Understanding Music MUS 175
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jamie Hintz on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MUS 175 at Michigan State University taught by Mark Johnson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see /class/207213/mus-175-michigan-state-university in Music at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Music Final Exam Notes Multi movement format Much of the instrumental music written from the 18th to 20th centuries consists of largescale multimovement pieces The labels give to these genres symphony sonata string quartet concerto etc primarily distinguish different performances performance media For example Symphony a largescale multimovement piece for orchestra Concerto a largescale multimovement piece for solo instruments accompanied by orchestra String quartet a largescale multimovement piece for a group of four string players two Violins Viola and celloOthercommon chambermusic media include piano trios piano Violin cello string quartets a quartet with an extra Viola or cello and woodwind quintets ute oboe clarinet bassoon and French horn Sonata a largescale multi movement piece for a single instrument piano or featured instrument Violin cello ute etc accompanied by piano Solo Classical Period symphony XFast Tempo most often in sonata form sometimes preceded by a slow introduction and frequently the longest and most elaborate of the four movements YS10W Tempoand usually in a different key than movement 1 Several forms are used sonata theme and Variations rondo and ABA are the most common XM0derate to fast tempo Minuet and Trio form and almost always in triple meter In the 18th century this movement was often in the style of a minuet In the 19th it was usually a scherzo light fast and sometimes humorous in character XFast Tempo Sonata form or rondo form Generally shorter and lighter in character than movement I Ludwig van Beethoven 17701827 Beethoven was the last of the trio of great Classical period composers He was above all a master of instrumental music of musical form and of the processes of development and variation His output includes 9 symphonies 7 concertos 16 string quartets 32 piano sonatas 10 sonatas for Violin and piano Beethoven s creative career is usually divided into three periods Early classical style like Haydn amp Mozart 1804 Middlemore intense amp heroic 18051817 and Late Romantic expressive intensity 18181827 Beethoven s Middle Period music shows him beginning to break away from established models and becoming more individual This is called the heroic period because many of the pieces he wrote during this time suggest a great emotional struggle with darker forces with an ultimate victory achieved at the end Beethoven wrote a document called the Heiligenstadt Testamentmiddle By the time of Beethoven s Third Period he was totally deaf He could no longer hear his music39 he could only imagine it in his head The music of his final period is quite astounding in its power and originality and for many it represents a mix of classical traditions and procedures with a more romantic sensibility German Writer ETA Hoffman found Beethoven s music to be far removed from the classical world of balance moderation and simplicity He writes It is the most romantic of all the arts Beethoven Symphony No 9 in d minorop 125 5 ways its different length 6570 more than twice as long as a typical classical period add text and voices contrast between and within movements unusual treatment of forms departure from the typical symphony format third movement is slow 9th symphony is typical of a traditional symphony It has four contrasting movements and uses the expected classical forms although in every case there are departures from tradition with regard to the details I III Sonata form duple meter much of this movement has tragic stormy march like character modi ed only by brief lighter movements This movement is in minuet and trio form ABA although nothing about the music evokes the elegance of the traditional minuet This is the kind of music that Beethoven calls a scherzo an Italian word suggesting joking humor It uses very fast triple meter and the outer sections A are dominated by a 3 note rhythmic motive The trio B in duple meter has a very simple and oftrepeated folksy tune It is a theme and variations piece with two very lengthy themes The music is serene spacious and contented although there is a sense of melancholy at times of triumph at others The last movement is the most unusual and was certainly unique among symphonies of the Classical Period it includes singers both a solo quartet of soprano mezzo soprano tenor and bass and a chorus 3 trombones39 bass drum cymbals and triangle39 piccolo and contrabassoon Most Widely known and 11 variations IntroductionA Wild and dissonant fanfare called the H0rr0r Fanfare Much of the music is in the style of an instrumental recitative in which the cellos and basses do the singing While the orchestra punctuates these phrases with chords and brief rhythmic gures Theme famous tune a simple hymnlike melody in abb form Theme and Variations 13 This theme abb in form one of the most familiar tunes in all music is first