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by: Nelda Will

NutritionConcepts NTDT200

Nelda Will
GPA 3.72


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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nelda Will on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NTDT200 at University of Delaware taught by DeanneAllegro in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see /class/207195/ntdt200-university-of-delaware in Nutritional Science at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
Nutrition Study Guide Exam 2 Chapter 4 Carbohydrates Chemical composition of Carbs 0 Simple carbs the sugars ex monosaccharides single sugars and diasaccarides sugars composed of pairs of monosaccharidesC6H1206 o Monosaccharides most important in nutrition have 6 carbon atoms 12 hydrogens and 6 oxygens 0 complex carbs starches and fibers ex polysaccharides large molecules composed of chains of monosaccharides o Carbohydrates are compounds composed of carbon oxygen and hydrogen arranged as monosaccharides or multiples Most but not all carbs have a ratio ofone carbon molecule to one water molecule CHZOn Composition of mono and disaccharides o Mono 3 important monos in nutrition all have the same numbers and kinds of atoms but in different arrangements 0 Glucose larger and more complicated Each carbon atom has four bonds each oxygen has 2 bonds and each hydrogen has one bond It is known as blood sugar and serves as an essential energy source for the body 0 Fructose sweetest of sugars same formula as glucose c6h1206 but different structure The arrangement stimulates taste buds to make sweet sensation Fructose occurs naturally in honey and fruit 0 Galactose occurs naturally as a single sugar in only a few foods 0 Disaccharides are pairs of the three molecules just described Glucose occurs in all three second member of the pair is either fructose or galactose or glucose 0 Condensation to make a disaccharide links to monos together A hydroxyl OH group from one mono and an H atom from another mono combine to make water 0 Hydrolysis break a disaccharide in 2 water splits to make an H and OH atom o Maltose 2 glucose units produced when starch breaks down during carb digestion as an example and as well as during fermentation that yields an alcohol 0 Sucrose fructose and glucose together to make table sugar sucrose is refined from the juices of sugarcane and sugar beets then granulated o Lactose galactose and glucose principal carb of milk 0 Polysaccharides compounds composed of many monos linked together An intermediate string of 3 to 10 monos is an oligosaccharide Poly is many oligio is few Glycogen found to only limit extent in meats and not at all in plants The body stores glucose as glycogenmany glucose molecules linked together in highly branched chains This arrangement permits rapid hydrolysis When the hormones saying quotrelease energy arrive at glycogen storage sites in a liver or muscle cell enzymes respond by attacking the many branches of glycogen making a surge of glucose available Starches plants store glucose as starches long branched or unbranched chains of hundreds or thousands glucose molecules linked together Grains are richest food source of starch rice wheat corn millet rye barley and oats Dietary fibers structural parts of plants and thus are found in all plant derived foods vegetables fruits whole grains and legumes Most are poly Bonds between monos in fiber cannot be broken down by digestive enzymes in body That is why they are called nonstarch polys o Soluble fiber dissolve in water Viscous form gels Fermentable easily digestible by bacteria in colon o Insoluble fiber do not dissolve in water do not form gel less readily fermented Fiber sources naturally in plants 0 Functional fibers those fibers above have been extracted from plants and are manufactured and then added to foods Resistant starches starches that escape digestion and absorption in the small intestine of healthy people phytic acid nonnutrient component of plant seeds phytic acid is also called phytate phytic acid occurs in the husks of grains legumes and seeds and is capable of binding minerals such as zinc iron calcium magnesium and copper in insoluble complexes in the intestine which the body excretes unused Carbohydrate digestion o In the mouth amylase hydrolyzes starch to shorter polys and to the di maltose o Dextrins short chains of glucose units that result from the breakdown of starch o In the stomach the swallowed bolus mixes with stomach s acid and proteindigesting enzymes which inactive amylase o Satiety the feeling of fullness and satisfaction that occurs after a meal Fibers linger in the stomach and delay gastric emptying providing satiety o In the small intestine performs most of the work of carb digestion Pancreatic amylase enters the intestine via the pancreatic duct and breaks down the polys further to shorter glucose chains and maltose The final step takes place on the outer membranes on the intestinal cell maltase breaks maltose into 2 glucose sucrose breaks sucrose into glucose and fructose lactase breaks lactose into glucose and galactose o In the large intestine within 1 to 4 hours ofa meal all the sugars and most of the starches have been digested only fibers