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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nelda Will on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NTDT200 at University of Delaware taught by Lennon-Edwards in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/207196/ntdt200-university-of-delaware in Nutritional Science at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Chapter 13 The Trace Minerals Food Sources 7 Food content dependent on soil amp water composition7 Food processin Interactions between trace minerals common 7 can be both positive and negative reactions Deficiencies 7 Mild de ciencies easily overlooked 7 Severe de ciencies easy to recognize 7 Have Widereaching effects 7 seen in children resulting in failure to grow and thrive Toxicities 7 Do not exceed UL 7 FDA does not limit amounts in supplements Iron Fe Found in body as 7 Hemoglobin in RBCs amp Myoglobin 7 in muscle Chief Roles in Body 7 Hemoglobin carries 02 in blood 7 Myoglobin makes 02 available to muscles Iron Absorption Ferritin iron storage protein 7 Transferrin iron transport protein Heme iron from esh of animal foods also contain nonheme iron 40 of total iron on MFP39 remaining 60 is nonheme iron Nonheme iron plantderived and animalderived foods only milk amp eggs 7 total iron is 100 nonheme in these foods AbsorptionEnhancing Factors MFP meat sh poultry factor amp Vitamin C Citric acid amp lactic acid om foods AND HCl acid from stomach MFP Factor promotes absorption of nonheme iron from other foods in that meal Iron Bioavailabi i 18 of dietary iron absorbed from mixed diets 10 of dietary iron absorbed from vegetarian diets No MFP factor Also dependent on stage in life cycle and iron status Iron Transport amp Storage Surplus stored in bone marrow spleen liver Hemosiderin storage protein used when concentrations of iron are extremely high Storing excess iron is protective measure because iron can act as a free radical Iron Recycled in the Body Cuts Menstrual Cycle women Sweating Iron Deficiency Most common affects 12 billion people worldwide Vulnerable stages of life 7 Women in reproductive years pregnant women infants young children teenagers Blood losses 7Any blood loss incurs iron losses menstruation bleeding ulcers Giving 1 pt of blood 9 loose 25 mg iron Iron Deficiency amp Anemia Iron de ciency is depleted iron stores Iron de ciency anemia is severe depletion of iron stores 9microcytic hypoclrromic anemia Small cell too little color Symptoms fatigue weakness apathy Iron Deficiency amp Behavior Energy metabolism is impaired Physical work capacity is reduced Mental productivity is reduced Iron deficiency and Pica Habit of eating ice clay paste other nonfood substances seen in low income women amp children Iron Toxicity Iron overload 7 Hemochromatosis genetic disorder that enhances iron absorption more common in men Other causes repeated blood transfusions massive doses of supplemental iron Iron in Foods Red meats shpoultryshell sh are best sources Eggs and legumes also good sources Grains vary Ironenriched foods Grain products enriched wiron like the B vitamins 7 not absorbed as well Contamination Iron found in foods as result of contamination by inorganic iron salts from iron cookware iron containing soils Iron Supplements Not as well absorbed as foods 7 Best absorbable form is ferrous sulfate or an iron chelate 7 Take on empty stomach use liquids other than milk tea coffee 7 Note Vitamin C enhances food iron absorption not supplement absorption Zinc Roles in the Body 7 Supports work of many metalloenzymes contain 1 or more minerals as part of its structure Involved in growth development amp immune system7 Sperm amp fetal development Zinc Absorption Absorption rates 1540 Bioavailability 7 Dependent on Zn status 7 Vulnerable to phytates In intestinal cell 2 fates 7 Involved in metabolic functions of cell 7 Retained within cell by metallothionein special protein that holds zinc in storage Zn Transport Transported by protein albumin Binds to transferrin Excessive iron and copper can lead to a zinc de ciency and excessive zinc can lead to an iron and copper de ciency Zinc Deficiency Not widespread Occurs in pregnant women young children elderly amp the poor Symptoms growth retardation delayed sexual maturation impaired immune function hair loss Zinc Food Sources Found in red meat shell sh poultry legurnes Can be bound by phytates and ber in diet although rare Iodine Iodine ion is indispensable to life GI tract converts iodine to iodide 7 Iodine in food 7 Iodide in body Function 7 Iodide part of thyroid hormones regulates body temperature metabolic rate reproduction growth blood cell production nerve and muscle