played by cellos and basses alone Variation 1 two counter melodies Variation 2 theme passes to the Violins Variation 3 full orchestra the first four big statements of the theme Variations 46 The introduction is shortened and this time the baritone does sing He introduces variations 46 that feature the solo singers and chorus Variation 4 solo baritone amp chorus Variation 5 solo vocal quartet and chorus Variation 6 same but bigger powerful chords Variations 710 Variation 7 Begins with a few rude noises from the bass drum and contrabassoon Variation 7 is played by the orchestra with bass drum cymbals and triangle Variation 8 Features the solo tenor joined by the chorus at the end Variation 9 Is a very fast extended developmental passage for orchestra Extensive development Variation 10 Brings almost everyone together for a triumphant statement of the theme Interlude This music is slow and solemn and has no audible connection to the main theme Variation 11 The final and grandest statement of the theme Some ideas form the interlude Coda This lengthy coda is almost anodler Variation It makes many mo i references to the mam theme1t also contamseveral sudden contrasts in tempo and volume shlfls usedm describe aspecls ofmeludy mu Ions p 6 Sup 85 3w 3 m The total pitch span covered by a melody or A Iypl39cal melody will have a range of aboul an octave while SUmC simple tunes may caccmpass only 34 adiaceal males The Sm Spangled Burmer is null u l l 39 Some inslmmemal melodies may span twice that dislancz 39 The mom common at dis nc ve maindic a mains arrh A and vm n39n particular meladic hane 39 39 m Us m u 39 39 39 Iludulmin WM Y We town uxgup 39l melodies inched 6 u c Qh floats 050nm V s H a 3 LL l w i Cu va 54 U um limingfo C quot ui H76 lt19Jh6j lil39 xiii ESQV GH 39 mi 39 391 M d Moving 40W 3 separate phrases may be I H WU one mDEJ39It I39 in varying ways or degrees 4 m A malady that consistently I dmia my 5313 W n 5 r 7 w39 v tag the melody of mcrlca39 I n mostly V 1 i an s caps 15 ccnsndemd m be 39 e Srar Spangled Banner I also be classi cd by I112 type of swam u i a A melodv may r M In etc See lacth There is a group ofmmmonly used technical terms uscd to describe he baaic types at texture numg oi tag 1 lt5 b4 mus vc hfeLrC39I 0 av 39 wvf i I J n gtquot A texture with onlyr Mowing 2154 cg a r amour any accompanth whethcr performed by one musi 39 s 39 A 7 szaijvvizh v cg two musmmns simultaneously playing slightly different vcrsian of lhc same melody This type of texture is quite rare espccially in music from mgr EmupcanaAme can traditions JV quot w Mostmusic into this category A hamcphonic lcxtur st of and mg om a shnple melody accompanied by handclapping to a whole chorus in four paneharmomy accompanied by a large omhustra with many secondary layers V d4 quotdquot 2 339 V l39r ri39d m m his team usually rcl39crs to music 39 which there are two or more independent and equally intemsting melodics ochuing at the same time Tlin laycrs Ufa polyphonic texture an morn easily distinguished when they an presentad by dill reul instruments or in differenl voice ranges Two thrtc c1 faurwlayer polyphonic mumes ELIU quite commun Membranophones This is an example of a talking instrument that is imitating the rhythms and in ection of a tonal language The drums are a pair of instruments called atumpan that are struck with angled sticks The dj embe originated in west Africa widely used in Africa a single headed drum shaped somewhat like a water goblet is the instrument played by the master drummer who can create a dazzling array of sounds and rhythms often over the more repetitive background beat of the musicians playing the secondary instruments Idiophones range from relatively simple instruments like rattles and bells to complicated ones like the xylophone Mbira rattle male and female singers Mbira a plucked idiophone for centuries in ceremonies to communicate with and honor departed ancestors The music has a relaxed quality created by the moderate tempo and rippling sounds Two 8beat phases are in continuous alteration melodic phrases have a descending motion and the singing style is very relaxed The buzzing sounds are created by the rattle and by loose objects like bottle caps attached to the sound board of the mbira plucking with the thumbs Aerophones singlereed Aerophone found in most African cultures ute type Aerophones This instrument is made from a calabash gourd the same material sometimes used to make drums the bodies of string instruments or the resonators for xylophones and mbiras Each person plays one horn and adds only one sound to the overall texture by playing at the right time There is no leader or main layer This process is called hocket each instrument plays only a single note in a multilayered texture horns Chordophones range from one string fiddles and musical bows to elaborate multistring instruments The musical bow is the simplest of all chordophones in appearance nut it can make a fairly wide variety of sounds The player can pluck or strike the string and the sound can be changed by touching the string with finger or chin or with the vibrating string passing in front of the player s mouth by opening and closing the mouth