remain which attract water and softens the stools for passage Bacteria also ferments some fibers This generates water gas and shortchain fatty acids Lactose intolerance inability to digest milk sugar lactose characterized by bloating gas ab discomfort and diarrhea Lactose deficiency lack of the enzyme required to digest the di lactose into the monos glucose and galactose kefir fermented milk created by adding lactobacillus acidophilus and other bacteria that breaks down lactose to glucose and galactose producing a sweet lactose free product Gluconeogenesis making of glucose from a noncarb source 0 Glucose is preferred energy source for brain and never cells and developing RBC Body protein can be converted to glucose in some extent but protein has its own jobs to do Gluconeogenesis is the conversion of protein to glucose 0 Protein sparing action action of carb and fat in providing energy that allows protein to be used for other purposes 0 An inadequate supply of carbs can shift the bodys energy metabolism in a precarious direction With less carbs providing glucose fat takes an alternative metabolic pathway Instead of entering the main energy pathway fat fragments combine with each other to make ketone bodies These provide an alt fuel source during starvation but when their production exceeds their use they accumulate in blood causing ketosis a condition that disturbs the body normal acidbase balance Body needs at least 50100 grams of carb a day to prevent ketosis Blood glucose 0 Body must maintain blood glucose within limits that permit the cells to nourish themselves to work properly Normal blood glucose fasting is 70 to 100 mgdl A person may become dizzy and weak if below normal and may feel fatigued ifabove normal 0 Blood glucose homeostasis is regulated by primarily insulin which moves glucose from blood into the cells and glucagon which brings glucose out of storage when needed 0 After a meal as blood glucose rises special cells of the pancreas respond by secreting insulin into the blood As the insulin contacts the receptors on other body cells receptors respond by ushering glucose from the blood and into cells Most cells only take what they can use for energy now but the liver and muscle cells can assemble them into chains for storage when blood glucose falls after meals as occurring between meals glucagon is secreted It raises blood glucose by signaling the liver to break down glycogen stores and release glucose into the blood for use by all cells Epinephrine hormone of the adrenal gland that modulates stress response formerly called adrenaline This counteracts anaphylactic shock by opening the airways and maintaining heart rate and blood pressure Diabetes chronic disorder of carb metabolism usually resulting from insufficient or ineffective insulin Prediabetes blood glucose is 100125 diabetes is 126 type 1 less common type pancreas fails to produce insulin type 2 more common type cells fail to respond to insulin hypoglycemia low blood sugar blood glucose glycemic response extent to which a food raises the blood glucose concentration and elicits an insulin response Refers to how quickly glucose is absorbed after a person eats how high blood glucose gets and how quickly it returns to normal glycemic index a method of classifying foods according to their potential for raising blood glucose Added sugars sugars and syrups used as an ingredient in the processing and preparation of foods such as breads cakes jellies and ice creams dental caries decay of teeth caries means rottenness dental plaque a gummy mass of bacteria that s grows on teeth and can lead to caries and gum disease Usda food guide 0 Added sugars no more than 25 of days total energy intake 500 kcals 125 grams or 31 tsps o Carbs should provide about half 45 to 65 of the energy requirement So it should be around 900 to 1300 kcals or carb or about 225 to 325 grams 0 RDA for carbs is set as 130 grams a day 0 25 g of fiber 115g per 1000kcal The DRI recommends 14 g per 1000kcal o Grains an ounceequivalent of most grain food provide 15 g of carb mostly as starch o Veggies amount of carb provided depends on starch content Starchy veggies12 cup cooked corn peas or potatoes provide 15 g of carb Nonstarchy such as broccoli green beans or tomatoes provide 5 g of carb 0 Fruits small banana apple or orange contain 15 g of carb 0 Milk cup of milk or yogurt provides 12 g of carb Cottage cheese 6 g of carb o Meats almost no carb Health effects of starch and fibers 0 Heart disease high carb diets especially those rich in whole grains may protect the heart against disease and stroke Low in animal fat and cholesterol and high in fibers such as veggie proteins and phytochemicals Foods rich in soluble fibers like oat bran barley and legumes lower blood cholesterol 0 Diabetes high fiber foods especially whole grainsplay a key role in reducing type 2 diabetes When soluble fibers trap nutrients and delay transit through gi tract glucose absorption is slowed which helps to prevent the glucose surge and rebound that seem to b associated with type 2 diabetes 0 Gi health dietary fibers enhance health of large intestine Fibers such as cellulose in cereal brans fruits and veggies increase stool weight eating passage and reduce transit time 0 Cancer