultural Achievement 9 getting recognition or having a meaningful experience 0 to satisfy drive A heroic drive towards specialness quotself esteem A threat to self esteem possible failure Don tlet failure define you 9 do something to outlive ourselves something that will exist when we are gone write books songs build monuments etc Heroism is a human condition 9 in modern times the heroic seems to big for us or we re too small for it A person who shrinks back from embodying heroism quotlive life in wasteland Face to face in teractl39an as a heroic archetype Every culture has different quotheroesquot and different ideas of heroes Humans drive toward heroism and manifest two paradoxical needs Eros stand out and apart need to stand out apart from ones cohort Agape selfcontribution need to merge with a gap community or purpose larger than ones self We hunger for heroic belonging Gratitude is good no gratitude makes people defensive humble healing power We have the need to distinguish ourselves from other 9 we need to feel special like we have a unique gift to bring to the world No one wants tofeeI interchangeable quotIf he gives in to Agape he risks failing to develop himselfIfhe expands Eros too much he risks cutting himself off from natural dependency pg 62 9you need a balance between Eros and Agape People crave heroesseek extraordinary people even mundane and seemingly heroic people find expansion of their lives through heroes People protect their own power and ability on their heroes Ex ifwe look up to parents we are children 9 we transfer unlived goals onto our heroes If we keep people on a pedestal we can t progress Problems with heroes nexus of quotunfreedomquot around their followers quotHeroesquot Hitler Osama Bin Laden Charles Manson etc FacetoFaceInteraction as a Heroic Arena you have partial input What does heroism have to do with communication self esteem is the most precarious and precious thing a person has We have to keep earning and earning and striving and striving Rare individual doesn t care what anybody things about her or him SELF ESTEEM we get it from other people we want to be seen doing something good We offer up identity through interaction other people confirm it face social identity How I feel about myself 9face 139s howyoufeel about me PG 64 Social encounters hallowed event inner sense of esteem is exposed to others socially as our sense of face ritualized standard responses 0 Face is not something one owns face resides in the stream of events between people In every social encounter we entrust our self esteem to the other because face is societies window to the core of the self face rituals ensure the gentle handing of our face by others RACE is societies window to loose face race is a mutual understanding of how people are treating each other during an interaction eXistentialist decisions quotI don t have face other people have mind and I have theirs the seeableness of my face only eXists through other people IDENTIY is only located within events 9 when we see another seeing us regarding us Who we are to them is presences for us upon their face We don t like rivals 0r enemies they con rm ourface Face is how we wish to be seen the identify we wish to project in a given interaction Who we are depends on located ow of events face is how we wish to be seen Social encounter 9 our sense of esteem is eXposed quotface like esteem Face is not something one quotownsquot rather face resides in the stream of events Getting quotcalled out Challengesface Our rituals are predictable cultural and existential decision person centered messages Human condition price Page 65 quotRecognizing the face of another through the ritual care attests to the sacredness of other human begins These rituals are mostly attended from they are unconscious habits of cultural behavior It is only when someone blunders says something that embarrasses another or themselves that we attend to these ritual behaviors of face maintenance Social identity at risk when meeting something Face can be threatenedmaintain face in situation or make it better Blunder ritual 9 then you recognize it 9 other wise it is an unconscious pattern quotFace work describes our ritualized attempts to avoid losing face and experiencing embarrassment or loss of poise and to maintain for others an impression of self respect 9 to be ashamed lose face eX spouse makes you own up to self Compliment you gain face Our culture has habit anger is suffering from fear Mistake you use humor deemphasizing and acknowledge you use excuses rationalize blame your fault apologize Blaming doesn t solve things acwuntability is also important CIVIL INATTENTION we pretend not to notice something about another person or behavior How we hold others sacred in what we choose not to see ego represents us Rituals deal with expectations Symbolic identity risk what to protect internal face Performing the quotwhoquot ofwho we are being human beings means having facewe perform in others presencenot faking making quotThe different identities I enact with others are not something I own they are claims that I negotiate with other people Who I come to be with others is a result ofboth the person I claim to be with them and the eXtent ofwhich they confirm modify or oppose my claims to a