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exceptional children final notes chelsea p November 10 Learning Disabilities Learning Disabilities The Basics A learning disability is a neurological disorder Results from a difference in the way a persons brain is wired Children may be as smart or smarter than their peers Some famous people had a LD 0 Albert Einstein couldn t read til he was nine 0 Walt Disney had trouble reading his entire life 0 Whoopie Goldberg who s learning disabilities have not affected their success These individuals may have difficulty reading writing spelling reasoning recalling or organizing information if taught in conventional ways A LD can t be cured or fixed it is a lifelong issue With the right support and intervention children with LD s can succeed in school and go on to successful often distinguished careers later in life Teachers and parents can help children achieve success by encouraging their strengths knowing their weaknesses and understanding different strategies for dealing with specific difficulties Fifteen percent of the US population has some type of LD 1 in 7 Often run in families Different from other disabilities Children who are learning English do not necessarily have a LD LD is the largest and fastest growing category of disabilities in special education The classification is controversial Why 0 Are low achievers improperly classified 0 Should these children be classified at all 0 What do you think many teachers feel about children classified as having an LD by looking at an IEP before meeting the student Learning Disabilities Definition o The IDEA defines the definition of Learning Disabilities as o A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language spoken or written which may manifest itself in an i ability to listen think speak read write spell or to do m thematical calculations o Most states use three criteria to classify children with LD 0 Discrepancy Criterion A significant discrepancy must exist between the intellectual ability and academic achievement 0 Exclusion Criterion Difficulties cannot be due ot other conditions mental retardation etc 0 Need for Special Education Difficulties require special education This criterion is meant to exclude children who have not had access to education Learning Disabilities Characteristics o Reading difficulty is the most common characteristic of children with LD 0 Difficulties with basic reading processes including letter recognition and phonological awareness 0 Source of 90 of referrals are for children thought to have LD Phonological Awareness o Phonological awareness is the understanding of different ways that oral language can be divided into smaller components and manipulated o Instructing phonological awareness Engage children in activities that direct their attention to the sounds in words such as rhyming and alliteration games Teach students to segment and blend and show that these are complimentary processes Combine training in segmentation and blending with instruction in letter sound relationships Teach for transfer to novel tasks and contexts O O O O Dyslexia o A language based disability in which a person has trouble understanding written words It may also be referred to as reading disabilities or reading disorder o Some examples of problems 0 O O A reading of mirroropposites p as q Guessing she might read officer as official approximate as appropriate Omitting short words might omit function words Avoid using long words Common forms of Dyscalculia o A mathematical disability in which a person has a difficult time solving mathematical problems and grasping concepts o Characteristics of some individuals with Dyscalculia O O O O O O O 0 Good at speaking reading and writing but slow to develop counting and math problem solving skills Good memory for printed words but difficulty reading numbers or recalling numbers in sequence Good with general math concepts but frustrated when specific computation and organizational skills need to be used Trouble with the concept of timechronically difficulty remembering schedules trouble with approximating how long something will take Poor sense of direction easily disoriented by changes in routine Poor long term memory of concepts Poor mental math ability trouble estimating grocery costs or counting days until vacation Difficulty playing strategy games Difficulty keeping score when playing board or card games Common Forms of Dysgraphia o A writing disability in which a person finds it hard to form letters or write within a defined space Common forms of LD ADPVPD o Auditory and Visual Processing Disorders sensory disabilities in which a person has difficulty understanding language despite normal hearing and vision Common forms of LD Nonverbal LDs o Nonverbal Learning Disabilities a neurological disorder which originates in the right hemisphere of the brain causing problems with visualspatial intuitive organizational evaluative and holistic processing functions November 29 Early Childhood Special Education o Opening Reflection Why do you think early intervention strategies are important I think they are important because early experiences play a large part in a child s growth and development later in life These children will be far better off if they have early intervention h lilii o Early Childhood Special Education consists of services for children from 35 years c Early Intervention refers to services provided to infants and toddlers from birth to 2 years 0 Wide range of services including educational child care and family supports 0 Designed to reduce the effects of a disability or the occurrence of developmental problems later in life 0 Programs that focus on the needs of children and their parents and family are effective IDEA amp Early Childhood Special Education o Children with disabilities between ages of 35 years must receive preschool education per IDEA o States are given incentives to offer early intervention services for children with disabilities between birth 2 years c All states now provide some services for children birth 2 years 0 Experience developmental delay 0 Have physical medical or environmental risk conditions that increases the chances of a disability Individualized Family Service Plans An IFSP documents and guides the early intervention process for children with disabilities and their families The IFSP is the vehicle through which effective early intervention is implemented in accordance with part C of the IDEA It contains information about the services necessary to facilitate a child s development and enhance the family s capacity to facilitate the child s development Through the IFSP process family members and service providers work together to plan implement and evaluate services tailored to the family s unique concerns priorities and resources What is the IFSP Shall be in writing Shall contain statements regarding O O O The child s present levels of physical cognitive communication social and adaptive development The family s resources priorities and concerns relating to enhancing the development of a child with a disability The major outcomes to be achieved for the child and the family the criteria procedures and timelines used to determine progress and whether modifications or revisions of the outcomes or services are necessary Specific early intervention services necessary to meet the unique needs of the children and the family including the frequency intensity and the method of delivery The natural environments in which services will be provided including justification of the extent if any to which the services will not be provided in a natural environment The projected dates for initiation of services and their interpreted duration o The name of the service provider who will be responsible for implementing the plan and coordinating with other agencies and persons 0 Steps to support the child s transition to preschoolother services r 39 i 39i l g o The IFSP differs from IEP in several ways 0 It revlolves around family 0 Includes outcomes targeted for the family 0 Includes the notion of natural environment 0 Includes activities undertaken with multiple agencies 0 Names a service coordinator to help the family during the development implementation and evaluation of the IFSP Steps that lead to Effective IFSPs o Identify Family Concerns Priorities and Resources 0 The family s concerns priorities and resources guide the entire IFSP process Early intervention should be seen as a system of services and supports available to families to enhance their capacity to care for their children The notion of partnership between the intervention team and the family must be introduced and nurtured at the beginning point of the IFSP process o Identify the Family s Activity Settings 0 All children develop as the result of their everyday experiences It is important to document valued enjoyable routines bath time eating play activities etc and analyze them to see if they offer the sustained engagement that leads to learning opportunities Likewise it is important to identify the community activity settings that provide opportunities for learning o Conducting a Functional Assessment 0 Addresses the family s questions about enhancing the child s development focusing on each