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by: Wilhelm Mayer

EarlyMedievalPhilosophy PHIL311

Marketplace > University of Delaware > PHIL-Philosophy > PHIL311 > EarlyMedievalPhilosophy
Wilhelm Mayer
GPA 3.59


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Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Wilhelm Mayer on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL311 at University of Delaware taught by KatherinRogers in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see /class/207192/phil311-university-of-delaware in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
September 2 2010 God Perfectunlimited Creator exnihilo Omnipotent logical possibilities gt round square thing Principle noncontradiction Laws of logic ontology Logic reflects ontology September 8 2010 Back to God Simple not composed of discreet parts Omniscient gt dilemma of freedom and foreknowledge God is necessarily good Plato s dialogue Euthyrphro is god good because he conforms to it or because he created the good Divine command theory god commands the good creates or invents the laws of morality the only limitation on god s will is logic god could command anything possible for you to do and that would be what you should do September 10 2010 Nature of time Presentism what is real is the present moment what there is and all there is is the present moment whatever is gone does not exist future does not exist god is everlasting god goes infinitely back into the past and infinitely into the future passage of time s impact on god Does god change Immutable unchanging sotemporalism all times are equally real Ontological the kind of being or existence something has September 20 2010 Wednesday 22 review in classroom 830 930 Test Friday 24 bring blue book and test and pen 1 things move 2 nothing moves itself 3 it has to be moved by something already actually moving 4 can t have an infinite series of moved movers 5 must be an unmoved mover Aristotle unmoved mover doesn t move the unmoved mover moves everything else as a final cause it itself is perfect it is pure actuality it has no potential because with potential there could be change no movement just perfect actuality and everything else desires to imitate perfection spheres in actualizing their potentials which is what everything is in the process of doing are imitating perfection cat chases the mouse to be the best cat flourish in its catness batshit fuckin crazy Aristotle smokin some wild shit spheres rotate to be the best spheres gt imitate perfection unmoved mover is engaged in the perfect activity thinking it will only think the most perfect thing gt itself the unmoved mover is thought thinking itself How is aristotle s god unlike the JudeoChristian god Aristotle s god is not a creator did not create the universe the universe has always been there unmoved mover exists at least always unmoved mover does not change Plotinus 205220 AD Neoplatonist greatest and most important neoplatonist big impact on philosophy of Middle Ages and on Augustine St Augustine the most important Christian philosopher Plotinus is antiChristian At the top of Plotinus universe is The One good the one transcends all time and space the one transcends any possible concept we could have P says the one is not thinking because to be really perfect you can t be divided in any way to be perfect you have to be unified emanation pouring forth the one just kind of flows outwards and downwards perfectly unified but as it flows out it becomes a little more multiple the one being the one it couldn t possibly be contained September 27 2010 St Augustine of Hippo 354438 AD born in Roman empire mother a Christian and father is not would not commit to believing something unless he has witnessed it or can really demonstrate it didn t like the idea of taking things on faith alone gt Christianity parents wanted him to be a rhetorician came across the writings of Cicero at rhetoric school in Carthage become obsessed with finding the truth Manicheanism very attractive to Augustine for many reasons claimed to solve the problem of evil Augustine was a Manichean throughout his 20s living with common law wife gt concubine Adeodatis gt Augustine s son Bishop Faustus Augustine s friends tell him Faustus will have answers from him turns out to be not so sharp Augustine thinks he sounds retarded so he abandons Manicheanism becomes a skeptic Eventually Augustine concedes that there are some things which it is reasonable to believe on faith becomes a Christian Augustine s parents decide he has to marry a more suitable wife October 4 2010 Missed 2 Augustine Reason is best thing we know interior sense gt does 2 jobs is more important than the other 5 senses because it judges the other five senses governs other senses human reason is even better than the five senses and the interior sense reasons governs the senses and judges them also reason can step back and think about the process of cognition Read about Augustine s proof of god Numbers not part of the physical world eternal sand immutable Numbers and wisdom certain truths about values that are like his views on numbers any rational person will recognize that 7 3 10 reason enables you to see the truths of numbers and wisdom and wisdom is more like the truths it is better to be smart than stupid better to be wise Why are numbers and reason superior to human reason numbers and reason can be lumped together and called Truth with capital