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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rodolfo Bruen on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENGL110 at University of Delaware taught by DanielLees in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see /class/207203/engl110-university-of-delaware in Foreign Language at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
International Arthouse Cinema 11142010 100500 PM Arthouse independent movie theatre that specializes in independent foreign film Art film a social realism style an emphasis on the authorial expressivity of the director and a focus on the thoughts and dreams of characters rather than presenting a clear goaldriven story Social Realism depicts injustice and social unfairness WW2 s impact 0 Economic effects Conditions decreased population infrastructure destroyed debt cold war US and USSR Recovery and Reconstruction US aid Marshall plan monetary NATO common market o Film Culture After WW2 o national film industries expanded more and more countries wanted to make films in addition to US o protectionism government supported film for example Great Britain has a law that 45 of screen time of a movie has to be made in Britian Italy has a similar law called the Andreotti law 80 days a year minimum for showing Italian films for movie theatres o film festivals provided an occasion to show local independent films International Arthouse Cinema 0 Basics Started when the younger generation desired to break free of Italian ordinary cinema Focuses on the nation instead of genre Independent films o Marketed as authentic and critical o Downfall censorship and repression o Gatekeepers and Marketing for the culture to get to you it has to go through a number of gates Aka it takes awhile for culture to spread o Film Festivals shape context for filmssuggesting themes etc 0 O Selling points genresltnations People want to see films about their own nations Starsltdirectors National Cinema Mainstream films that make majority shown in movie theatres Non controversial unreflective Independent smaller reflective controversial US sends mainstream films overseas Other countries send independent films overseas For example we don t see bollywood films often from india we see independent films 0 Film History amp Movements Italian Neorealist movements usually poses problems and change a Was labeled this AFFER it was over like most movement labels def a style of film characterized by stories set amongst the poor and working class filmed on location frequently using nonprofessional actors Italian neorealist films mostly contend with the difficult economical and moral conditions of postWorld War II Italy reflecting the changes in the Italian psyche and the conditions of everyday life poverty and desperation o Umberto D Not CHC Italian neorealism About the retired working class Not a strong causal plot more of a POV film The man received inadequate government pensions Plot was weakly driven by desire to keep the dog Open narrative there was no resolutionending Social commentary political a Message we need to help the poor Music more important than dialogue Non diegetic music expressed emotions n Sentimental the music says this is a major social problem isn t it terrible now lets all cry Is the film realistic Somewhat n The setting and subject matter are n Less ellipsis used than CHC Case Study Italian Neorealism o Cinema Context the time period surrounding Italian neorealism o 1 Silent era epic spectacle large scale feature films 0 2 Cinema under fascism increase of national production and importance of massmedia Mussolini leader of Italy during the depression Cinecitta large film studio built by Mussolini Centro Spermental della cinematografia Mussolini founded an Italian film school 0 3 Melodrama 1930 s romantic comedies also called Telefono Bianco white telephone films about rich people 4 Calligraphism 1940 s literary adaptations prestige films 5 Fascist Propaganda documentary o Intellectual Context 0 politics in Italy huge political divisions Lwing vs R wingfascists o Journals Bianco e Negro cinema amp film magazine 0 Ceasere Zavatitini on narrative Plot structure is inauthentic Realism unstructured Actors contribute to falsehood Realism is about everyday life The ideal film would be 90 mins in the life of a man and in which nothing happens 0 Umberto Barbara coined the term neorealism o Aesthetic Characteristics 0 Realistic Style locations cinematography nonactors alongside professionals 0 Social commitment 0 Some important films and filmmakers Luchino Visconti n Ossessione O a La terra trema struggles of fisherman Roberto Rosselini n Rome Citta aberta open City a Paisa Vittorio De Sica and Cesare Zavantini n Sciusia shoeshine a La dri de biciclette bicycle thief n Umberto D 1952 French New Wave 19591964 c The French industry supported the new wave through distribution exhibition and production o Demonstrated that revolution in lm industry can come from talented aggressive young people that have a love of cinema o Cinema Context 0 Tradition of quality Cinema de papa father cinema This is a derogatory term 0 Documentary Le sang des b tes Nuit et brouillard night and fog aushewitz n Artistic not facts and figures Tute la memorre du monde books trapped in the library 0 Economics Independent production a Jeanpierre Melville