family members views 0 Collects information for a specific purpose 0 complete and accurate picture of child s strengths weaknesses has a person familiar to the child conduct observations and other assessments in familiar settings Collaborativer Develop Expected Outcomes 0 After assessment information is collected the team meets to review the information and the family s concerns priorities and resources to develop statements of expected outcomes or goals Active family involvement is essential Collaborative goals focus on enhancing the family s capacity and increasing the child s participation in valued activities Identify strategies to Implement the Plan 0 O Intervention strategies should help promote generalization of outcomes Intervention should target several outcomes during one activity EC Special Education Program Goals In General Family goals are most important Train for independence choice and autonomy Promote child s progress in all domains Support generalization of skills Promote normalized life experiences in typical situations Promote smooth transitions Developmentally Appropriate Practice A Key to the Intervention Is guided by what is typically experienced by children of a given age and developmental stage 0 O O O Integrate across domains and provide a wide range of activities Note children s interests and progress Encourage exploration Activities and materials should be concrete and relevant to the child Increase complexity with the child s understanding Service Delivery Models o Hospital Based Programs o HomeBased Programs 0 Natural environment parent can often give the most time and derive the satisfaction from promoting their child s development family is involved the services are usually less costly 0 Parents can be asked to do more than they can manage families are increasingly nontraditional the same range of services are not available at home limited chances for social interaction o Service Delivery Models 0 Center based programs services provided in a setting outside the home Allow for collaboration among professionals in different fields Opportunities for integrated social interactions Parents get support from professionals Emotional and Behavior Disorders o IDEA definition of serious emotional disturbance The term means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following conditions over a long period of time or to such a degree that educational performance is affected 0 An ability to learn which cannot be explained by intellectual sensory or health factors An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers or teachers 0 Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances Pervasive unhappiness or depression Physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems 0 O O December 6 Exceptional Gifts and Talents Why do those with gifts and talents need special education Shifts in Special education is necessary for children when their physical attributes and or learning abilities differ from the norm to such an extent that an individualized program is required to meet their needs The traditional curriculum can be inappropriate for the child who is gifted and talented When a traditional classroom curriculum is not allowing children who are gt to fulfill their potential and to succeed fully in school than special education is needed definitions Intelligence creativity and talent have been central to the various definitions that have been proposed over the years Current definitions have grown out of our awareness that IQ alone does not define all the possible areas of giftedness Today s definitions include many talents that contribute substantially to the quality of life for both the individual and society Gifts and Talents A child who is gifted has high overall ability and achievement Usually a standard deviation or two higher in ability and achievement than typically developing peers A child with talent may have an average overall ability but extraordinary skill in a particular domain Specific academic aptitude Creative Leadership Visual and performing arts Psychomotor ability Children with academic gifts and talents are often able to o Rapidly acquire retain and use large amounts of information 0 See relationships among bits of information and underlying structures of knowledge 0 O O O O o Solve problems creatively Creativity o Fluency flexibility originality elaboration synthesize analyze reorganize complexity Identification What Provisions Should be made to Identify Students o Biases inherent in identification are primarily to blame for the underrepresentation of students from culturally diverse groups c There is a growing need for culturally nonbiased identification and assessment practices o Current best practices involve obtaining information from a variety of sources such as portfolios of student work tests in specific contents creativity tests and problemsolving tests DISCOVER o The most used assessment currently for identifying kids with gifts and talents o Maker developed the procedure that is commonly used c This assessment process involves a series of five progressively more complex problems that provide children with various ways to demonstrate problem solving competence with the content and with one another Gifts and Talents Approaches for Teaching c three types of instruction take the learning needs of these children into account enrichment curriculum compacting and acceleration o enrichment allow students to investigate topics of interest 0 curriculum compacting is the compressing of instructional content so students have more time to work on more challenging materials acceleration allow students to move through the curriculum faster 0 Instruction o Each of the aforementioned approaches to instruction can be used by the regular education teacher o Allowing gifted and talented students to be grouped so that they can progress at their own pace may preserve the students motivation to learn and help prevent problems such as boredom and an aversion toward school Placement and Ability Grouping o Special schools o Selfcontained classrooms pull out programs and regular classroom o Ability grouping 0 Tracking 0 Within class grouping regrouping by subject 0 Crossgrade grouping Gifts and Talents Common Concerns o Traditional conceptions of gifts and talents are under scrutiny 0 Assessment methods such as IQ identify a narrow range of students 0 What about students whose talents are not detected by traditional means o Allocations given to these students are being reconsidered o Increasingly students are likely to receive instruction from classroom teachers rather than in pullout programs or special classes 0 Remember previous litigation hendrick Hudson v Rowley should students who are gt receive services above and beyond what typically developing peers receive ruling stated that students are only entitiled to services that allow them to make progress equal to their peers not better o Should gifted and talented students be educated with their same age peers or with older students who share the same intellectual and academic talents and interests EDUC2230 First Exam Notes Chelsea p September 1 Individual Variance Classification and labeling involve judgments about people s characteristics Characteristics may be objective or subjective 0 height objective 0 beauty subjective The judgments rely on standards that are either explicit or implicit o explicit objective measures like SAT s o implicit less formal measures Standards may come from many sources and reflections on one s own experiences Individuals on institutions may classify and label 0 Individuals informal labels 0 Institutions formal labels Classification and labeling are everywhere Classification makes new experiences more familiar and interpretable Informal labels can be shed easily not so much formal September 6 Labels Formal Labels 0 Unlike informal labels which are given by individuals formal labels are given by institutions 0 Example felon person with learning disability 0 The standards used by institutions are usually more explicit than ones used by individuals 0 Because they carry the weight of an institution formal labels are usually more difficult to expel than informal Formal Labels in Education 0 Used because 0 Resources for special services are scarce 0 Eligibility can be determined through them 0 Assigned through 0 Medical Model O 0 Method of Statistical Relativity Response to intervention o Medical Model 0 O O O O O O 0 Is like process physicians use to make diagnoses Symptoms are used as bases of decision Two important decisions in medical model Are you sickwell If sick what is the condition Classification can be invalid Sick don t have all symptoms well have some People with different illnesses may have the same symptoms o Method of Statistical Relativity O O Judgments are made based conceptions of normal Abnormality is determined according to the statistical relationship between a person s characteristics and an average for the group Assumes that the characteristic is measurable that is you can use measurements to assign a number Computer scores for average and deviations from the average o Response to Intervention RTI O O O O Dissatisfaction with statistical relativity Wait until the child s education is impaired