particular identity quot playing a role doesn t mean faking who you are Identity is also a kind of residue of the performance quotI am a lousy cook vs quotyou are a lousy cook Who I claim to be with you also puts a kind of claim on who I take you to be How people confirm or modify it not a maternal thing we believe initial claims we don t question them Who I decide I am what is going on You have a moral obligation to believe someone until they prove themselves to be wrong Situations are consensual Its not just who I am with an identify its who I cast others to e Who do you need around you to be that person Why We needs someone to confirm us You need friends to push you Pg 67 quot The projected definition has a distinctive moral characterthis is again part of the ritualized care we engage in with others IT is within these rituals of face defining the situation and face work that we come to be the particular people we are people suppress opinions in order to maintain situations 9 working definition is trying not to contradict that definitions of a situation with the attitudes of one other DEPTH PSYCOLOGY Face who you are trying to be Shadow who you don t want to be lies to others as well as self socially risky part of personality LECTURE 9 COMMUNICATING HUMAN DARKNESS Depth psych unconscious personality face 9who am I trying to be 9 ego made social In culture people suppress aggression inappropriate sexualitysocialization discourages behaviors in childrenthese constraints are required if one is to survive and succeedifyou are chastised about something as a childthese things go into your shadow We repress or hide those behaviors feelings or capacities condemned by parents and society WE LEARN TO HIDE FROM OURSELVES Shadow is self that is seen as inferior the shameful parts of self the socially discouraged parts of ourselves make up our personal shadow 9 shadow comes out when drunkviolence is shadow suppress aggression taught by parents There are some who can t control shadow Protect selfesteem Shadow is opposite of culture and family values quotBecause it is contrary to our chosen conscious attitude pg 69 we all have part of self that is trying to look good etcackle other part of self thinks and doesn t acthyde 9 Makes a shadowed personality Something activates shadow 9 it becomes a splintered personality dark side is stuff were ashamed of everyone needs it but its difficult to produce different shadow You can recognize things are bad evil is not recognizing what you re doing is bad 0 stuffin shadow isn t bad it s just risky Everyone needs a shadow to survive in a culturethe problem of redundant constraint ours when we have things in our shadow that would be helpful BOYS are taught to avoid showing their affectionate or vulnerable selveswhen we raise GIRLS to be nurturing their assertive powerful feelings may go into shadow what do you do when your trained to do something and you have to do the opposite People pleasers explode Shadow is the very opposite of the face we try to enact in social reactionact on impulsefeel shameput it in shadow deny it happenedshamed self Pieces of self 9 shadow doesn t go away quotthe long bag we drag behind us Society loves when celebrities heroes make mistakes 9 thrill false sense ofsecurity Egogladring watch reality shows to make you feel better LOST 0F FACE9 doesn t go away you become emotionally wounded use wound for good Socialization is required for one to internalized ones culture to mind the world with it We often internalize our cultures shadow as well In masculine oriented culture such as ours the shadowis feminine 0 Some emotions are stamped in stone others like weather come and go o In a youth oriented culture like ours shadow is age Masculine competition separate or solo Feminine inclusion loving collaboration Nakedness is a problem Why mind world with culture you get cultural shadow worship youth We ve become a culture that always disappears self SHADOW 1 Personal 2 Cultural We glorify things in culture push others aside 9 cultural shadow Women and mirrors see cultural impressions quotI d rather be whole than good Striving 2 em body cultural dealswhen we repress personal exile we take a positive art and don t use it Gold in Darkness First is we leave valuable character traits underdeveloped things we need to make life live Con ict skills underdeveloped and we get run over in arguments Ifmen leave their nurturing side underdeveloped they feel uncomfortable expressing affection etcwomen leave sexuality underdeveloped they may find the love life sucks ltPeoples feelings are their own responsibilitygt Sometimes its good to be introverted We spend a lot oftime and energy trying to hide shadow 9 makes us angry defensive and critical Deny shadow controlling kids anxiety Own something about self Giants in public saint in private Traits have a value you can t worry about everyone else s sins And not yours projection of shadow Projection of Shadow Someone who bugs you 9 you don t like how the person gets away with it What I deny in selfI accuse in you pg 72 quotIn our quest Forbidden desires contrary to who we are trying to be Perfectionists hate those who can relax You want ityou project shadow on others quot Projection blurs our view of the world and of other people It interferes