T October 13 2010 1 god knoOws I will choose X tomorrow 2 god cannot be mistaken 3 I choose X tom necessarily 4 I do not choose X freely Determinism A scientific B motivational C Theological Libertarianism 1 indeterminism 2 selfcausation Nothing made you choose B you just did I could give you the reason I chose B but nothing determined that I chose B Belief knowledge TRUE BELIEF by acquaintance llmere beliefquot Compatibilism Free as long as you re acting according to your own wishes but your own wishes are not created of your own accord similar to determinism Determinism prob is that it relieves responsibility of the subject involved all choices are determined Comcast account 09509 213913209 November 15 2010 1 God is that than which no greater can be conceived TI39W 2 T39W exists in intellectu 3 It is greater to exist in intellectu and in reality in re than just to exist in the mind 4 f W existed only intellectu it wouldn t be 1TW reducteo absurdum gt assume opposite and conclude an absurdity 5 T39W exists in reality God exists just a definition of God doesn t say whether or not he exists Nature of spawn of satan is greater than the idea of the spawn of satan X inve X in intelllectu Lost island is that island than which no grater island can be conceived island exists in intellect greater to exist in reality than in mind if lost island existed only in intellect it wouldn t be the lost island island exists in reality falsehood wrong Thomas Aquinas doesn t like his idea he is an impericist says all of our knowledge has to start with some kind of observation of the world cant move from conceptual to actual Anselem s response says 0 yes you can in some cases move from conceptual to actual November 22 2010 Freedom the ability to keep justice Justice rightness of will kept for its own sake Rightness of will choosing in accord with the will of God Libertarianism aseity open options Anselem truly believes human agents are free in the sense that their actions are truly up to them God does not cause sin doesn t like the idea that God causes sin llfor greater good argues it is logically impossible for God to cause sin defines sin as to will what God wills you will not will gt choosing against the will of God Choice is success of one over the other f human agents didn t have open optionsif they were just given rightness of will they would not be commendable Grace Need grace bc of original sin debt we cannot pay Grace is absolutely necessary for salvation unmerited not offered to everyone irresistible See notes on web site November 29 2010 Whats lost in original sin is the desire for justice adam and eve lost it for all of us Foreknowledge again 1 if God knows today that I choose X tomorrow then necessarily 2 a choice made by necessity is not free 3 im not free Doesn t quite follow for Augustine necessity vs compulsion Boethius is a compatibilist god sees all of time AS IF it were all laid out for him Anselem spells out isotemporalism December 3 2010 Last optional test on MONDAY FUCKING TAKE IT Friday review session from 34 Set up William of Champeaux so we can trash him WoC underlying material essence if we take away all inessential properties that distinguished Socrates from Plato they would just be the same thing Man and Ass both animal gt shared universal Abelard doesn t like that you boil down two things ass and man that contain opposite properties to the same thing gt animal Abelard thinks WoC s ideas are all fucked up Abelard sounds like a nominalist gt universals can only be ascribed to words Actually a conceptualist Abstraction knowledge begins with senses with enough examples we construct a llconfused image this image does not include distinguishing characteristics December 6 2010 Last Test optional early time 1213 from 45 in classroom Regular time 1217 from 12 in classroom Review 1210 from 34 in classroom Abelard believes in the divine exemplar of dogness but doesn t explain Read textbook with her notes in front of you to translate the test reading God is that which no greater can be conceived 1 TTW exists in intellectu 2 It is better to exist in re than in intellectu 3 If TTW existed in inteectu alone it would not be TI39W 4 TTW God exists in re Gaunilo I can t conceive of God Yes you can Difference between understanding and comprehending As long as we understand TTW enough that we can distinguish what is not TI39W Gaunilo Lost Island Logic only works for TTW we can t really conceive ofTTW or premise 2 would be false Aquinas can t go from understanding to existencecant move from conceptual to actual Yes you can No round squares no universe without God Kant existence is not a predicate existence adds nothing to the concept and therefore premise 3 is false The more existence something has the greater it is It is better to exist in re than in inteectu alone Why must God have become a man We all owe a debt to God Our debt is so enormous that man cannot pay it only God can Therefore there must be some Godman Jesus 3 underlying assumptions 1 There is a God TTW God is best and does what is best very standard for good 2 All humans desire happiness a perfectly good God would not have created us with this desire if it were unattainable 3 We have become corrupted by sin we in our present state do not deserve and are not capable of happiness Important to appreciate the enormity of the debt of sin Sin robs God Contempt of God Obey God no matter what Why can t God just forgive the debt