by the disability Steps in using RTI Shows that the quality of general classroom instruction is high but student is still responding poorly compared with peers Make adaptations to address students with needs differentiated instruction If student does not respond may need special education services c Advantages of Labeling o Allows policy makers to develop programs and make funding decisions Ensures that those who need services get them Provides common language to discuss disabilities Enables advocacy groups to promote children with special needs 0 May allow parents to accept the atypical behavior of a child with a disability However this should not lead to low expectations 0 Helps people see that they are not the only ones see how they are different and why gives them a common language 0 O O o Disadvantages of Labeling 0 Can have been used to exclude some kids from educational opportunities 0 Can lead to peer reject 0 Can lead to thoughts that behavior is due to something wrong with the child 0 Can be permanent o Potentially limits resources for children who need them but are not eligible 0 Labels can be used to explain a child s behavior rather than describe it which will distract from effects to find instructional factors that might be responsible for behavior 0 Can lead to self fulfilling prophesy of underperformance 0 Teachers have lower expectations causes child to underperform o Impairment Disability Handicap o Impairment a loss or abnormality of a psychological or physical structure or function paraplegic as result of birth injury 0 Disability a loss or reduced function of a body part or organ that affects a person s ability to perform tasks in the same way as other people paraplegic who needs a wheelchair O O O Handicap a loss or reduced function of a body part or organ that affects a person s ability to perform tasks in the same way as other people and results in difficulties adapting to the environment Disability can become a handicap Disability stays with you but can become a handicap Distinction involves interaction with environment Special Education The provision of any educational or related services technology or adaptations in the physical environment that help ensure that a disability does not become a handicap September 8m Historical Treatment 0 O O O The O O O O O O O Exams mostly from power points like Steph said Historical Treatment of People with Exceptionalities Three principles to keep in mind Money matters servicesdepend on economic resources Knowledge matters greater knowledge leads to better service Beliefs matter beliefs about the malleability of people affect the provision of services Period of Local Diversity Before 1800 Systematic treatment was rarely providedto people with disabilities because A largely agrarian economy existed with wealth reserved for the privileged few education was not compulsory reserved for rich white males Very little known about disabilities People were predominantly nativistic people are the way they are bc of lineage End of period is marked by two major social upheavals American and French revolutions Rejected hereditary succession and rule by monarchy Social institutions were reformed to provide services to a wider range of citizens though not all o The Growth of Formal Institutions 18001859 0 Political changes in France led to an increase in sensationalistic thinking Differences in people are due to differences in experiences 0 Itard and Victor the Wild Boy of Aveyron o Itard was a physician and researcher at the National Institute for DeafMutes in Paris 0 Sought to cure Victor a feral child found in the woods of France 0 Even though he could not cure Victor he s been called the Father of Special Education 0 Eduard Seguin a student of Itard developed the physiological method instructional methods to be used in residential institutions to rewire the brain 0 Established the Fernald school in Massachusetts 0 Itard and Seguin were proponents of the Sensationalist philosophy 0 The Industrial Revolution which began near the end of this period led to an increase in discretionary funds and set the stage for the next historical period c Immigration Industrialization and Compulsory Education 1850 1900 0 During this period the American economy shifted from agricultural to industry and the US experienced an influx of immigrants 0 Industrial leaders need a highly trained workforce and lobbied for compulsory education laws 0 Socially conscious groups particularly women saw school as a place to acculturate new immigrants o Compulsory education laws were established to ensure the transmission of American values and that children were given the education means to develop O O O The O O O O O 0 During this time Darwin s Origin of the Species was published This book advanced a theory of natural selection and influenced events during the next time period At the turn of the 20th century storm clouds were brewing The country was facing economic strife The sensationalists promise to cure people were going unfulfilled and Nativistic ideas were regaining popularity Institutions were becoming custodial warehouses went from trying to help to leaving them alone Great Wars the Testing Movement and Eugenics 19001945 World Wars I and II provide context for this era Eugenics which was seen by some as an extension of Darwin s principles to human social engineering becomes popular Eugenics was a particularly extreme strain of Nativists beliefs deformed children should be put to death Hitler believed that American Eugenicists were right and put their principles into action He tried to rid the gene pool of contamination The return to Nativism the popularity of Eugenics and the rise of Hitler were precipitated by deteriorating global economic conditions In the US the testing movement gained popularity The IQ test was used to assess draftees readiness for military service Enforced minimal entrance requirements for school Counter to the test s original purpose Binet and Simon designed the test to determine which students would require extra services to succeed in school World War II did have positive fall out for people with disabilities Nazi atrocities demonstrated the danger of Eugenics and extreme Nativism Attitudes towards people with disabilities shifted as policy makers felt an obligation to care for injured veterans 0 Low literacy among draftees underscored need to improve education September 13m Historical Treatment Cont d o Legislation Litigation and the Growth of Federal Involvement 19451980 0 O O O O O O O O O The end of WWII ushered in a period of sustained economic prosperity in the US more resources were available However the Cold War with the Soviet Union impacted educational policy Example launching of sputnik led to identification an training of students gifted in math and science John Kennedy s work had a profound effect on federal involvement in education for students with disabilities Created the Bureau of Education for the Handicapped now Office of Special Education andRehabilitative Services which had three goals Provision of financial resources for teacher training Direct aid to states for services Support research and dissemination of best practices The federal government also took a more active role in special education through litigation and legislation Litigation court rulings extended principles established in the struggle for civil rights to the education of students with disabilities Legislation laws that extended educational opportunities to historically excluded groups o Reevaluating Special Education 1980 Present 0 O O In 1980 the country was in the midst of economic recession The first cohort of students educated under PL 94142 remained dependent on ssocial services for basics ie residence employment etc Focus was shifted to transition and longterm needs 0 Current discussion centers on the relationship between special and general education especially How to involve students with disabilities in the regular curriculum including participation in highstakes testingstate mandated tests The relative importance of categories of disabilities versus individual needs identification The research development and implementation of instruction for students with disabilities Defining disabilities in terms of Response to Treatment Litigation Legislation and the Educational Rights of People with Exceptionalities O O O O 0 Due O O O Litigation The word litigation refers to lawsuits Many of the legal precedents for the education of people with disabilities were established during the Civil Rights movement Litigation the 15th Amendment Special education litigation usually involves protection of rights guaranteed in the 14th Amendment to the US Constitution The 14th amendment contains two clauses Equal Protection Rights are guaranteed to all citizens regardless ofjurisdiction Due Process Rights may only be denied a citizen after due process has been undertaken Process Rights Written notification you re not allowed to come to school because of Hearing before an impartial person hard to get impartiality Present evidence Legal representation they have right to attorney 0 Written Decision 0 Appeal Litigation Brown v Board of Education Topeka KS 1954 THIS WILL BE ON EXAM 0 Setting condition African American