function e c Iodine Deficiency Causes reduction in thyroid hormone 7 Body responds by secreting more TSH Thyroid Stimulating Hormone to accelerate iodide uptake by thyroid gland 7 Thyroid gland cells enlarge to trap iodide39 results invisible lump in neck 9 Goiter af icts 200 million people worldwide 96 related to iodine de ciency Severe De ciency Cretinism iodine de ciency during pregnancy causes extreme amp irreversible mental amp physical retardation Iodine Toxicity7 Can interfere with thyroid function and enlarge the gland Esp dangerous during pregnancy infant can develop goiter Iodine Recommendations and Sources 7 Iodized salt 7 Seafood 7 Bread 7 Dairy products Ch 8 Ener Balance amp Bo Com osition Energy in energy out equilibrium Energ in gt energy out gain weight Energy in lt energy out lose weight 1 lb body fat 3500 kcal eaten in excess Changes in Body Weight Not just fat stores Rapidly lost weight includes some fat large amounts uid amp lean tissue Long term loss 75 fat 25 learn Losses due to starvation 50 fat 50 lean Food Composition Bomb calorimeter instrument that measures heat energy released when foods burned Unit used calorie Calorie amount of heat energy required to raise temperature of 1 ml 0 1 C Direct calorimetry 7 Direct measure of heat energy released 7 Bomb calorimeter 7 Overstates amount of energy derived from food we are not that ef cient Physiological fuel value 7 Difference between kcalories measured with calorimetry vs number of kcalories human body derives from a food Food Intake Signals Hunger7 Painful sensation caused by lack of food7 Physiological response originating in Hypothalamus Hypothalums brain center that controls a number of activities 7 ie appetite ie empty stomach gastric contractions etc Satiation 7 Feeling of satisfaction fullness that occurs during a meal 7Due to stomach receptors stretching t CCK Satiety Feeling of satisfaction that occurs alter a meal amp inhibits eating until next meal 7 Determines how much time passes between your meals Appetite Sensations of hunger satiation and satiety that prompt us to eat or not Overriding hunger and satiety 7 Eat in response to stress boredom anxiety 7 External cues Time of day Availability sight and taste Environmental in uences large portion sizes favorite foods Sustaining satiation and satiety 7 Protein is most satiating 7 Low energy density foods amp high ber foods also satiating 7 Eating high fat foods may lead to passive overconsurnption 7 Fat does provide satiety signals once in small intestine Energy out Kcalories the body expends for 1 Basal metabolism 5065 2 Physical activity 3050 7 varies the most 3 Thermic effect of food 10 Components of Energ Expenditure 1 Basal Metabolism 723 of total energy expenditure 7 Energy needed to support basic processes of life at rest body temp etc 7 Basal metabolic rate BMR is rate of energy use for metabolism under specified conditions Rate varies among people and within an individual Typically measure Resting Metabolic rate RMR which is slightly higher bc not measured under controlled conditions Age fasting starvation malnutrition lowers the BMR 2 Physical Activity 7 Voluntary movement of skeletal muscles 7 Most variable amp changeable component of energy expenditure 7 Can be signi cant in weight loss and gain 7 Duration frequency and intensity in uence energy expenditure 3 Thermic effect of food TEF Estimated energy to digest absorb transport metabolize amp store nutrients 7 10 of total energy intake Estimating Energy Requirements Gender Men generally higher BMR Growth Higher in people growing Age BMR declines as lean body mass decreases Physical activity Clustered by intensity amp vary considerably Body composition amp size Taller people 9 more surface area 9 higher BMR Heavier people 9 higher BMR Body weight Body Composition and Health Direct measures of body composition impossible in human beings Must assess indirectly assume Body weight fat lean tissue includes water Overweight does not always means overfat ie bodybuilder but unfortunately in many cases it does De ning Healthy Body Weight What is ideal Fashion Society values change over time Health Good health supersedes appearance Longevity is a criterion Body Mass Index BMI 7 Measures relative weight for height 7 Re ects disease risks 7 Does not measure body composition 7 BMI wt kght m2 or wt lb1tin2 x 703 Underweight lt 185 Normal 185 7 249 Overweight 25 7 299 Obese 30 7399 Extreme obesity 2 40 Body Fat and Its Distribution Fat distribution 7 Visceral fat intraabdominal fat stored within abdominal cavity in association with organs Central obesity or called upper body fat apple shape 7 More common in men 7Associated w increased