n Et dieu crea la femme sluts make Centre National de la cinematographie n Gov funding a Opened door for 1St time filmmakers o Intellectual Context 0 Cinematheque Francaise Movie theatres were huge with librarymuseum inside They were government subsidized Black film 0 Influential French film critics Chaiers du cinema a Journal founded in 1951 by Bazin Donolovalcroz n Gang critics o What Past present and future essays Retrospective appreciation past a French told us that Hitchcock was great U S didn t realize this on our own Present reviews interviews Future philosophy o La Politue des auters The auter theory 0 Directorgtscreenwriter 0 Film should be a medium of personal artistic expression 0 We have bias Personal expression Don t make movies out of novels Noncinematic impersonal Best films bear the mark of the artist a Signature own style and themes 0 Aesthetic characteristic techniques Handheld camera location shooting natural lighting improvised plots and dialogue direct source Swish fast pan jump cut anticontinuity editing o Important films and Filmmakers 0 Jean Luc Godard made 11 films in 6 years 0 Francois Truffaut Les quatre cents coup Pianest Jullley gum o Alain renaise left bank Hiroshima mon anar came to filmmaking No establishing spatial shots or long shots Violates 180 rule Diff shots highlights action departure from fascist cinema 0 Shifts in genre Thriller comedy Irrelevant conversations Unorganized Very different from CHC National Cinema o Peter Feng thinks it shouldn t be called this o Industrial mode of production o Authorial identity 0 Culture 0 Setting denotative context US 0 Genre connotative context 0 Language Awards for film Globalization and Transnational Cinema o Industrial 0 Historically international coproductions FrenchItalian films Allows for a bigger budget Less risky 0 Today transnational capital EURO BABAYY Rules can t easily cross can o Authorial Identity 0 Ex Hitchcock o Immigrant Diasporic different culture in diff world 0 Jews are nomads before Israel 0 Culture 0 How do transnational films confound nationalistic thinking How many generations does it take to become Americanized Film Festival o Sometimes go to more artsy o The university of Delaware is so cool because we can study film here But can we think in national terms The world may never know o Government and cultural identity 0 Cultural decrees 0 Awards and funding 0 Censorship like with Umberto D Happened because it portrays Italy negatively o Deepa Menta Had an apprentice as a film editor 1973 Canada n n n Fire n n n n n n n Deepa became an independent documentary filmmaker He also studied acting He one a Gemini Canadian emmy aka he s cool shit 1995 He couldn t get funding for the movie from the gov so he filmed in India under private Canadian funding Was shown at major international film festivals Had a slow rollout wasn t popular at first but when people started giving it a shot became really popular Saved a lot of low budget Used word of mouth as publicity Was released in India last More of a Canadian film then a Hindu film this confused a lot of people and they misinterpreted the film because they expected it to be made under Indian conventions 0 Peter feng believes that the more publicity a film gets the less good it actually is What is the third world o Bandaug Conference 0 Where this term was coined in 1952 by Alfred Sauvy a French historian and anthropologist o 1955 conference of African and Asian countries to promote economic and cultural cooperation oppose colonialism and neocolonialism o Terminology 0 1st world free industrialized market democracy capitalist 0 2nd world communist industrializing centrally planned economies 0 3rd world nonaligned developing mixed economies o exploited countries and people 0 50 of worlds land mass and population consumes about 12 GNP 0 South Vs North used to be E vs W during the cold war 0 History of European colonial oppression Cultural imperialism Britain s culture enforced on 3rd world What is 3rd Cinema o Cinema of the 3rd world 0 Latin American and Caribbean 0 N Africa and SubSaharan Africa 0 Middle East Asia South Asia c There are 3 kinds of cinema 0 lst CHC Goal to make money spectacle pretty and emotional manipulation inspired by Cuban revolution citizen kane maybe umberto D emotional manipulation people will pay us to make them cry 0 2nd art films and auteurs Goal to create social unrest personal expression french and italy fire political social film as an art form 0 3rd Alternative Cinema Aim is not to make money politically commited engaged with audience not industrialized small budget guerilla cinema engaged with audience surplus value cinema communismkarl marx a gap cost of exploited workers o Alternative Cinema 0 Rejects 1St and 2nd world cinema 0 Politics of a subject matter and of style Can t be political enough only in content has to be in style ALSO Politics leads to change YEAHH REVOLUTION TIME 0 Cinema of revolution against colonizers Literal and cultural imperialism n Installed British values in India Film as a medium of combat a Mass marketmass audience a Film amp illiterate audience o The advantage of film as that you don t need to read to understand it o Solanas and Getino The camera as a gun o cinema of characters vs a cinema of themes individual vs masses auteur vsv operative groups passivity vs aggression institutionalized