students in Topeka KA were sent to segregated schools 0 The Brown family argued that separate schools are inherently unequal o Ruling Segregating students on the basis of factors unrelated to education is discriminatory Litigation Tinker vs Des Moines Iowa 1969 0 Setting condition Students protesting the Vietnam War were expelled for wearing black armbands to school 0 Students families argued that students are guaranteed certain rights under the Constitution 0 Ruling Students are citizens and therefore entitled to certain rights under the constitution Litigation Wyatt vs Stickney 1972 0 Setting condition Economic recession forced the State of Alabama to lay off staff at institutions for the mentally ill 0 Families of residents argued that lowered staff levels resulted in inadequate care 0 Ruling Residence was to be outlined in Individualized Treatment Plans Litigation Mills vs DC 1972 WILL BE ON EXAM 0 Setting condition Due to financial hardship DC eliminated an entire category of disability 0 Families argued that students were being denied necessary services 0 Ruling Financial hardship could not be used as a reason to deny students a constructive education o Litigation Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens vs Commonwealth of PA 1972 WILL BE ON EXAM 0 Setting condition Students with intellectual disabilities were denied access to education based on minimal entry requirements 0 PARC argued that the students exclusion violated compulsory education laws 0 Ruling All students are entitled to a free appropriate public education and taht PA was obligated to notify parents if their children s educational services were changed 0 Single most important ruling in history of special education o Litigation Hendrick Hudson CSD vs Rowley 1982 0 Setting condition The school district decided to discontinue providing Amy Rowley a deaf student with a sign language tutor because she was not using the tutor s assitance 0 Family argued that the tutor was necessary for Amy to make best academic progress 0 Ruling Students are only entitled to services that allow them to make progress equal to their peers ie not the best o Litigation Larry P vs Riles 1979 0 Setting condition California schools used IQ tests as the sole basis for placing African American students in special education resulting in their overrepresentation in these classes 0 The parents claimed that IQ tests are culturally biased o Ruling IQ tests are biased 0 Schools may not use them to place AfricanAmericans in special education 0 Schools must use multifaceted assessments designed to promote educational progress o Litigation Parents in Action on Special Education PASE vs Harmon 1980 0 Setting Condition Just like in Larry P vs Riles but in Chicago public schools 0 Ruling IQ tests are not biased and may be used along with other appropriate criteria for making placement decisions o Resolving the Dilemma o US Supreme Court decides the Supreme Court hears a small percentage of the cases that it is asked to consider 0 Constitutional Amendment Amendments are practically impossible and extreme 0 Pass Federal Legislation gt best way September 15 Legislation con td o Legislation 0 Legislation refers to laws created by legislative bodies 0 The law governing special education was originally known as the Education for All Handicapped Children Act o A Short History of Legislation Affecting People With Disabilities 0 1990 Americans With Disabilities act ADA Gives civil rights protection to people with disabilities IT guarantees equal opportunity 1998 The Workforce Investment Act Training work related programs for all jobseekers with or without disabilities 0 O O o Education for All Handicapped Children Act 1975 o The law stipulated how states were to provie a free appropriate public education The law was written because Schools were unsure how to respond to PARC vs PA Some states lacked the resources to provide special services Many parents were forced to pay for these services 0 0 There was no systematic way to check on the provision of special services by state and local educational agencies o Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 2004 O O The latest version of the law is known as this It contains several provisions Zero Reject Services are to be provided to all children with disabilities from ages 3 to 21 Children 02 are educated under Individualized Family Service Plans if the State accepts federal money under IDEA for early intervention services States receive some financial incentives to provide services from ages 03 but are not required to do so o Individualized Education Plans This document outlines the child a O O O O O O O O O O O O O s educational goals It contains descriptions of The child s current performance levels Longterm annual goals Educational and related services needed to accomplish goals Projected beginning and starting dates for services Data that will be used to assess progress toward goals People responsible for providing services Statement of the Child s current level of functioning should include How the disability affects progress in their general education curriculum How the disability affects the preschooler s participation in appropriate activities A description of shortterm objectives for students who take alternative assessments Statement of how goals and services promote progress in the general education curriculum Statement why the child can t take the regular assessment and why the alternate assessment is appropriate At age 16 appropriate transitional goals Least Restrictive Environments Children should be educated along with their nondisabled peers unless other environments are better suited to help children accomplish their educational goals 0 LRE is different than inclusion in which all children are included in the regular classroom regardless of disability 0 LRE assumes children with disabilities need a range of special education and related services including a range of placements Continuum of Services Protection in Evaluation Procedures assure that children are treated fairly in evaluation 0 Students are to be tested in their native language More than one assessment is to be given Students are to be assessed by a trained professional Children must be tested in all areas related to their disability Tests must measure academic performance not just aptitude o No single person may make placement decisions must be done by a multidisciplinary team Parental Involvement Parents are to be involved in all aspects of their child 5 education not just notified Due Process If the school or parents disagree with the child s placement or services either may initiate due process Discipline 0 Any student may be suspended for up to 10 days 0 If a student with a disability is to be suspended for more than 10 days or expelled a manifestation determination hearing must be held to determine if the misbehavior was related to the student 5 disability 0 If the behavior is not the result of the disability the student with a disability may be treated like any student 0 But the school must continue to provide educational services in the more restrictive setting 0 Under special circumstances guns drugs dangerous misbehaviors schools can place a student with a disability to an interim alternative educational setting for up to 45 days even if the misbehavior was related to the child s disability O O O O O 0 Most important changes in the IDEA since 2004 reauthorization Waiver of statutory requirements for up to 15 states that pilot paperwork reduction program Eliminate shortterm goals and benchmarks except for students who take alternative assessments Allows up to 15 states to pilot multiyear IEPs up to 3 years that coincide with natural transition points in students life Replace discrepancy model for identifying students with LD with RTI approach Highly qualified special education teachers Full State certification in special education OR Pass Special education state Licensing Exam o IEP Team 0 O O O O O O O 0 Parents At least one regular education teacher and one special education teacher Representative of Local Education Agency LEA who Is qualified to provide and design specially designed education programs Knows the general education curriculum Knows about LEA resources Person who can interpret instructional implications of educational evaluations Children with a disability if possible Other people who have knowledge about the child including related services personnel ie occupational therapist o Least Restrictive Environment Steps in determining LRE Eligible for special services Identify needs and write IEP goals including services that will be received Place the child in the LRE in which she will receive an appropriate educational program September 20m Definitions o Test is on chapters 1 2 amp 4 o Definitions of Intellectual Disabilities ID 0 Early definitions were subjective and relied exclusively on IQ test performance Contemporary definitions recognize that it is not a disease involves comparison to others of the same age and given comparable learning opportunities it involves deficits in intellectual capabilities and adaptive functioning Adaptive functioning the ability of a person to effectively interact with society on all levels and care for one s