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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tatyana Bartell on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM200 at University of Delaware taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see /class/207171/comm200-university-of-delaware in Communication at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
COMM 200 Exam Review Introduction Sexual or Violent Media Content 0 Seek it out to relaxunwind 0 Hope to gain excitement from it 0 Almost always watch it simply because I have nothing else to do Emotions o 3 Dimensions that make up our emotional state I Valence o How Positive or Negative we feel I Arousal o How excited or calm we feel I Dominance o How in or out of control we feel 0 Arousal I Positive or Negative 0 Fear anger curiosity love etc I Intensifies behavior in most circumstances 0 Increases emotional and behavioral experiences I Ways to measure 0 Self Report 0 Heart Rate 0 Blood Pressure Skin Temperature Skin Conductance 0 Measures the activation of the eccrine sweat glands in palms of the handssoles of the feet 05 Microvolts of electricity are passed through the palm The more aroused someone is the more sweat they will produce and it will take the electricity slower from one sensor 0 O to the next 0 Media Arousal and Relaxation I Media use is a major leisure time 0 Used as diversion and as relief for daily stress 0 Daily Stress Source of arousal I Intervention Potential 0 Capacity of media to involve person and disrupt their stress 0 Media must have potential to absorb the audience member 0 Semantic Activity 0 How alike the media content is to the audience member s mood 0 Content that s arousing and portrays similar content and emotions will not reduce audience stress 0 Stressed individuals watching violent and absorbing content 0 Arousal level not reduced 0 Aggression remains heightened 0 Stressed individuals watching nonviolent yet absorbing content 0 Soothes audience member 0 Controls aggression 0 Media Arousal and Relaxation I In particular pleasant content regardless of how absorbing can reduce arousal levels I Viewers likely to choose content that will diminish heightened feelings of arousal 0 Media Arousal and Excitement I Exposure to media can be arousing I Those least aroused will respond more intensely to emotional content 0 Violent and Sexual Content I These individuals seek out content to achieve same pleasurable emotional results 0 Habituation I Decrease response after constant viewing over a period of time I Frequent exposure to arousing content can diminish emotional reactions arousal over time I Used to explain increasing levels of sex and violent in today s media content Legislating the Media Concerns over effects 0 To protect those who can t protect themselves Policy created can 0 Educate about media s effects 0 Inform consumers about the content of the media Hard to determine if there is a need 0 Also hard to determine what type of policy is necessary Steps in Policy Making 0 Agenda Setting I Issue must be brought to attention of officials who can make changes 0 Policy Deliberation I Proposals must be talked about and debated upon 0 Policy Enactment I llThis is the plan we are going to go with 0 Policy Implementation I Activities organized to put the policy in place for repercussions for not following 0 Policy Evaluation I Evaluate their decision to make sure it is actually working Policies result in Rating Systems 3 types 0 Evaluative Rating System Agebased recommendations based on content 0 Descriptive Rating System Content of media is being described to the people 0 Hybrid Rating System Takes elements of both and mashes them together I eg Xbox games Legislating Music Parents Music Resource Center 0 Led by Al Gore s wife 0 Concerned about the lyrics violentsexual I Didn t want 39 39 39 just of the inI o Brought it to congress I So congress could Set the Agenda 0 No actual legislation was passed I Instead the Recording Industry Association of America voluntarily agreed to label their music 0 Kids started seeking these albums out because they knew their parent s wouldn t want them to Backlash 0 Musicians felt that they were being censored I PM RC fired back saying it was about information not censorship Legislating TV Telecommunications Act of 1996 0 Public policy put in place for regulation of TV content 0 First successful attempt at ratings system for Television 0 Required all TVs to have VChip technology I Allows for parental control I Required on TVs made after 2000 0 Sports News Advertisments I Still not rated TV Ratings assigned per episode not series 0 TV Y I Suitable for all ages aimed at 26 year olds I JUST for children s programs 0 TV Y7 I May not be suitable for those under 7 I Mild languageviolence 0 Older wouldn t even consider it mild I Just for children s programs 0 TV Y7 FV I May be a little more intense than Y7 I Fantasy Violence I JUST for children