with out capacity to see objectively and relate humanly It may be that others are truly greedy or arrogant however when we project our own greed or arrogance on others we cannot tell ifit is their greed we are seeing or are own I project what I don t like about myself of others 9 in uence of relationships on people Often what you think is is Projection is there it sticks victims put perpetrators in shadow perpetrator s put victims in shadow quotI didn t do it Rape 9 she was asking for it quotvictim blame o Ifyou project arrogance you cant recognize being humble o Carryings others goals is irrational William Miller states that people projected upon usually have hooks quotsomething for our projections to stick on GIVING AWAY OUR GOLD Spouses may give each other the things they don t like in them and then condemn those same traits quotTalk to your mom men don t want to take responsibility for it 1 Spouse boundaries 2 Spouse spontaneity HUSBANDS WIVES and SHADOWS Missing piece isn t missing it s in our shadow People need to loosen up bound bind quotA husband may take on his wife s disavowed need for preserving emotional distance She thinks it her job to promote intimacy 0 she gives him all her unwanted needs for boundaries and distance Instead each spouse taking ownership of there needs for both intimacy and boundaries one spouse l Being in love staring loving same concerns at each and possibilities of one another We love and hate our enemies as much as we love and hate ourselves Image ofenemy in mirror we see self Clearly Oklahoma City hom hing rst people accused were Arabs but it was white male Cultures project on each otherfaith is most powerful weapon you can harness quotThe US Spoke of totalitarian regime lack of freedom violations of human rights All the while the US prison population climbed Middle East projection on us we create enemies so we can be victorious quotGreat Satan 9 projection on each other WHEN YOU COMPLAIN 9its hecauseyour not ready to deal with ityet quotWe create evil out of our highest ideals and most noble aspirations WE NEED TO BE HEROIC be on the side of god eliminate evil to clan up the world to be victorious over death that we visit destruction and death on all who stand in the way of our heroic historical destiny Be careful about highest ideals eX Iraq Heroes need villains Collective shadow Paradox solidarity and concern comes to aggression and destruction Villain other people Or cancer etc Humans to believe required to believe in something bigger than elf for fulfilled life 9be careful of blind faith Mortality and death when faced with mortality impact on selfesteem project death is and both fear and inspire 911 everyone was threatened Iraq was projection Make shadow conscious What are your buttons Set you off irrationally Why do you get set off Where did it come from Who gave it to you Buttons are things that touch our shadow looking at them is a good place to start Pg 77 quotIs there someone you know who does nothing to you specifically take a good look at them and you will Things that in child hood hold us back push us forward Follow feeling of fear shame insecurity and anger What is driving them Such feeling are the path to shadow 3 days to live What would you saybrutally honest and compassionate with self then shadow comes out Recognize that a weakness may be a strengthunrecognized or misdirected 0 Parents make you lose face in shadow If shadow is good why not acknowledge 9 no honesty Cultural and parents encourage and discourage make use of them ll look at cultural shadow and decide what you believe LECTURE COGNITIVE DISSONANCE TEXTBOOK Science and thought of behavior Cognitive Dissonance not conducive w what I say feel Consistency everything works together Sometimes a lie 9 we don t like someone who is inconsistent 9 not ethical we don t like this because we cant predict I We have a drive towards avoiding dissonance Cognitive consistency we seek out into that justifies previous belief selective disclosure avoid thoughts that challenge Cog dissonance like person hate their music buyers remorse final decision 9 doubts Cognitive Dissonanc get some one to do something Common sense persuade w reason Cognitive Dissonance first make them do it they make reason as to why it was worth it STUDY Example people will lie for money 1St group 1 2 1 20 1 said it was fun because they made it fun 20 lied and admitted it sucked Frat and Sororities pledge justify hazing after sacrifice o ifyou sacrifice for something you make it worth for yourselfno one needs to persuade you made it consistent 0 Reduce cognitive dissonance Iraq those who lost child in war said that war was right no matter what administration is right 9 can t blame parents for thinking their child s death wasn t worth it Cognitive inconsistency they fall back on past accomplishments more virtuous and honest 9 more likely they cheat personal responsibilities for bad outcome feel cognitive dissonance reduce dissonance if you can fall back on virtue 9 self affirmation l manipulate through need of consistency I be careful of small favor turns into a big one commitment9 small thing committed too forces a person to commit to a larger one because people want to be cognitively consistent MAKES YOU CHOOSE cog con 9 nice cogdiss9 human