risk of cardiovascular diseases HTN diabetes amp some cancers 7 Fat around hips and thighs Called lower body fat pear shape More common in women 7 Not usually associated w disease Body Fat and Its 39 39 39 Waist 39 C39 can predict risk ofcentral obesity Women gt 35 inches Men gt 40 inches 7 Easy to use practical look for changes over time Measures of body composition 7 Researchers use more precise techni ues Skinfold techniques using a caliper to measure fat folds on body compared to standards Hydrodensitometry weighing person rst on land then under water Bioelectrical impedance using lowintensity electrical current Air 39 using 1 39 en or in a chamber that person sits in DEXA scan lowdose X rays that differentiate among tissues Health risks associated with body weight and fat Health risks of Underweight 7 Cannot handle medical stresses unable to preserve lean mass while ghting cancer digestive disorder etc 7 Menstrual irregularities amp infertility 7 Osteoporosis and bone fractures 7 Pregnancy problems Considered a disease Health risks of overweight 7 Complications in pregnancy and surgery 7 Diabetes Sleep apnea 7 Hypertension Osteoarthritis 7 Cardiovascular disease Some cancers 7 Respiratory problems aJitY Cardiovascular disease amp obesity strong relationship 7 Central obesity7 High LDLcholesterol smoking hypertension Diabetes amp obesity strong relationship 7 Insulin resistance 7 Central obesity Hi hli t 8 Eatin Disorders 7 Eating behaviors that are not normal or healthy Eating disorders disturbances in eating behavior that jeopardize a person s physiological or psychological health Three eating disorders 7 Anoxeria nervosa 09 W 03 M 7 Bulimia nervosa 15 W 05 M 7 Binge eating disorder 35 W 2 M Relatively uncommon but huge health consequences Amenorrhea absence or cessation of menstruation characterized by infertility low blood estrogen mineral losses from bone Preventing Eating Disorders in Athletes Education of coaches parents athletes The need for true weight loss in an athlete should be done in the offseason with supervision Frequent weighins drive athletes to unsafe practices Anorexia Nervosa Distorted body image 7 Central to diagnosis cannot be selfdiagnosed Malnutrition 7 Impacts brain function and judgment 7 Causes lethargy confusion and delirium Denial 7 Levels are high among anorexics Need for selfcontrol Proteinenergy malnutrition PEM similar to marasmus Impact on body Growth ceases amp normal development falters9 loss of lean tissue 7 Changes in heart size amp strength 7 Other bodily consequences impaired immune response anemia altered blood lipids Treatment 7 Multidisciplinary approach Food and weight issues Relationship issues with oneself amp others Bulimia Nervosa Distinct and more prevalent than anorexia nervosa 7 True incidence is dif th to establish secretive nature not as physically apparent Common background characteristics of bulimics single white female o en close to ideal body weight Bingepurge cycle 7 Lack of control 7 Consume food for emotional comfort cannot stop done in secret 7 Purge cathartic emetic shame amp guilt Physical consequences of bingepurge cycle 7 Subclinical malnutrition uid and mineral imbalances abnormal heart rhythms damage to kidneys 7 Physical effects tooth erosion red eyes calloused hands Clinical depression and substance abuse rates are high Treatment 7 Discontinue purging and restrictive diet habits 7 Learn to eat three meals a day plus snacks 7 Treatment team 7 Length of recovery Overlap between anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa Binge Eating Disorder Periodic binging 7 Typically no purging 7 Exert less restraint during times of dieting 7 Contrast with bulimia nervosa Similar to bulimia nervosa 7 Feelings out of control disgusted depressed embarrassed guilty Behavioral disorder responsive to treatment Eating Disorders in Society Society plays central role in eating disorders 7 Known only in developed nations7 More prevalent as wealth increases Food becomes plentiful Body dissatisfaction Characteristics of disordered eating Ch 9 Weight Management Fat Cell Development Excess energy stored in fat cells energy in gt energy out Fat cells are capable of increasing their size by 20fold and their number by several thousandfold They accumulate triglycerides Fat cell numbers T most rapidly in late childhood and early puberty T during positive energy balance Fat cell size Size T when energy intake exceeds expenditure Fat Cell Metabolism Lipoprotein lipase LPL 7 Enzyme that promotes fat storage in both adipose and muscle cells 7 Obese Tend to higher levels of LPL 7 Gender Differences Some body areas have higher LPL activity 7 Increases a er weight loss