self o Jane Mercer O O O 0 An anthropologist who studied people with borderline mental retardation early 19705 She found that many of these people were able to conduct themselves well when outside of school Held down jobs had families etc Schools were responsible for identifying these students Prevalence of mental retardation dropped after age 16 after the age of sixteen typically not diagnosed with MRID Mercer s work led to an increased focus on adaptive behavior o Definition of Mental Retardation 1983 O O O In 1983 the American Association on Mental Retardation AAMR updated the definition of mental retardation Subaverage intellectual ability had to exist concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior This definition emphasized deficits in adaptive behavior by requiring documentation of deficient adaptive behavior or presence of maladaptive behavior Adaptive behavior refers to actions in teh real world aka social skills selfhelp o The classification of mental retardation depended upon the presence of deficits both in IQ and adaptive behavior o Levels of Mental Retardation in AAMR 1983 o Mild IQ 70 56 2 to 13 sd standard deviation 0 Moderate IQ 55 41 3 to 4 0 Severe IQ 40 26 4 to 5 o Profound AAMR Definition of ID 2002 0 Intellectual disabilities are characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and conceptual social and practical adaptive skills 0 Levels are now defined in terms of intensity and chronicity how often of support needed by the person to be adaptive 0 Levels of intensities of support Intermittent shortterm supports prn Limited timelimited supports that are needed consistently not intermittently eg transportation supports from school to work Extensive daily supports in at least some environments that are not timelimited eg longterm home care Pervasive supports that are needed consistently across environments and may be needed to sustain life o Causes 0 Cause of most cases of ID are unknown 0 However there seems to be an association between mild retardation and low SES This is known as culturalfamilial mental retardation Culturalfamilial retardation results from a combination of many factors including poor prenatal care instability in the family possible drug alcohol use and limited access to enriching resources 0 The approximate 30 of cases with identifiable causes are usually more severe O O 0 Causes are either inherent constitutional or environmental o Inherentconstitutional some dysfunction within the body resulted in retardation 0 Environmental something is imposed on the fetus or person from environment and causes retardation 0 ID may result from difficulties in the prenatal perinatal or postnatal periods 0 o Prenatal and Perinatal Causes of LB 0 The prenatal period conception until the end of the second trimester o The perinatal period the third trimester until one month after birth 0 Fetus is susceptible to inherent an environmental causes of ID during these periods 0 Chromosomal disorders are inherent causes of ID They are usually from an uneven division of chromosomal material during meiosis resulting in too many chromosomes trisomy 21 aka downs o Sexlinked conditions are inherent causes of ID that affect one sex more than the other 0 These conditions are sexlinked because what gives rise to them is related to chromosomes that determine sex 0 An example is Fragile X It occurs more frequently in boys because it is related to a weakness in the X chromosome of which boys only have one o Inborn errors of metabolism are inherent causes of ID in which certain substances rae not metabolized correctly by the body 0 The buildup of substances harms the body 0 Overall inborn errors of metabolism are not common but they are more common in people whose parents are genetically similar ie from the same ethnic group 0 PKU Here the body is not able to metabolize phenylalanine Although the condition is genetically determined it does not manifest itself until an infant consumes phenylalanine That O O O O O O O O O O is why it is prenatal and perinatal PKU may be controlled by adhering to a strict diet The TORCH group consists of infections that may pass the placental barrier They are environmental causes of retardation because the infections come from outside the fetus Toxoplasmosis a singlecell organism that is contracted through contact with cat feces or undercooked meat Syphilis a sexuallytransmitted disease It can be remedied with widespectrum antibiotics Rubella also known as German measles It can be prevented if the mother is immunized against it Cytomegalovirius a highly contagious and unstable family of viruses It can be avoided by avoiding contact with someone affected by it Herpes a sexually transmitted disease It can be contracted by a baby if it passes through the birth canal of a mother with an active case Unlike the others herpes does not pass the placental barrier It will not affect the baby if a Csection is performed Teratogens are chemicals that cause harm to the fetus Although they are also environmental causes they are not part of the TORCH group bc they are not infections Depending on the particular chemical and level of exposure different consequences may occur Examples include alcohol nicotine and lead Maternal consumption of alcohol may lead to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome which is characterized by learning difficulties attention problems and mild ID Birth injury is another perinatal and environmental cause of ID Injury may result from the use of forceps during delivery Injury may also occur from oxygen deprivation anoxia Breech or transversal delivery Twisted or knotted umbilical cord Premature shedding of placenta Postnatal Causes of ID 0 O O The postnatal period begins at one month after birth and continues throughout development There are very few postnatal causes of ID Most of them involve traumatic brain injury Child abuse is the most common postnatal cause of ID Injuries are sustained when the head is stricken or shaken September 22 Intellectual Disabilities Cont d Tuesday and Thursday videos Paper 0 O O O 0 Due on October 20th View films finish paper within a week is best plan WillowbrookThe Struggle to Be Normal State specific examples from the videos Follow rubric underlined things Discussion about readingslectures Small Differences Video Monica amp David September 27m Intellectual Disabilities Cont d Reflection is notes on both videos will be collected on Thursday Things to keep in mind 0 0 How legal things and everything work together Take notes on what you see that is important Willowbrook The Last Great Disgrace In Film Notes 0 O O O O O 0 People in institution suffer in filth John Kennedy Everyone at fault not just those who run institutions Doctor was fired because he told parents to organize One attending for 50 severely retarded children Children covered in feces smelled of death Typical worldwide Sit on floor not talked to share same toilet contract same disease Most have parasites pneumonia common 0 Trauma is severe Fight for scrap of paper to play with fight for attention of overworked workers 0 Came in announced to children well dressed came back to naked and uncared for 0 Barely any training sitting around when they should be taught Hiring freeze because of recession lost most of their staff Budget was cut Attendant ratio should have been 4 to 1 went down to 30 to 1 O 3 minutes per meal per child not enough Don t have the help to keep children properly dressed 4 or 5 attendants to take care of 135 kids Staff is too taxed and can t do anything but keep the place clean they are just as much of victims as the patients are 0 Dr says smell hits first then many patients milling about with nothing to No program there is nothing good that can come of being there 0 In California education for mentally retarded was the same as other children Shifting so parents can keep children at home Provides daycare Gives children medical care ability to form a relationship with parents 0 For those older workshop to teach them something to do to give them dignity and help them earn a little money Become contributors o In CA 24 hour care centers are becoming smaller The centers that do exist give their patients health discuss where they are going 0 Main difference between approach of Willowbrook and CA is that they treat the patients as people Patient says it is a disgrace What Willowbrook needs is not more money they need a new approach for caring for mentally retarded o Willowbrook The Last Great Disgrace 1972 Slides 0 Employees were earning 2 an hour 0 O O O O O O O O o In Willowbrook roughly 85 of staff was fired bc of state budget cuts 0 Not staff s fault more of a governmental pattern that needs to be changed For paper think of historical implications 0 September 29m Intellectual Disabilities Cont d o Paper 0 Things to do Figure out argument Pick on vignette talk about argument that that one talks about Take both sides argue back and forth Try to reconcile them If not reconcilable then say why you can t Link it back to historical Willowbrook o Vignettes Prof s overview o Guiding Thoughts Employment should people with MRID be offered jobs why is it important to people with disabilities to hold a job versus how can it be a strain on societyemployers