beings Ifyou want something tell people because it forces you to stay with the commitment how strongly do we have to stick to a specific set ofbeliefs 1 or 20 experiment dissonance is created by larger or smaller reward cog diss is about motivation not thinking Dissonance think something do opposite we are human hypocrites avoid dissonancy ehypothesis 1 0 Caught bw 2 horns I like them they believe in that do I like them Selective Exposure support what I already believe want someone to change believes create cognitive dissonance introduces doubt Pro birth vs pro life same people cut social security and education want them born but don t want to take care of them Everything you believe has a whole you have to be honest about things and thoughts BUYERS remorse 9 cold feet at the alterhyp0theSiS 2 need reinforcements Hypothesis 3 minimal justification induces a shift in attitude More selfesteem dissonance Would I lie for 20 says its fun In private it sucks 1 say its funreally is fun More self esteem Dissonance 9 once you take public stance you are forced to stick with it politics not conducive to honesty Favor9 small9big LECTURE ON SEMIOTICS textbooks Signifier signified What it is that it is Relationship between signifier and signified is arbitrary Dog animal signified stands for something Service dong signifier SIGN both of them together Connotative and denotative What I mean con what it means deno THINGS SHIFT IN MEANING Start one meaning 9 end up meaning something else Apple pie 9 reminds you a lot of different things If you put it with a baseball and a ag AMERICA Fourth ofuly Swastika used to mean luck now means holocaustracist Cultural and historical to become timeless meaning swept off 9 mythic symbol Cross sacrifice and love ancient device of torture Yellow ribbon STFU and support the troops diagram in book argument over Georgia ag bad for business symbols move unemotionally Why change mythic symbols Historical and cultural meanings are gone Symbol used to maintain authority Symbols don t mean what they used to LECTURE 12 WHAT SHOULD WORK BE Depth psych perspective What should our life s work be What does it mean for one to say quotmy life s work Destiny vs calling Career vs life s work Money or meaning 9 both if lucky Bliss is where passion intersects world9 transcend self that s where bliss is idealistic How do you want to make a difference What makes people satisfied wjob or career When job becomes personal expression of person 0 Further build and develop who you are doing it Thomas Moore vocation a calling from a place that is the source ofmeaning and identify Work should CALL US Vocationcalling quotjames Hillman describes destiny as something calls us rather than somethingfated to happen to us no matter what we do 0ne s destiny is something that must he listenedfor and carefully attended to WE are on a path or engaged in something that seems natural or that catches us up heit music or math we are attended to our destiny FURTHER build and develop who you are quotThere is more in a human life than our theories will allow Sooner or later something seems to call us to a particular path You may remember his quotsomethingquot as a signal moment in childhood when an urge out of now where a fascination This is what I must do this is what I ve got to have This is who I am What grabs your attention Feel things for yourselfbecause you either betray you or you betray others Others will get over it you won t Be true to yourself but also help others along UNIQUE destiny for each personeach one of us has something that can be done by no one else Ifyou are engaged in something 9 that s what you should be doing we each have a special qualification BECAUSE we are driven to find meaning Existentialist chance depth psych no accidents Ifyou fall out of rhythm you renege on your potential talent 9 meaningless Find a sense of home at job Don t pick major for There is a desirefor work in everyone We all have something we have to do Every class we ve ever been in prepares us for workcollege is enough training for work not even major classes HOW does a job help you cultivate yourself Gives you things that others recognize Cars money etc what you think you needs is external success You don t internal is key What else constitutes a life39s work Fall in love family car Nice house 1 Integrity it fits within your values helps people you care about it you can be proud ofit its born out of your visions values and ideals 2 Service do a service your someone else make the world a better place benefit others make something meaningful or make meaningless worth it 3 Enjoyment Bliss You love to do it you use your talents it should feel good be gun and cultivate your enjoyment work should be playful as well 4 Excellence does it take everything you have Sacrifice with no meaning is not excellence it should be something that you can dedicate yourself too sacrifice for good work One way or another we all have to find what best fosters the owering ofhumanity in this contemporary life and dedicate ourselves to that can you dedicate your life to somethin Sacrifice you for the worlds needs because you believe in the people who benefit All labor that uplifts humanity has dignity and importance and should be undertaken with painstaking excellence