Causes of Overweight amp Obesity Energy Imbalance Energ in gt Energy out But why7 Genetics 7 Environmental Genetics Plays true causative role in very few cases PraderWilli syndrome Genetics may in uence obesity 7 Adopted children similar weight to biological parents 7 Identical twins 2x more likely to weigh same vs fraternal twins Suggest predisposition to weight gain Causes Of Obesity Genetics Leptin ob protein protein that acts as a hormone to T energy expenditure and t appetite Produced by fat cells under direction of obesity ob gene Causes of Obesity Environment Overeating 7 Present and past Eating in uences current body weight 7 Increased availability of convenient food large portions and energydense foo s Prevalence of fast food restaurants 7 Advertising amp marketing of energydense foods that may not be healthy Physical Inactivity 7 Modern technology replaces physical activities Escalators elevators cars remote controls Life is very easy and very inactive Sedentary activities require little energy replace time spent doing vigorous activity amp watching TV in uences food purchases People may be obese not due to overeating but lack of activity Problems of Overweight amp Obesity Health risks Evaluated using BMI waist circumference disease risk pro le 7 Overweight in good health 7 may not need to lose wei 7 Obeseoverweight with risk factors 7 Need to adopt low fat diet amp exercise 7 Obeseoverweight with life threatening condition 7 Improve health by losing weight Heart disease type 2 diabetes Perceptions and Prejudices Social consequences 7 Discrimination 7 Judged on appearance vs character eotyped 9 lazy lacking selfcontrol Psychological problems 7 Feelings of embarrassment rejection shame depression common 7 Ineffective treatments 9 sense of failure Dangerous Interventions Fad diets 7 False theories 7 Inadequate diets 7 May be hazardous to health Weight Loss ProductkHerbal laxativesDieter s tea 7 Can cause diarrhea vomiting contribute to some deaths Aggressive Treatments of Obesity Clinically severe obesity de ned as BMI Z40 Drugs 7 Sibutramine taken off the market in Oct 2010 7 Orlistat 7 recently approved by FDA for over the counter salesInhibits pancreatic lipase activity blocks fat absorption by 30 Side effects Gas frequent bowel movements 7 Orlistat should be used w a reduced kcalorie low fat diet amp exercise Surgery Gastric Banding Band reduces opening from esophagus to stomach can be adjusted More common procedure GOAL severely decrease intake 121 cup per sittin Advantages reversible body anatomy intact no dumping syndrome no nutritional de ciencies Disadvantages need strict compliance to diet vomiting if food eaten too quickly or not chewed enough Surgery Gastric Bypass Small band placed around upper part of stomach creating Small pouch39 outlet of pouch leads to jejunum bypass most of stomach and small intestine GOAL severely decrease intake Advantages greater weight loss Disadvantages nutritional de ciencies dumping syndrome nausea vomiting Weight loss strategies Realistic weight loss 122 lbwk or 10 of body weight over 6 months Lower limits ofkcal reduction 10001200 kcald for women 12001600 kcald for men Diet should be nutritionally adequate Smaller portions Eat foods of lower energy density Drink water Watch for empty kcals 9 sugar alcohol and fancy coffee drinks Weight loss strategies Physical Activity will do the following T Energy expenditure depends on duration equency intensity May T metabolism BMR can rise w daily activity T in BRM due to T lean body mass Change body composition I body fat T lean mass Physical activity will do the following Appetite control Typically not hunger postworkout Psychological bene ts 1 stress improve selfesteem Environmental In uences Your atmosphere can in uence amount eaten Accessibility of food Socializing Distractions Presence of food Package and portion size Serving containers Behavior and Attitude Behavior modi cation takes time Awareness is first Record keeping amp identifying behaviors requiring change Support groups Change one behavior at a time Personal attitudes toward food must be understood Overeating is a part of their identity Weight loss strategies Maintenance 7 Exercise and careful eating plans key Prevention Eat regular meals limit snacking 7 Drink water 7 Be active 7 Sensible portion size Which of the following is a feature of Basal Metabolic Rate BMR Hot environmental temperatures increase the BMR What is the normal body fat content for normalweight women 2331 Waist circumference can be best used to assess abdominal fat stores What is the function of the MFP factor Enhances iron absorption
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