Historical Treatment People with disabilities were not given equal opportunity in the past 0 Vignette II Medicine meets Morality if knowing a child will be born with MRID including fragile x should a parent abort or keep the child discrimination vs mercy historical treatment Children with disabilities were often discriminated against and placed in warehouses by some of their own parents who were unable to help them 0 Vignette III Reunited If a single mother has MRID does she have the right to primary guardianship privilege of parenthood versus increased chance of child neglect Historical treatment In past sterilized and unable to have kids 0 Vignette IV Special Justice If someone with MRID is accused of a crime should there be a different way of ensuring justice are individuals with MRID an easy target or could law officers view them as cold blooded criminals Historical treatment People with disabilities did not always have support from society nor advocates attempting to assist them 0 VignetteV Preaching Prenatal Care If someone living in poverty knew their actions could hurt their children what should they do preventative health care vs survival Historical treatment Members of society used to blame parents of children who had a disability including MRID for the disability without understanding all of the evidence o Struggle to be Normal 0 VignetteI Woman was told she was not normal so they wouldn t hire her Taking a class to be trained for the food industry Want to be a part of somethingbut that s getting tougher Factories and machinery Economy Paul who works in the mailroom I have to work he has job coach to bridge gap between abilities and disability Job gives him selfesteem o Vignette 2 Fragile X Parents are conflicted when they figure out the second child has fragile X before they are born One chose to abort the other not Wonder what will happen when she dies Who will take care of them Is it the act of discrimination or an act of love 0 Vignette 3 Not long ago not allowed to have children Likely to raise children just like them Counseling and support helps them know how to take care of children This kind of help is not available to most parents Without help the mentally retarded may lose children to a foster home 0 Vignette4 Sometimes it takes many times going over it to get the full truth Agreed with whatever they said 0 Vignette 5 At times over 60 of children in intensive care had no prenatal caredrug addicted mothers Mental retardation is two to three times higher in impoverished areas October 4th o Starting Chapter 3 next Tuesday Exceptional Children 2nd Exam Notes Chelsea p October 11m Collaborating with Families in a Culturally Diverse Society o Chapter 3 c School Observations paper 0 Take notepad Bring the outline of what to take notes of o Questions about paper due Thursday 0 Need to have History The arguments perspectives Reconciliation 0 Intro Vignette included guy looking forjob that s important to me because everyone is looking for a job FirstSecond Dilemma AB Four reconciliation piece how can we fix this who is it impacting the most Fifth final comments reflections in general Avoid I and you unless you are talking about your own life stories 0 History doesn t need to have it s own paragraph can be intertwined 0 Use litigation if you can o Multicultural Schooling and Overrepresentation o Litigation and legislation about African Americans and people with disabilities should have provided educational access 0 However ethnically and culturally diverse students overrepresented special education programs Perhaps the overrepresentation is evidence for a continuing pattern of discrimination Volunteer any thoughts o Overrepresentation of Minority Students in Special Education 0 Explanations of Overrepresentation Outcomebased Factors associated with the negative effects of poverty and health on special education placement 0 O O O O Processbased precursors of minority placement in special education including institutionalized beliefs or practices that affect identification and referral decisions o ProcessBased Explanations of Overrepresentation 0 There is a mismatch between the school culture and these students home culture 0 Assessment and referral processes are inaccurate or culturally biased o The curriculum is inappropriate o Conflict between School Culture and Home Culture 0 One explanation that has been offered is incongruity between teachers and students Teachers are increasingly white and middle class while schools student populations are increasingly diverse Schools often mirror the inequalities of society with respect to language incompatibility bureaucracy and political power of certain groups Teachers and other professionals have cultureOound expectations for student behavior Teachers of minority students may be poorly prepare to meet their students educational needs Teachers and students cultural tendencies affect expectations and behavior If the expectations and values of school are vastly different than home children may have serious difficulties D However it is important that teachers not oversimplify their judgments based on overly general stereotypes of different cultures o Assessment and Referral 0 Another reason that has been offered for the overrepresentation of diverse learners in special education is inaccurate assessment and referral o What factors may affect the assessment of diverse learners who are economically disadvantaged English proficiency 2 Unfamiliar test content Patterns of social interaction when power asymmetries exist 0 In assessing diverse learners it is difficult to disentangle factors that come from outside the student from those from within the child 0 However referral practices should be linked to the provision of excellent collaborative instruction RTI Prereferral interventions Multidisciplinary planning o Ineffective Curriculum and Instruction 0 Traditional curriculum and instructional strategies Often expect conformity passivity and quietness Often consist of teacherled discussions with individual and competitive input from students 0 Onesize does not fit all Diverse learners may benefit from other types of instruction for example group work 0 Likewise curricular materials may not engage diverse learners Their learning styles and communication patterns may not be reflected in traditional textbooks etc o Possible Solutions 0 Possible solutions come from the teachers Be aware of the source of their own expectations for social behavior and academic performance Tailor their curriculum choices and instructional strategies to the needs of their students Be mindful not to rely on oversimplified stereotypes of different cultures Don t presume anything Make the skills and knowledge explicit 0 Possible solutions come from the systems Recruitment of nontraditional teacher candidates is vital Missed Two Classes Assessment instruments that take diversity into account are necessary Development of a wider range of curricular materials and instructional strategies is critical Get notes October 20m Autism Spectrum o The Autism Spectrum A Branch of Pervasive Developmental Disorders PDD O O O O 0 Classic Autism Asperger Syndrome Rhett Syndrome Childhood Disintegrative Disorder CDD Pervasive Developmental Disorders Not Otherwise Specified PDDNOS o Pervasive Developmental Disorders 0 PDD refers to a group of disorders characterized by delays in the development of socialization and communication skills Parents may note symptoms as early as infancy although the typical age of onset is before three years of age Symptoms may include problems with using and understanding language difficulty relating to people objects and events unusual play with toys and other objects difficulty with changes in routine or familiar surroundings and repetitive body movements or behavior patterns Children with PDD vary widely in abilities intelligence and behaviors Some children do not speak at all others speak inlimited phrases or conversations and some have relatively normal language development Repetitive play skils and limited social skills are generally evident Unusual responses to sensory information such as loud noises and lights are also common o Autism a developmental brain disorder characterized by impaired social interaction and communication skills and a limited range of o Prevalence of Classic Autism o Fastest growing group in exceptionality 0 About 1 in 166 children 0 Over 1 million children and adults with autism in the US 0 Four times more common in males than females however when it does occur in females it tends to be more severe o Roughly 33 of individuals with autism have seizures of the course of their life 0 MRID is present in about 5060 of cases of Autism o 50 of individuals with autism have abnormal recorded brain waves o Definitions of Autism o A spectrum from mild to severeprofound autism o Disturbances in developmental rates and sequences ability to relate to objects and people responses to sensory stimuli the development of meaningful communication 0 Most research indicates it is a neurological disorder 0 Interferes with normal development of the brain 0 Difficulty with verbal and non verbal communication and leisureplay activities 0 Have difficulty usually in communicating with others and to the