What does work give you Meaning Everyone worships something 9 ifyou pretend to or pretend not to your kidding yourself The highest order of duty to the self is to follow your bliss 39eros and agape quotThe more deeply our work stirs imagination and corresponds to images that lie there at the bedrock of identify and fate the more it will have soulMost ofus put a great deal of time into work not only because we have to work so many hours to make a living but because work is central to the souls opus We are crafting ourselves What is it about this place that can stir imagination Calling career and social identify We craft ourselves Work helps you crack self quotBliss and sacrifice are two sides of the same coin quoton is bliss being used is sacrifice Struggle first you get what you put in In work contribute to something bigger than yourself MONEY Money is congealed energy and releasing it releases life s possibilities Causes vs bad the more we have the more value the less we feel Money or fetish object Project psychic energy on to it Lack or excess of money is dangerousno economic challenges 9 removes maturity Quantity quality Money is emotionally charged what are you willing to do for money Love of money is root of evil not actual money We know what we wantwe don t know after we get it PEOPLE ARE HAUNTED BY DEPRICATION following money is bad Fetish object money is a fetish object ags crucifix you project self work on it Meaningmoney Moore claims that money is not just a rational exchange but it also carries soul and shadows SACRIFICING MEANING FOR is bad 9 what is emotional relationship with money The experience of wealth is after all a subjective thing Wealthy means having all their credit cards pay off for others it means having rolls Royce EXPERIENCE ofwealth is subjective its about whatyou decide it means wealthy person knows they get enough more money bigger person Poor is state of mind off types ofwealth More of something doesn t satisfy the cravingnot too much or too little but taking it literally Work gives belonging cautionary carelessness in what we decide to belong to quotEveryone loves to belongto a group or a familybe yourself at work your true nature giftness and imagination You should never beIong JIIy to something outsideyourself find a balance Don t give to much of self to belong or believe to something LECTURE COMMUNICATION EFFECTIVE THEORY TEXTBOOK Social Construction Theory how reality and meaning is made Corporationsorganizations What reality is believed to be real How does communication affect it Theory is critical Reality created 9 a bad one Democracy everyone has a voice and a say theory is to make organizations more like that Info model Common sense model of reality reality is the way it is Strategy and involvement Info as strategystrategically control people Involvement say what you think do something Complain box example 0 expression but no real voice ex voting 0 warns corporations are invading outlives too much Communication model not common sense premise comm creates reality consent get you to do what I want take time off but work for freebad participation is goodeveryone gets a vote or stay CORPORATE COLONIZATION OF EVERY DAY LIFE act at home how you act in job eX bottom line reference What are we willing to put up with Work week 40 hours a week then culture changes it to 5060 hours a week IF you alter common sense you control life without people knowing How did we let thing happen Common sense quotWithin lifetime ofmost college students quote from book double check LANGUAGE IS A SOCIAL MEDIUM Strategy managerialism managerial control cultural and pretend its natural quotpeople are treated like machines cultural pretends its natural quotbottom line never good 9surveillance people always feel like they are at work DARWINISM strongest survive bullshit Business are propped up by government We are so concerned with stockholders that we forget about stake holder customers and vendors Consent we are complacent in oppression willingly fuck ourselves But you go around and do the same thing How do you let this happen Our culture of expectations makes norms that people by into INVOLVEMENT Free expression ofideas but no voice What is more important cheap things or providing people with a livelihood and safe work Say what you want not taken seriously PARTICIPATION Later on how re you going to do it what are you going to do to change We are underthe tyranny of cheap and easy Model stake holder democracy comm model And manergerialism CHAPTER 30 Mass comm and mass media How does the media in uence how we see the world quotagenda setting how do people vote Media sets agenda agendaframe Who sets the agenda for the agenda setter Media sets agenda 0 Study different newspapers concerned with someone else agenda Who is most affected people who have a high need for orientation or curiosity You pay attention to stories that interest you FRAMING not want on agendahow we think about it Texas study crime stagnant they think its going up quotsalientquot attributes shrink perception of crime agenda of teX News paper cultivated using the crime around them CULTIVATION THEORY quotTelevision cultivates the world view for you It creates the quotmean world syndrome violence increases if you are a heavy television