s programs 0 TV G I Appropriate for All 0 HGTV Full House etc o TV PG I Unsuitable for kids without their parents present 0 Simpsons etc o TV 14 I Unsuitable for those under 14 without a parent 0 Family Guy on Comedy Central etc o TV MA I Not suitable at all for those U17 0 Descriptors I V Violence I S Sexual Situations I L language I D Suggestive Themes Legislating Video Games Ratings are assigned by the ESRB 0 Entertainment Software Ratings Board 0 Issue content descriptors I Not every little thing in the game like a scene or two only what applies to the overall theme or content Ratings 0 eC Early Childhood I Contains NO inappropriate content I Usually educational in content 0 KA Kids to Adults I Thought appropriate for those 6 0 May contain minimal violence I Was gotten rid of in 1998 0 Replaced with E o E Everyone I For everyone above 6 o E10 Everyone 10 I Come out in 2005 o T Teen I Content for those 13 0 M Mature I Content only for those 17 0 A0 Adults Only I ONLY those 18 0 Strip Fighter 2 Bonetown 0 RP Rating Pending Legislating Movies Motion Picture Association ofAmerica MPAA rates a film s thematic and content suitability for certain audiences in the US 0 Created in 1968 I In response to religiouslymotivatedcomplaints about the content of American films I Especially violence and language in films Original Film Ratings 0 Rated G I General Audiences I All ages admitted 0 Rated M I Suggested for Mature Audiences I Parental discretion advised 0 Rated R I Restricted I People under 17 not admitted without parentguardian 0 Rated X I People under 18 not admitted Evolution of Film Ratings 0 January 1970 I Rated M became Rated GP 0 All ages admittedParental Guidance Suggested 0 January 1971 I Added Rated GP 0 Contains material not generally suitable for preteenagers 0 February 1972 I Rated GP and Rated GP replaced by Rated PG 0 Parental Guidance Suggested 0 Some material may not be suitable for children 0 MPAA needed a middle ground between PG and R due to complaints about I Poltergeist 1982 I Gremlins 1984 I Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom 1984 0 July 1984 I MPAA institutes Rated PG13 0 Parents strongly cautioned some material may be inappropriate for children under 13 o MPAA was treating mainstream movies like porn by giving them X ratings I Many movie theatres would not show movies with an X rating 0 September 1990 I MPAA introduced Rated NC17 o No children U17 admitted I 1996 0 Changed to No One 17 and Under Admitted ContentConsiderations 0 Language Drug Reference Illegal Drug Use Cigarette Smoking 0 O O o StrongSexuaIContent o Nudity 0 Violence 0 Legitimate HistoricalEducational Value Types of Efforts to Control Media Effects Big reason why ratings are even there in the first place To let people know what content they will be exposed to 0 Media can have effects on people I Especially little kids and adolescents Types of Control 0 Industry SelfRegulation I Industry themselves takes the initiative to make the public aware o Eg MPAA Music Industry Recording Industry 0 Advocacy Groups I Groups that take steps to protect other members of the audience 0 quotConcerned citizens I Separate from industry and government 0 Educational Programs I Schools that put programs into place to educate children about the media 0 Aims to make them more medialiterate 0 Fiction v nonfiction 0 Makes them aware of advertising methods and content 0 Individual Efforts I WeA ParentGuardianetc can choose what children under their care will be exposed to 0 Government quotBy Raised Eyebrow I Doesn t specifically intercede 0 Rather llkeeps a watchful eye on them I Bit of a warning 0 Government Regulation I When the gov t actively steps in and creates regulation I What cancan t be played what time etc The First Amendment of the US Constitution llCongress shall make no law abridging the freedom of speech of an individual or of the press 0 Basis of a lot of controversy and struggle since our Founding Fathers 0 Still comes into play today with content of the Mass Media Only specificay prohibits Congress from making laws that violate these freedoms 0 Now applied to all branches Language is often open to interpretation 0 Everyone tries to interpret and reinterpret I Who it protects who it doesn t etc o Abridge Subject of controversy I What is exact meaning of abridge I Specifically what types of speech are prohibited 0 Print Spoken Internet Nonverbal I Who is a member of the Press 0 Blogger Performer I These ideas have been discussed and fought over 0 Who exactly is protected under the First Amendment Why the Framers Protected Free Expression 0 Not only important but FIRST in the Constitution 0 British gov t engaged actively in censorship I Didn t want anyone to publicly express dissatisfaction with the rulers aws etc I Main reason for the 1st Amendment I Didn t want government intrusioncontrol of each person s ideasexpressions 0 Key Concept STATE ACTION I Any action taken by govt s esp