increasing dietary fiber can help prevent colon cancer Weight management high fiber and whole grain foods help a person maintain a healthy weight Foods rich in complex carbs tend to be low in fat and added sugars and can therefore promote weight loss by delivering less energy per bite Fibers can also absorb water from digestive juices they swell creating feeling of fullness Chapter 5 Lipids fats Lipids a family of compounds that includes triglycerides phospholipids and sterols Lipids are characterized by their insolubility in water Every triglyceride contains 1 molecule of glycerol and 3 fatty acids Fatty acids may be 4 to 24 carbons long even numbers the 18carbon ones being the most common in foods Fatty acids may be saturated or unsaturated Unsaturated fatty acids may have one or more points of unsaturation monoor polyunsaturated Polyunsaturated fatty acids whose first point of unsaturation is next to the third carbon known as omega3 or next to the 6 h carbon known as omega6 18carbon fatty acids that fit this description are linolenic acid omega3 18 carbons with 3 dbl bonds and linoleic acid omega6 18 carbons with 2 dbl bonds Each is the primary member of a family of longerchain fatty acids that help to regulate blood pressure blood clotting and other body functions Fats lipids that are solid at room temp Oils lipid that are liquid at room temp Fatty acids An organic acid a chain of carbon atoms with hydrogens attached that has an acid group COOH at one end and a methyl group CH3 at the other end Saturated fatty acid example stearic acid fully loaded with hydrogen atoms and contains only single bonds between them Point of unsaturation double bond Unsaturated fatty acid 2 hydrogens missing and a double bond Polyunsaturated fatty acid 2 or more carbon to carbon double bonds Chemists identify polyunsaturated fatty acids by position of double bond nearest the methyl group CH3 end of carbon chain which is described by an omega number One with its first double bond three carbons away is omega3 Trans fatty and cis fatty acids difference is the configuration around the double bond Triglycerides Lipids composed of 3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol To make one a series of condensation reactions combine an H atom from the glycerol and a hydroxyl group OH from a fatty acid forming water and leaving a bond between the other 2 molecules Oxidation process of a substance combing with oxygen involve the loss of electrons Oxidation of fats produce smells and taste of rancid and spoilage Antioxidants as a food additive preservatives that delay or prevent rancidity of fats in foods and other damage done by oxygen They compete for oxygen and thus protect oil Hydrogenation chemical process by which hydrogens are added to monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids to reduce the number of double bonds making the fats more saturated solid a nd more resistant to oxidation produces transfatty acids transfatty acids hydrogens next to double bonds are on opposite sides of the carbon chain Phospholipids Sterol Digestio A compound similar to a triglyceride but having a phosphate group and choline in place of one of the fatty acids Best known is lecithin both nature and the food industry use this as an emulsifier to combine watersoluble and fatsoluble ingredients that usually don t mix Richest source in eggs liver soybeans wheat germ and peanuts Important constituents of cell membranes They are soluble in water and fat and can help lipids move back and forth across cell membrane Thus they enable fatsoluble substances vitamins and hormones to pass easily in and out They can also emulsify keeping fats suspended in the blood and fluids Compounds containing a four ring carbon structure with any variety of side chains attached The most famous one is cholesterol Foods from both animals and plants contain sterol but only those from animals contain significant amounts of cholesterol Bile acids sex hormones adrenal hormones cortisol and vitamin d serve as starting material for the synthesis of these compounds or as a structural component of cell membranes more than 90 of bodys cholesterol resides in cells Liver makes 8001000mg of cholesterol every day Cholesterol deposits in artery walls atherosclerosis n absorption and transport of lipids On average we eat 50100 g or triglycerides 48 g phospholipids 200350 mg of cholesterol Fats are hydrophobic separate from watery fluids scared of water Enzymes are hydrophilic waterloving Lipid digestion goal is to dismantle triglycerides into small molecules that the body can absorb and usenamely monoglycerides molecules of glycerol with one fatty acid attached fatty acids and glycerol in the mouth some hard fats begin to melt Salivary gland at base of tongue releases lingual lipase In the stomach strong muscle contractions propel stomach contents toward pyloric sphincter Some chyme passes through the sphincter but the rest of partially digested food is propelled back into body of stomach Churning grinds the solid pieces chyme is mixed and disperses fat into small droplets in small intestine triggers release of cholecystokinin CCK which signals gallbladder to release its stores of biles biles ingredients are bile acids which are made in the