watcher The world is mean EX Crime is going up or down 9most people felt like it was going up even though there is a huge decrease in crime around the country WHY TV Television increases the quotgoing up attitude indeX ofviolence 1St cultural research how much violence is actually going on 2 d how much is on television violencethe overeXpression of human physical force abuse how does it cultivate peoples View offhe world It is not just watching television it s who you are Equal violence equal risk vs equal violence unequal risk How does violence affect viewers based on age race religion etc Victimized much more than often Children Elderly Women ColorHispanic they then cultivate their world view SYMBOLIC IEOPARDY THEORY quotWhite shows Other people are unrepresented in characters 9 but when they are they die black people getting killed elderly s getting mugged etc 4 hours or more heavy viewers light vs heavy viewers Cultivation Differential difference between how light viewers and heavy viewers see it attitudes and how heavy viewers see the world differently Television is not good for people emotionally TV habitual watchers 9 children thinkits okay to hit someone if there is a good reason heavy viewers where are the parents Are there good parents Fear of walking alone criminal activity is 10X worse because of TV than it actually is Heavy viewers they think there are a ton of cops 5 of nation while literally its about 1 GENERAL MISTRUST OF PEOPLE suspicious of others motives World Value Survey Society 1 Democratic government that works needs trust Society distrust a high totalitarian regime Why does trust affect us economically Trust people you don t know you get good things lfyou don t trust peopleyou don t knowyou only do thingsfor people YOU DO KNOW which screws everyone else TV CREATES MISTRUST AND DOESN39T HELP US DEMOCRATICALLY OR ECONOMICALLY quotMEAN WORLD SYSTEMquot Mainstreaming TV blurs the difference between people both economical and politically Example ask people how much television the watchthen asks people what class they are They will say quotmiddle class even ifthey aren t because people on TVare ask people lib 0r conthey will say moderate because neither side is portrayed TV apolitical Light TV watchers are honest heavv sav quot It unhinges people from who they truly are Mainstreaming we are all moderate middle class Scary world natural conservative Opposite more liberal World more liberal because economy is rising RESONANCE Heavy TV quotthe world is dangerous THEN you actually get muggedthis Violence resonates which makes it harder to get over because you relive it over and over again if it actually happened to you Cultural Approach to Organization Social Construction theory It does not seek to predict anything it seeks to describe and explain the culture of organizations Can you describe the culture ofyour organization formal informal etc Using culture as a metaphor to try and understand what it is to work and be apart ofan organization taking methods and idea from ethnogophers quotYo Momma contest ofwit not actual insult to mother Thick description idea that there is a behavior first level fist bump what does it mean second level 9 there are multiple levels ofmeanings layer underneath Intertwine layers of common meaning that underlie what people say and do Anthropologist taking language seriously Example Employees say they are a lattice organization communicating across level but managers say lack of egalitarianism What a metaphor does is organize our experiences in to a coherent poII Fell in love example Metaphor highlights the good part but hides the negative part Metaphors organize how we think and feel and how they work together and how they understand each other and the metaphor behind it 3 types of story pg 254 1 Corporate story original story reinforces company policies 2 Personal Stories how do people talk about themselves 3 Collegial stories stories about others organization unofficial Understand organizational life through cultural story examples Rituals surface behavior rooster fight is cruel underlying behavior men competing for status Find layers ofmeaning underneath behavior EXAM QUESTIONS 60 questions 5560 4 questions on Cognitive Dissonance what does it focus on Just behavior lust about feeling or thought All of those things 1 dollar vs 20 dollars why would you lie for a dollar Minimal justification hypothesis Cold feet at the altar buyer39s remorse post decisions dissonance What makes us experience dissonance 5 questions on Organizations Culture organization What is his de nition book Thick description Difference stories 6 questions about critical organization four quadrants participations involvement etc consent participation strategy managerilaism 5 questions on Semiotics basic de nition what does it mean Denotation v connotation and understand what they are Sign signifier signified Understand the difference between a historical or cultural sign and a mythic sign What happens to a cultural sign when it becomes a mythic sign What does it losegainchange 4 questions on cultivation theory heavy viewer vs light viewer how heavy viewers and light viewers label themselves politically and economically resonance mainstreaming 2 questions on agenda setting Different levels of agenda