intrusion on one s rights by a government agency 0 They will often cite llthe wellbeing of others when they try to step in o Intervene to protect the individualthose around I In order to legally be censorship a part of the gov t must be attempting to interfere with free expression Three Basic Types of Government Regulation 0 Technical Regulations I Set mechanicalelectronic standards for a certain type of entertainment 0 Eg minimum TV resolution HiDef Broadcasts etc I Benefits 0 Benefitted all owners of TV sets bc all channels broadcasted in the same way 0 Thomas Jefferson lobbied for incredibly cheap rates for publications o In order for the companies to reach as many people as possible for as low a cost as possible 0 Structural Regulations I Set guidelines for relationships within the industries 0 Originally companies that were cable couldn t sell phoneinternet vice versa 0 This changed with the times and the government allowed it I Media Ownership Rules 0 Originally meant one single corporation couldn t own one newspaper and TV station in the same city 0 Public wouldn t be exposed to a variety of opinions 0 Changed over time as well 0 Content Regulations I Causes the most concern I Raises First Amendment Issue 0 Eg rules that don t allow cig ads on TV monetary awards for slanderlibel etc I With media sex amp violence it is precisely the content that is thought to cause negative effects 0 More filter of Sexual Content and Violent Content in the US I Can only step in when there is an llimportant government interest 0 Behind every effort is the belief that sex or violence in the media causes negative effects 0 Almost always use children who llcan t protect themselves Severity of Government Regulation 0 Balance between protecting freedoms and implementing regulation 0 Prior Restraint I Stops communication from being published spoken or distributed I Doesn t permit expression of some content into the marketplace of ideas 0 Need very convincing evidence to show the court why that content shouldn t be expressed at all 0 Tough battle for the government to fight I Some exceptions but doesn t really happen that often 0 Subsequent Punishment I Punishing the speaker after the idea has been communicated I Some believe that the threat of punishment can hurt freedom of expression when someone refuses to then say it o TimePlaceManner Restrictions I Limits on whenwherehow expression can happen I Government is allowed to ask you when and how you plan on presenting the information Government Regulation on Sexual and Violent Content 0 Many different approaches have been used 0 Most of the regulations that survived First Amendment challenges are either I On Broadcast TV and Radio 0 Regulations still in place nearly only affect these I Time Manner Place Restrictions 0 You can still express yourself but you have to follow the rules of whenwherehow 0 Why content regulation on broadcast TV and Radio yet no other media I Foundation of Broadcast Regulation 0 Government issues licenses 0 Can t operate without permission from the Federal Gov t o In order to getrenew a license have to follow rules set forth by the gov t o Scarcity of the electromagnetic spectrum 0 There are just so many frequencies that can be used for a broadcast not infinite 0 Viewed as a privilege and therefore need to follow rules I Otherwise they will just find someone else to take their spot 0 Licenses must llserve the public interest convenience and necessity o Electromagnetic spectrum is owned by the public but regulated by the government I If they don t follow the rules they can be punished 0 Who assesses fines and the like 0 FCC Federal Communication Commission A Federal Regulatory Agency 0 5 Commissioners I 1 Appointed Chair o Responsible for issuerenewal of broadcast licenses I 8 year terms I Must be in good standing to get renewal 0 Enforcement Powers I Issue Fines I Revoke Licenses Regulation of Violent Content 0 Much less government regulation within the last year or so I More interested in a lot of sex rather than a lot of violence traditionally 0 Mostly llby raised eyebrow 0 Violence on TV I VChip Requirement I quotVoluntaryquot Ratings System 0 TVY TVMA etc Regulation of Sexual Content 0 Indecency I Anything lldepicting sexual and excretory activities in an offensive manner as measured by contemporary community standards for the broadcast medium I They will decide what is decent and what is indecent o Nowadays community standards have changed so something that was fineable 10 years ago could be completely fine now 0 FCC v Paci ca 1978 I On an FM Radio station they aired someone s standup that had a lot of curing and offensive language in it o A dad called the FCC and complained that his son had heard these words 0 FCC sent Pacifica a letter saying knock it off I Pacifica then tried to fight it but the courts sided with the FCC 0 FCC said they were protecting children from hearing those inappropriate words 0 All indecent