It would be unjust Sinners treated the same as sinless It would be better if things could be set right gt it would be better if the debt could be repaid The debt ought to be paid but it is so large that only God can pay it but it is man that owes the debt There must be a Godman Debt is paid by Christ s perfect obedience Allowing himself to be unjustly killed We have to choose to commit ourselves to that payment as our salvation A role for human freedom Libertarianism open options and aseity selfcausation God is free without choosing between open options Created agents require open options to have aseity Freedom ability to keep justice Justice rightness of will kept for its own sake Rightness of will willing in accord with the will of God According to Asnelem is it logically impossible that God could cause sin No it is logically impossible for God to cause sin bc sin is willing what God wills you should not will How can it be that all that exists comes from God and yet our choices genuinely come from ourselves Humans have the ability to examine their desires all motivation comes from the desire for some benefit therefore we can choose that our will be in accordance with God s will or we can choose any old benefits including inappropriate ones we make this choice between justice and mere benefit on its own so it has the necessary aseity Grace is necessary and unmerited What does Grace consist in What role does human free will play Grace consists in the knowledge and desire for justice God restores this knowledge of and desire for justice through grace Humans through free will have the choice of accepting or rejecting God s grace Once we have it we can throw it away again How is it that God can know today what you will choose tomorrow Four dimensionalism Why are some classical theists like Augustine and Aquinas unhappy with this conclusion God sees you choosing X in a 4D present consciously and consistently You make it necessary that you will choose X by choosing X Choice is not determined bc we have open options Difficulties are that we have some causal effect on God we cause some of His foreknowledge cause Him to choose to act a certain way We would limit divine omnipotence if we said He could not create a free agent Abelard Prob of universals Is there one or many What are they Where are they To what do they refer If there is only one single nature how are things dif and distinct If they don t share the same nature how can they be the same Is the universal one or many If there is a universal nature which really exists where is it Nominalism universals refer to words only use of a single term to name a collection of individuals but there is not unity between them universal thing is the name itself Nothing corresponds to the unified term no unified nature in which individuals share Conceptualism universals refer to the concept that we form and apply to the individuals there is not universal quotthingquot in the world corresponding to the universal term quotdogquot refers to all dogs AND my concept Moderate Realism we have universal concept we apply to individuals and there is something in them that makes this correct universal has some sort of real extramental existence there is no really existent universal substance they share or that transcends them but our universal concept reflects something that is genuinely in the individuals Aristotle Extreme Realism There is some real thing which the individuals of a kind share to be what they are a real and unified thing Exemplarism form of extreme realism cant analyze language or objects without discussing there relation to God there are divine ideas in the mind of God of how things will be individuals participate in they reflect and share in this idea the universal is the divine idea as it is reflected in the individuals mirror analogy Abelard rejects WoC s extreme realism bc one thing cannot be predicated of many WoC argues there is one material underlying essence which all members of a species share things cannot be called universals taken either singly or collectively bc they are not predicated of many reducto absurdum if you take away all WoC s llparticular accidents everything boils down to the same thing Abelard is an exemplarist universals apply only to words and concepts there is no thing which the universal names and which the individuals share universal refers to and names only individuals species posses common properties we have concept of what is common to all but does not distinguish any individual we get this concept thru abstraction we give the same name to the individuals not bc they share some material essence but bc they are members of a species Universal concepts formed through abstraction we learn thru senses and construct a confused image by ignoring distinguishing characteristics there is no extramental thing corresponding to the concept the concept merely reflects something about the individuals Sin is consent to act in contempt of God Sin can occur without temptation slave kills master Sin can occur without enjoying the deed monk delight without consent is not sin delight in lawful act would involve sin which it surely doesn t Doing the deed itself is not sin if it is done in ignorance incest if it is done accidently no praise or blame or if the intention is not sinful Not all God s commands are meant to be obeyed Abraham and son ppl healed yappin about it


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