settings Agenda vs framing an the difference what are people most in uenced by What do they havetends to due with curiosityrelevance stories on the news 13 TorF Questions with paragraphs Self Esteem and Face opening paragraph human beings have a need to expand light force 9 understand what it is heroic drive what satisfies the heroic drive who feels this In our Social encounters our sense of face packet 9 understand what it doesn39t mean what it means Face rituals only when someone blunders do we attend to recognize the ritual behavior of face making relate ritual behavior greetings out of habit to maintain the face of the other person to face Splinter personality is contrary to chosen conscious attitude the shadow is denied thesplinter personality what does it mean True or false look at the rest of the lecture Shadow in our quest to identify with positive qualitieswe project on to others what we don39t admit in ourselves projection what does it mean what is it How and why you would project on someone TorF no quotes 6 on destiny and work bliss sacri ce destiny etc Money problem lies in not too much or too literally fetish over a medium what do we mean by taking money literally 9 4 questions on this 4 torf questions about shadow and projection what we project the people we project on why do we have a shadow in the rst place 3 questions on work integrity excellence what makes work meaningful EXTRA CREDIT Review Eros self development indiv achievement and agape meaningful contribution to something bigger than self Identity vs face I don t own face face is happening right now between me and someone else identity is what I take away Identity is who I think I am face is how I want you to see me right now while we are together Lose face with negative people you develop a negative identity Meaningful Meaningless You develop self esteem and identity through face rituals Minimal justification 1 dollar experiment Pride you have the more you need your face plumped up Depth psych everyone has some sort of destiny everything is purposeful no meaning no accidents Existentialism you make your own destiny Historical vs mythic Historical from a specific place and time Mythic symbol is timeless Roman cross is torture Christian love and forgiveness Why do we need shadow If you didn t have it you would be inappropriately aggressive sexual etcyou must have some shame no shame no shadowwe all learn it because they keep us functionally sociable We can be manipulated by need for consistency saying something publicly signing sales contract 9 makes it harder for you to go back on it Money is a medium money for foodbut when it is treated like a sexual object or religious when you project emotional energy on an object 9 it becomes a fetish Ifyou take money literally it becomes what your worth self esteem becomes tied to bank account Mangerialism idea of managing people like machines control recording phone call cameras no con ict resolution doesn t consider humanity in people that are being managed just resources running a tight ship control people like inanimate objects Integrity and excellence building bombs for warbuilding bomb is excellent no integrity ifyou don t believe in war Excellence give your allintegrity do you agree Lawyer helping poor excellence and integrity Semiotics signs and symbols school of thought study of anything that you can use to make sense study of anything you can use to lie use language to lie in order to tell the truth Media agenda vs public agenda What is on the publics mind what are we thinking about What is the media going to report on and talk about What drives what Media has a huge affect on what we think Does public thought drive media or does media drive public thought What is signifier and signified Word symbol sign and object what it means Yellow ribbon signifier what it means is support the troops Work you should never fully belong to something outside yourself What ifjob is extension of self what ifyour fired and you do invest too muchdevastation Resonance watching a lot of tv seeing violence and then experiencing it resonates on tv symbolic double jeopardy underrepresented and victimized Cognitive Dissonance forced to see hypocrisy 9 good self esteem quotnot usually like this quot Worse I feel about self cognitive dissonance sticks Better whatever Semiotics way we lie anything you use to tell the truth you can use to lie Water hole lie What satisfies the heroic drive Achievement aesthetic experiences helping people etc depends on person Ifwe all need a villain to overcome then we need to pick a good villain poverty ignorance sickness not other people You will hurt other people to feel meaningful More wholesome and virtuous you don t recognize bad part it will come out Acknowledge shadow how is that a piece ofme If someone complains but they re funny Not so bad EXAM Lectures 8912 TEXTBOOK no cultural organ no depth psych FOOD DRIVE MYTH AND NON MYTH focus on that It means vs I mean Denotative vs connotative Review Session Collective Shadow scapegoating a group ofpeople Nazi s scapegoated the jews Being hazed no reason for it but you create one makes being part of the organization more meaningful get someone to do something and have the people justify what they go through frat PARC model X not on