content must be channeled and may not be played from 63m to 10pm I Companies try to be really careful during normal viewing hours so they don t get fined 0 Like when nationals comes to visit KDR 0 Janet Jackson Superbowl Indecency I Big surge in Enforcement after her wardrobe malfunction 0 CBS was originally fined 550k I The FCC s surge really started to piss people off who then turned to the internet to make fun of the FCC 0 Internet is not regulated by the FCC so they wanted to stick it to the man o Profanity Enforcement I Heavy FCC finesregulations loomed over the networks especially of live content that could have come across the occasional swear word 0 Eg Joe Flacco Obscenity Pornography and Indecency o Expressions words images actions that offend the prevalent sexual morality 0 Legal distinction between obscenity pornography and indecency I Obscenity receives NO First Amendment Protection 0 What is Obscene I Three Pa rt Test from Miller v California 1973 0 An average person applying contemporary community standards finds that the work taken as a whole appeals to the prurient interest The work depicts in a patently offensive way sexual content that is specifically defined by state law The work in question lacks serious literary artistic political or scientific values I Luke Records v Navarro 0 In 1990 Nick Navarro was a Sheriff in Cali 0 Luke Records album was rules obscene I Distribution of the CD was deemed illegal 0 One shop keeper was arrested for selling the album to an Undercover Cop 0 Luke Records appealed again this time with the help of a Harvard Professor I Respected Prof said the album had llserious artistic and historical roots within the Black Culture 0 Decision was overturned I The album was deemed NOT OBSCENE 0 Special Circumstances I Variable Obscenity Statutes 0 Definition of obscenity can vary depending on who it is 0 Can t do away with all adult products just to keep kids away I Child Pornography 0 Children portrayed in sexual situations 0 New York v Ferber 1982 o Ferber an adultbookstore owner was arrested after selling a book depicting children U16 in sexual situations 0 Charged with promoting both obscene and indecent sexual performances Originally aquitted of obscene but guilty of indecent O 0 NY Appellate Court reversed the decision citing the broadness of the obscenity regulations and asked the US Supreme Court to weigh in 0 NY Supreme Court reversed all previous decisions and convicted Ferber on both obscene and indecent 0 Findings I Child Pornography may be banned without first being deemed obscene for 5 reasons 0 Government hold strong interest in preventing the sexual exploitation of children 0 Depictions of minors engaged in sex is directly related to sexual abuse of children and serve a constant reminder Selling goods provides financial motivation to continue to make child porn It has negligible artistic value Child Pornography is also outside the rights of the First Amendment I State interest in protecting children allows laws prohibiting distribution of images of sexual performances by minors even where content does not meet tests of obscenity Internet Regulation 0 Difficult to regulate I No boundries truly international o Jurisdictional Issues I No central location for messages to go through I Encryption methods I Anonymity Internet Regulation of Sexual Content 0 Congress passed laws in in 1996 amp 1998 in an attempt to limit children s access to online sexual content I Neither law was ever enforced o Reasoning 0 Too much content would have been kept away from results 0 Other measures would be more effective 0 Children39s Internet Protection Act CIPA I Requires filtering software on computers in public schools and libraries o If not they lose Federal Funding 0 Upheld by the US Supreme Court I Arguments both for and against filtering software Sex on Television Important to know how much and what types of content are shown on TV 0 Links between media portrayals and audience behaviors I Children and Adolescents Some Programs Popular with Teens 0 American idol Simpsons South Park Family Guy Glee Big Bang Theory It s Always Sunny WWE Smackdown OOOOOOO Sex on Television ConsequencesLinks Heavier viewing of sexual content speeds up the initiation of sexual intercourse Viewing programs with quotpermissivequot perceptions about sex leads to audience members having the same attitudes about sex Increased exposure to sexual TV content is correlated with expectations about sex for both males and females However it can increase knowledge about saferesponsible sex 0 Decrease stigmatization of individuals living with HIV and various STDs Viewing programs with negative consequences leads to more negative attitudes towards topics such as premarital sex Sex on TV Over Time 0 Programs with any sexual content I 56 in 1998 64 in 2002 0 Programs with sexual behavior I 23 in 1998 32 in 2002 25 in 20005 0 Programs with sexual intercourse I 7 in 1998 14 in 