liver from cholesterol They also pair up with an amino acid which is attracted to water and the sterol end is attracted to fat This improves bile s ability to act as an emulsifier drawing fat molecules into the surrounding watery fluids Fats are now fully digested here as they encounter lipase enzymes from the pancreas an small intestine Most hydrolysis of triglycerides occur in small intestine Major fatdigesting enzymes are pancreatic lipase phospholipids digested similarly fatty acids are removed by hydrolysis the 2 fatty acids and the remaining phospholipid fragment are then absorbed Lipid absorption small molecules of digested triglycerides can diffuse easily into the intestinal cells they are absorbed directly into the bloodstream Larger molecules monoglycerides and fatty acid chains merge into spherical complexes known as micells which are emulsified fatty droplets formed by molecules of bile surrounding monoglycerides and fatty acids most contain bile salts and the products of lipid digestion This arrangement permits solubility in watery fluids and transportation into intestinal cells within these intestinal cells newly made triglycerides and other lipids cholesterol and phospholipids are packed with protein into transport vehicles known as chylomicrons which transport lipids from intestinal cells to rest of body Lipid transport Chylomicrons transport vehicles these vehicles are known as lipoproteins they solve he bodys problem of transporting fat through the watery blood The body makes four main types 0 Chylomicrons largest and least dense of the lipoproteins transport dietderived lipids mostly triglycerides from the small intestine via the lymph system to the body 0 VLDL very low density lipoproteins type of lipoprotein made primarily by liver cells to transport lipids to various tissues in the body composed primarily of triglycerides 0 LDL low density lipoproteins type of lipoprotein derived from VLDL as VLDL triglycerides are removed and broken down composed primarily of cholesterol 0 HDL high density lipoprotein type of lipoprotein that transports cholesterol back to the liver from the cells composed primarily of protein Roles of triglycerides 0 Provide body with energy Essential fatty acids fatty acids needed by the body but not made by it in amounts sufficient to meet needs Arachidonic acid an omega6 polyunsaturated fatty acid with 20 carbons and four double bonds present in small amounts in meat and other animal products and synthesized in the body from linoleic acid elcosapentaenoic acid EPA omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with 20 carbons and 5 double bonds present in fish and synthesized in limited amounts in the body from linolenic acid docosahexaeonic acid DHA an omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with 22 carbon and 6 double bonds present in fish and synthesized in limited amount in the body from linolenic acid elcosanoids derivatives of 20 carbon fatty acids biologically active compounds that help to regulate blood pressure blood clotting and other body functions they include prostaglandins thromboxanes and luekotriences Lipid metabolism 0 Adipose tissue body s fat tissue consists of masses of triglyceride storing cells 0 Lipoprotein lipase LPL an enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides passing by in the bloodstream and directs their parts into cells where they can be metabolized for energy or reassembled for storage 0 Hormone sensitive lipase an enzyme inside adipose cells that responds to the bodys need for fuel by hydrolyzing triglycerides so that their parts glycerol and fatty acids escape into the general circulation and thus become available to other cells for fuel The signals to which this enzyme responds includes epinephrine and glucagon which oppose insulin Blood lipid profile 0 Results of blood test the reveal a person s total cholesterol lt200 mgdl LDL lt 100 mgdl HDL gt 60 mgdl and triglycerides lt150 mgdl Recommended intakes of fat saturated fat bad No RDA or upper limit has been set because defining the benefits or harms is not possible But the DRI suggests a diet low in saturated fat trans fats and cholesterol provides 20 to 35 daily energy intake Which represent 400 to 700 kcals roughly 45 to 75 grams 0 Fat replacers ingredients that replace some or all of the functions of fat and may or may not provide energy Artificial fats zeroenergy fat replacers that are chemically synthesized to mimic the sensory and cooking qualities or naturally occurring fats but are totally or partially resistant to digestion Potato chips crackers and tortillas use an artificial fat called olestra a synthetic fat made from sucrose and fatty acids that provide 0kcals per gram also known as sucrose polymer Its structure is similar to a regular fat triglyceride but is made of a sucrose molecule with 6 to 8 fatty acids attached as compared to a triglyceride being made of a glycerol with 3 fatty acids attached Olestra must be fortified with vitamins adek so it does not rob the body of these vitamins but olestra is not a good source of vitamins 1800 kcal 240 420 kcal a day 4070 g fat 2000 kcal 400700 kcal a day 4478 g fat 2200 kcal 440700 kcal a day 4986 g fat


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