outside world 0 They may exhibit repeated body movements unusual responses to people or attachment to objects 0 They often resist change o Common Misconceptions of Children with Autism o The idea that there is a genius locked inside every child with autism is fake o The claim that these individuals are locked in their own world is false 0 The belief that these individuals are very aggressive or self injurious is false o The description of these individuals as spinning objects all day is false o The Savant Syndrome 0 Children with Autism sometimes present with what is called splinter skills 0 These individuals may have the ability to read before formal instruction begins and have a total recall memory 0 About 10 of individuals with autism have savant syndrome o Assessment and Diagnosis 0 Autism is usually assessed and diagnosed by observable behavior 0 Most common assessment is the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and the Autism Rating Scale 0 Accurate assessment and diagnosis are essential with the population 0 The earlier the children with Autism are diagnosed and treated the better their prognosis o Asperger Syndrome o Affects twoway communication 0 Has a reluctance to accept change 0 Has an inflexibility of thought 0 Has repetitive routines and rituals 0 Has narrow areas of interest 0 The mildly affected students may escape detection and treatment and may just seem a little odd or eccentric 0 May have a vast preoccupation with certain topics often on transportation or other rulebased systems including computers maps 0 These preoccupations may be pursued to the exclusion of other activities and may change over time but not in intensity 0 In addition to inflexibility of thinking they may have problems with creative thinkingimaginationrole playing 0 Often cannot see the connection between starting a task and what the result may be c Autism Vs Asperger s Asperger39s is more common than Autism but is still rare Is Asperger39s just high functioning autism There is no agreement Severity of impairment is more wautism Students with Asperger39s generally have less learning and speech problems Their intelligence is usually average or above average o Rett Syndrome o Occurs most commonly in females 0 After about 30 moths of age the growth of the baby s head slows purposeful use of the hands is replaced with flapping and twitching o Unsteadiness and awkward walking ensues 0 Severe impairments in language and cognitive abilities take shape 0 Seizures are common o Childhood Disintegrative Disorder 0 Child seems to be typically developing until 2 to 3 years of age and even up to age 10 when significant setbacks in verbal and nonverbal communication occur 0 The cause of the childhood disintegrative disorder is unknown but it has been linked to brain and nervous system problems 0 A child who is affected loses previously acquired skills 0 Symptoms include delay or lack of language impairment in nonverbal behaviors inability to start or maintain a conversation lack of play loss of bowel and bladder control loss of language or communication skills loss of motor skills loss of social skills new problems forming relationships with other children and family members 0 Lifespan is still the same 0 Signs and assessments Healthcare provider determines whether the child has this disorder or a similar condition The most important sign of childhood disintegrative disorder is the loss of developmental milestones O O O O O 7 Generally the diagnosis is made if the child has lost function in at least 2 areas of development Treatment is the same as for autism Expectations the outlook for this disorder is poor Most children with the condition have an impairment similar to that of children with severe autism by age 10 o PPDNOS O PPDNOS is included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders to encompass cases where there is marked impairment of social interaction communication andor stereotypical patterns of interest However full features of autism or another explicitly defined PDD are not met This is defined implicitly so NO specific guidelines for diagnosis are provided While deficits in peer relations and unusual sensitivities are typically noted social skills are less impaired than in classical autism Limited available evidence suggests that children with PDD NOS probably come to professional attention rather later than kids with autism and the intellectual deficits are less common Vision and Visual Impairments o Visual Impairments O O O O o Vision 0 Blindness refers to visual acuity Visual acuity is the ability to distinguish objects or details at a distance 2020 vision Not perfect vision It means that at 20 feet you can see what a normal eye can see at that distance As bottom number increases visual acuity decreases Legally blind defined as having 20200 or worse in the better eye after the best possible correction Corrections include eyeglasses contacts invasive and non invasive procedures Vision requires light and an object that reflects light 8 Light is reflected off the object and into the eye Converted into electrical impulses by a photochemical process Patters are interpreted by the brain 0 The eye has three broad categories of structures Refractive Structures that bend light and focus into the back of the eye on the retina Receptive receive light waves convert electrical impulses and transmit these impulses to the brain Muscles one set controls movement within eye sockets A second set controls structures responsible for focus 0 Lens focuses light on the retina o Cornea window of the eye admits light and helps focus light rays o Refractive Structures 0 Cornea Multilayered protein coating on the outside of the eye Can repair itself as long as it is minor damage It is important for the cornea to be clear and perfectly shaped o Fluids Aqueous and Vitreous Humors Maintain proper pressure in the eye 0 Lens Focuses light on the back of the eye Changes shape ot accommodate objects at various distances o Receptive Structure 0 Light is focused on the retina which is located at the back of the eye 0 Retina thin layer of cells which are stimulated by light waves Rods sensitive to light and darkness in the periphery of the retina Cones colorsensitive concentrated at the center of the retina o Retinal stimulation generates impulses sent to the visual cortex via the optic nerve The visual cortex interprets impulses as meaningful patterns o Visual Impairments Refractive 9 0 Most common visual impairments result from problems with refractive structures These are impairments involving improper reception of light into the eye 0 Nearsightedness Vision is better for close objects Cornea is too long and too flat Image is behind lens 0 Farsightedness Overall vision is not very good but is better for distant objects Cornea is too short and too curved o Astigmatism Asymmetry or imperfection of the cornea Results in general blurriness o Cataracts Cloudiness of the lens Blurred or distorted vision Can result from many causes including chronic exposure to UV rays o Visual Impairments Receptive 0 Detached retina retina becomes detached from the back of the eye 0 Usually results from a blow to the head 0 Correctable through surgery that uses a laser to weld retina back in place 0 Retinopathy or Prematurity Retinal scarring occurs when blood vessels burst from excessive oxygenation o Strabismus Muscles that control eye movement are too strong near the bridge of the nose resulting in cross eyes Correctable through surgery that gives the muscles slack o Nystagmus 10 Rapid and involuntary movement of muscles that control eye movement 0 Amblyopia Muscles that control movement are weak in one eye resulting in wandering eyes Surgery best treatment o Blindness 0 Filed of vision People with normal vision can see objects in a field of 180 degrees 0 Legal Blindness Vision worse than or equal to 2020 in the best eye after all possible corrections OR a field of vision less than 20 degrees regardless of acuity October 25m Vision Cont d Blindness o Classifications of blindness deal with acuity and field of vision 0 Acuity Image crispnessfocus Measured with a chart o Field of Vision 0 People with normal vision can see objects in a field of about 180 degrees Field Cuts o Field cuts are large blocks of the field of vision that are not functional o Cataract refractive impairment o Glaucoma degenerative eye disease without a cure o Diabetic Retinopathy a receptive impairment causes discoloration Blindness cont d o Legal Blindness 0 Vision worse than or equal to 2020 in the best eye after all possible corrections or a field of vision less than 20 degrees regardless of acuity 11 0 Instructional implication not able to learn from printed material o Partial sightedness 0 Vision between 2070 and 20200 in the best eye after all possible corrections 0 Instructional implication can learn from adapted printed material large print Blindness Spectrum o Think of blindness as spectrum normal vision low vision Adaptations for People with Visual Impairments o Braille Tactile system of reading and writing based on a set of contractions 0 Can be written with a brailler o Braille books are heavy expensive to produce and not readily available 0 Technological aides such as Braille printers augment