test Box Consent and Strategy in textbook How organizations use communication to suppress people Longer hours wages not moving working more and more wages aren t going up Chart with four quadrants 1 info model report on reality not making it gt only giving some info out not all Check in book 2nd communication creates a reality Consent agreeing to being taken advantage of Taking a pay cut over losing job What is managerialism What is consent Consent isn t good participation democracy everyone participates in expressing opinions are all employees allowed to participate in decision making processes 0 Casting vote putting in who ever they want Splinter personality priest or minister they have to be spiritual example parts of them don t want to be good that part becomes a splinter personality Ifwe aren t conscious of our shadow it becomes autonomous personality Personality comes out and they do things they regret Way to keep that from happening be aware of shadow when it is projected of shadow quotprojection blurs our view of the world we project something we don t like about our self but we see people as more selfish than they are they have his selfishness but then yours as well Projection BAD worse than they actually are You don t notice when the greedy person is generous or cocky humble etc Signified actual dog forgiveness and homecoming CONNOTATIVE 9 support war Signifier dog yellow ribbon DENOTATIVE SIGN Denotative sign or connotative sign Signified changes denotative Mythic signs are always connotative Mythic supports status quo Meaning becomes timeless Signifier what is it Signified that it is Fashion buy something trendy cool youthful and stylish 2 years later outdated takes an object turns it into a symbol then turns around with what it means mythic sign stay that way how do things mean And how does that meaning change Taken advantage of my symbolsemotional thingmake us feel something but why Be aware of shifts in meaningmaintaining Golden Darkness shadow polite person at expense of honesty don t tell people if you don t like something don t want to do somethingdoormatthen you fall in love with someone who is strong and makes decision put honesty in shadow but finds itin spouse Polite and honest problems if too eXtreme Giving in to shadow something or putting something into shadow that you need Take all these pieces of personality and make them part of conscious personality Personalities eclipsed Better to be whole than good Symbolic Double Jeopardy Cultivation Theory Old African American watching TVhardly every see people like her underrepresentedwhen she isshe s a victim symbolic double jeopardy face work self esteem is on the line when two people mutually offer up an identity for the other too confirm done something embarrassing compromised self late say something stupid too drunk etc trying to remedy a gap a hallowed event sacred event selfesteem is sacred people try and leave something to descendants inheritance hero we re trying not to die no one wants to die and be forgotten drive is to find something that will outlast you Self esteem and face existentialism because they have been studied scientifically but they originate in existentialism because it is human condition feeling meaningful Face rituals greetings that people do we are both human beings high five shake hand very predictable unconscious not thinking about shaking someone s hand if you blow the ritualyou realize there is a mistake uncomfortable exam Cultural some personal with friends or family Shadow is the opposite of face Own parts of shadow in conscious but don t get face threatened when they show up Face work someone insults friend you insult there s Mean world Syndrome everything is bad out there Less trusting ofpeople Cultivation Differential difference between the heavy viewer and the light viewer page 373 how they see the world Heavy viewer extremely affected Light viewers no mean world syndrome Agenda Setting what sort ofpeople are called to and having people have their agenda set by the media people who need to know what s going on self consistency and affirmation what I think what I say what I do are all in line parent who is nonviolent hits kidhonest person only once if you fall back on past and self esteem then you reduce the dissonance affirmation only one time Resonance world is 5x more violent than it really is reliving it mainstreaming Money is a means of exchange give you money I get a service or product We treat it like a fetish object emotionally energy sexual often comes from that More money more selfword less money less selfworth TAKING MONEY LITERALLY IfI just get more money I wont worry cure wealth is subjective The man that knows he has enough is wealthy state of mind After 50000 a year it doesn t matter doesn t make a difference any more Money matters but when you fetishize It OPUS what do you want to look back and see as your work raise good people body of work magus opus crowning achievement want a job that give ingenuity Signifier shirt Signified idea of cool etc Eros individual achieve and self development and Agape heroic belonging contributing self most in this chapter are eXistentialism eros and agape doing something for you or others cultivate both


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