2002 11 in 2005 In most categories there is an ongoing increase in sexual messages on Television Talk About Sex Comments on ownother s sexual interests Talk about sex related crimes Talk about previous sexual encounters Expert AdviceTechnical Information Sexual Behavior Physical Flirting Passionate Kissing Intimate Touching Sexual Intercourse strongly implied Sexual Intercourse depicted Other Content Percentage of shows with any mention of safe sex 0 14 with any sexual content 27 with intercourse related content Increase in the number of people who do not know each other engaging in sexual activity 0 7 in 2002 15 in 2005 Increase in the use of drugs and alcohol before and during sexual contact More sex talk in comedies than dramas o More behavior in dramas than in comedies Sex in Advertising Evoke Specific Responses 0 Physiological o Emotional 0 Cognitive o Imaginative Contextual factors 0 Explicitness o Tastefulness 0 Relevance I If you saw something sexual in a Fruit Loops ad it would be inappropriate and illicit the wrong audience response Individual Factors 0 Individual audience differences have an impact 0 Gender Age Religion Subculture Personality etc I Showing sexual images to a younger culture is more effective I Personality must be conducive to the understanding of the content as well as other personality factors 0 Especially Innuendo 0 Advertisers could accidentally negatively impact the companyproduct L I Best ads will use the 39 to quot sell to 0 Use of sexual content must be planned and strategic 0 Otherwise they risk alienation and loss of supporters Gaining Audience Attention 0 Sexual information gets attention I Can t help but pay attention to it 0 It s emotional in nature 0 Makes individuals feel very positive 0 As humans we like to pay attention to something that makes us feel good and arouses us I Many competing messages 0 Need to stand out and be remembered 0 Stand out by featuring sexual content more rememberable to the audience I Sex has the ability to attract and maintain audience s attention 0 Increase ratings and circulation o Generates greater revenue 0 The use of sex can and does appeal to audience interest I Almost everyone has an interest to some degree o It generates the big bucks 0 Could cause someone to become attracted to a certain publication I Certain people enjoy it and therefore seek it out 0 Like the responses it evokes and therefore seek them out I People desire exposure to sexual information because of its hedonistic value 0 Uses amp Gratifications why we use certain mediamedia content 0 Looks at why we seek out certain media 0 What result we hope to gain from that experience 0 Ultimate goal is Pleasure o Gratification we hope to gain 0 Consumers react to outcomes in ads and they would like it to happen in real life 0 Wishing they could get that guygirl 0 Want the experience you see in the ads 0 Try to live vicariously I Sex in Advertising creates an Emotional Response 0 Increased levels of arousal 0 Arousal leads to favorability o Transfers to our opinion about the product 0 Could lead to sales I Goal of virtually all advertising revenue 0 8 of PrimeTime network commercials featured sexual content I 10 20 of models themselves were sexualized 0 Women dressed sexually in 40 of magazine ads I Men only 18 0 Contact bt models in ads has become more sexualized over time Sex in Advertising More or Less Explicit More Explicit o Habituation Effect I Humans have reduced responses to something the more they are exposed to it 0 If you see the sex over and over it becomes no big deal over time Less Explicit 0 Some argue I Pressure from outside organizations is going to force sex in advertising away for something else 0 Reaction to mediawatch organizations Sexism v Sexy o In the content titiating or offensivedemeaning I Big issue with Music Videos 0 Two main issues to determine I What consequences does it have for the viewers 0 Will they be effected will they learn inappropriate info about sex I How will the use of such imagery impact the sale of the product being advertised 0 Could there be negative backlash to a company 0 About 13 or 33 of Americans find sexual content offensive I No matter how explicit offensive or degrading I Not interpreted in the same way by everyone 0 Sexy or sexist differs from person to person GeneralPossible Guidelines 0 I Should not imply coercion or violence 0 Should appear to want to be in that situation 0 If not appearing that way needs to be redesignedrethought I Women should not been seen as inferior o No subservient roles o Characterized as independent and strong I Noexploitationstereotypes 0 Everyone should contribute a lot into society I Forces the advertisers to think if this is appropriate for their audience 0 If they are offended what are the consequencesis it worth it o Sexist v Sexy is completely personal opinion and is not a clear cut black or white answer
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