cinema vs counterpoises guerilla mass communication tends to complete destruction of national awareness unity media arguments can be absorbed by the system cinema conventions emerge US ideology cinema as an industry reinforce US ideology propose alternative distribution mechanisms on the model of tell meetings encourage active participation History of Cuba o 3rd cinema socially formally and stylistically political o So Cuba was a Spanish Colony in 1942 In 1898 Cuba got independence from Spain Vulnerable US them influenced Spain Cuba was really unstable in 1902 They then set up a democratic constitution Batista stepped in and ws a president for a while and O O O O O O O O then started a couprevolution Castro and Guevera battled Batistas army in the mountains in 1957 Castro and the rebels come to power 1960 Cuba buys Oil from USSR and USA freaks out and gets mad 1961 Bay of pigs Castro declares socialist state Film in Cuba o Precursors 0 Brazilian cinema 0 Italian Neorealism many Cuban s studied in Italy 0 Neuestro Tiempto our times Castro was a student at the University of Havana o ICAIC Instituto Cubano del Arte y Industria cinematograficos 0 Film school that specialized in revolutionary left wing filmmaking o Cine Imperfecto imperfect cinema 0 High art art for art s sake 0 Art should be disconnected from politics 0 Art seperates us from animals 0 Art removes everyday concern o Problem with cine imperfecto o It is only appreciated by tastemakers rich people without everyday concerns that have and time for art Mass art cinema produced by a few for many 0 folk art pop art produced by many for the many ex songs sung around the campfire not shown in museums produced by everyday people not artists o should art be separated from everyday life Theatrical stage Art Western conceptioin Espinosa didn t know about technology In a perfect world art should be separated from politics But we live in an imperfect world so political art is ok 0 O O O O O 0 Perfect cinema artists are ONLY artists don t have a day job 0 This can t happen in an underdeveloped world c We waste on technical and artistic perfection 0 Production values making films pretty makes audience passive 0 Cinema should be incomplete and thus imperfect It should show the process but should not analyze ideas Audience should analyze the film and then act on what inspired them Some films and filmmakers o Humberto Solas o Lucia Julio Garcia Espinosa 1968 3 part film about 3 different women named lucia showed 3 diff time periods in cuba o mauel Octavia Gomez la primera carga al macheta 1St charge of machete 1969 depicts rebel forces fighting against the Spanish Cuban army machete Cuban government everyone had a machete Fight the battle w what you already have Thomas Gutierrez alra 1953 grad centro sperimentale di cinemage ICAIC founder w Espinosa et al and merte de un burocrata a Death of a bureacrat Socialist proud worker Buried with his union card His family can t get the benefits wo the card This is really bad for the bureaucrat strangles them Memorias del subdesarollo 1968 n Memories of underdevelopment n Concludes the Cuban missile crisis a Collage document style sequence n n o Soviet style montage o Hollywood clips o Audio kennedy a Director appears in film a Middle class guy whose family furniture is nationalized by a stipend a Wife and fam go to NY because its huge a He stays and doesn t fit in with NY or CUBA Misinterpreting International Film o Reviews reception of film vs Cuban context o Interpretation is heavily dependent on context 0 Ex the closet sexuality lying o Material factors cigar from Cuba or movie from Cuba Which is more damaging Shape the context in which we view the video Contribute to context in which we watch the film Digital delivery and technology nonconsistent What was the film about o What are the themes of the film memories of underdevelopment o Mentality development 0 O O O 0 I m trying to develop Elena by taking her to the museum sego is morally underdeveloped Elena is culturally underdeveloped The rich flee this underdeveloped country CUBA and go to the developed one US 0 Sergo doesn t fit in His apartment is on the top floor with a telescope Spanish colony US intervened colony Olden days Title implies the film is made before it actually was IRONY IRONY IRONY Sergio doesn t fit in Opening sequence Most film in most countries have independent films that are highly critical made by an artsy fartsy subculture of snobs Most American film critics saw the films as a critique a Missed out on some of the context of whats going on in cuba Bay of pigs gt Cuban missile crisis a Huge international crisis Segios detachementcritique a People who like the movie are similar to Sergo and can relate to him Female weakness sex Repeated scenes n Carnival n Airport where Sergio says goodbye to his wife and parents o Repeated in diff respected Tape recording fight with wife o Sergio isn t such a great husband as he said he is Elena wants to become an actress to expand her personality n Sergio doesn t think she should because then she would have to say the same lies over an over again n Thus Sergio is critical of censorship and fakeness The audience is necessary to complete a film Open ended hard to understand Historical info matching 11142010 100500 PM 11142010 100500 PM
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