the use of traditional Braille materials o Optacon Optical to Tactile Converter hand held device that converts print to a vibrating pattern on raised pins that can be felt on the skin o Kurzweil Reading Machine computer based optical character recognition OCR system that can read using digitized or synthesized speech output Tips for Teachers o Speak to the class upon entering and leaving the room or site o Call the student with a vision impairment by name if you want hisher attention o Seat the student away from glaring lights and preferably in front of the class o Use descriptive words such as straight forward left etc in relation to the student s body orientation Be specific in directions and avoid the use of vague terms with unusable information such as over there here this etc 12 o Describe in detail pertinent visual occurrences of the learning activities o Offer to read written information for a person with a visual impairment when appropriate o Order the appropriate text books for the students in their preferred medium o Orally let the student know if you need to move or leave or end conversation o If a student with a visual impairment is in class routinely check the instructional environment to be sure it is adequate and ready for use o Do not pet or touch a guide dog Guide dogs are working animals Can be hazardous if dog is distracted o Be understanding of noise made by translator o Use an auditory or tactile signal where a visual signal is normally used Children with Physical and Health Impairments Physical Impairments o Two broad categories 0 Neurological impairments impairments that involve the CNS and affect the ability to use feel or control certain body parts 0 Orthopedic impairments impairments that involve the musculature or skeleton and affect development of bones joints limbs and muscles o Children are eligible for services only if their physical or health problems affect their educational performance o Problems that affect the functioning of extremities regardless of origin are classified by the body parts that are affected c As we look at the four problems we will discuss the potential hardships that these individuals may face within and outside of education Monoplegia One limb affected Paraplegia Both legs affected 13 Quadriplegia All limbs affected Hemiplegia One side of body affected Neurological Impairments Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is a neurological condition that is marked by disturbances in voluntary movement extreme weakness lack of coordination or other motor disturbances Results from injuryinsult to the motor cortex 0 O The injury may occur during any developmental period Can result from infections injuries or accidents Nondegenerative does not worsen over time Not a disease Most children with severe or profound mental retardation extensive or pervasive supports have cerebral palsy However about 13 of children with CP have normal intelligence 0 In these cases injury does not affect parts of the brain underlying intelligence Lifespan can be slightly shorter but not significantly Three most common Types of Cerebral Palsy Spasticity Muscles are in a constant state of contraction Athetosis Contorted twisting movements especially of the wrists and fingers Facial contortions extension of the tongue poor expressive language Ataxia Problems with balance directionality position in space Neurological Impairments Spina Bifida Spina bifida is a deformation of the spinal cord and structures that support the vertebrae O O O Occurs within the first three months in utero It is the most common Neural Tube Defect The chance of having a child with a Neural Tube Defect can be significantly reducing but not eliminated by taking folic acid every day before and during pregnancy Can be diagnosed by checking for Alpha fetal Protein 14 0 Advances in microsurgery to correct problems during pregnancy o Occurs in three levels of severity o Occulta Minor deformations that have no noticeable effect 0 Meningocele Protective tissue and spinal fluid protrude through openings in vertebrae o Myelomeningocele nerve tissue protective tissue and spinal fluid protrude through openings in vertebrae Often forms as an outpocket on the back o The higher the problem on the spine the greater the resulting physical impairment 0 Many children with Meningocele and Myelomeningocele forms of Spina bifida do not have bowel and bladder control 0 Children with these require immediate surgery to avoid the accumulation of spinal fluid on the brain November 15 Hearing Impairments VideoDiscussion King Gimp 0 Take notes 0 3 things you knew already 0 45 things that you found interestinglearned o 1 thing you would have liked to have known o Movie Notes 0 Gimp fighting spirit 0 Uses pointer attached to his head to type and paint 0 Father was never able to cope with his son s brain damage wanted him institutionalizedled to divorce when Danny was six For first 12 years had to wait for people to take him places even down the hall then he got first power chair Put a puzzle together with his knees Best friend died at 14 so he wanted to leave Ridge school No one could understand he was intelligent just trapped in his body 0 O O O 15 Mom put him in the normal high schoolcame home the first day in tears Art gave him a way to express himself without anyone having to interpret By 18 moved out Thinks he will always be alone To get art degree had to meet sculpture requirement Advisor had him use computer to design sculpture Everyone has a handicap but only a few are true gimp O O O O O O 0 November 339 Hearing Impairments Hearing o Hearing requires a vibrating object and a medium that conducts sound 0 Vibrations produce sound waves 0 Sound waves are conducted via air to the ear The ear is comprised of outer middle and inner structures 0 Outer ear flap and ear canal 0 Middle ear drum and ossicles hammer anvil and stirrup 0 Inner cochlea and auditory nerve The outer ear 0 Focuses sound waves onto the eardrum The middle ear 0 Hammer anvil and stirrup transmit the eardrum s vibrations to the inner ear Inner ear 0 Cochlea converts vibrations into electrical signals which are sent to the auditory cortex via the auditory nerve Two qualities of hearing pitch and loudness o Pitch is measured by the frequency of sound waves The unit for pitch is Hertz Humans can hear sounds ranging from 2020k o Intensity volume is measured in decibels a unit of pressure Human voice 5560 dB 16 Rock concert 100120 dB o Hearing sensitivity is determined in children 4 years old and adults with pure tone audiometry 0 Sensitivity to sounds of different pitches is recored on an audiogram Sounds of different pitch and intensity are played and the respondent s ability to hear the sound is plotted Degrees of Hearing Loss o Mild 4155 dB understands facetoface but misses classroom conversation o Moderate 5670 only understands loud conversation without hearing aid and misses class discussions even with preferential seating o Severe 7190 understands loud voices at 1 foot needs hearing aid communicates with use of speech and signs needs special education o Profound gt91 can t hear conversations uses a hearing aid but still can t discriminate some sounds uses ASI attends special school no intelligible speech Hearing Loss o Two kinds of hearing loss 0 Conductive hearing loss 0 Sensorineural hearing loss o Conductive Hearing Loss 0 Affects outer and middle ear 0 Medically treatable 0 Loss is usually less than 70dB mild to moderate classification Results in a loss of perceived intensity of sound but sound is still intelligible o Amplification hearing aids are effective 0 Often a result of middle ear infections o Sensorineural Hearing Loss 0 Results from problems in the inner ear 0 17 More severe above 70db Not medically treatable except for cochlear implants Results in loss of intelligibility and intensity of sound Children will need to learn other strategies for accessing auditory information Causes of Congenital Hearing Loss o Genetic o Autosomal Dominant o XLinked o Autosomal Recessive most common o TORCH infections Toxoplasmosis Syphilis Rubella Cytomegalovirus Herpes o Low birth weight and prematurity What are some ways to avoid this Instructional Implication o Technologies such as hearing aids Assisted Listening Devices and cochlear implants may be used to amplify or provide sound o Technologies such as interpreters television captioning and text telephones may be used to replace sound o OralAural Approaches incorporating speech and language into all aspects of child s education 0 Auditory learning teaching children to listen for and discriminate sounds o Speechreading understanding speech by observing the speakers face and lips but only 30 of sounds can be detected on the lips c There is a debate within the deaf community regarding deafness status as a disability or difference 0 Those advocating the oralaural position believe amplification of sound auditory training and speech are necessary to adapt to the hearing world 0 Those advocating the biculturalbilingual approach advocate instruction in ASL and view the deaf community as a subculture 18 0 However most people with hearing impairments live among people including family who hear 19
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