Sociology 3315: Week Seven Notes
Sociology 3315: Week Seven Notes Social 3315
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandi Juncewicz on Sunday March 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Social 3315 at Ohio State University taught by Edward Crenshaw in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Sociology of Terrorism in Sociology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 03/13/16
3/8/16 Root Causes of Terrorism 1. Root causes tend to be structural in general, and these are the other types of structural causations. Modernization Theory: (Strain Theory) Comes from the turmoil from massive social change. Different assimilation patterns, corrupt government, ect. Essentially “growing” pains (teenage years) and once the area progresses, a lot of discord will decrease. 2. Population Pyramid Very rapid fertility with decreased mortality equals a true pyramid. Older Society, progressive society, ect will create a more rectangular “pyramid.” Countries that have a youth bulge will have more violence. No a major cause of political violence, but rather a contributing factor. 3. Political Order / State Oppression Theory Most countries are anocracies and the people do have some rights, but not enough. Change doesn’t happen fast enough for these societies. Just enough power to piss people off instead of promote progression. Leaders in strong democracies have to respond to terrorism. Typically they must respond largely and symbolically, otherwise they will never be supported. * Advanced democracies give you the “biggest bang for your buck” when terrorists attack them. I.e. They will promote the largest media coverage and response, which are things the terrorists are looking for. 4. Global Order / AntiSystemic Theory Descendant of Marxists and Lenin mindsets. The core has exploited the periphery / semiperiphery. This creates terrorism. Historically it’s wrong; Most wealth came from the Core itself, not other structures. **Just Because the theory is obsolete, doesn’t mean it won’t be successful; people just have to believe it. Leftist wave violence. 5. / 6. Clash of Civilizations Civilization Tectonic Plates Theory How these social beliefs are located and surrounded will determine their issues and violence patterns. We will see terrorism more where the “plates” meet; points of most conflict, oppressive beliefs, ect. Theorized why the US and Canada have the longest, unguarded boarder; we are the same people. ** This has a better chance of explaining the 4th wave and is the modern theory used. Begins to explain how so many people can be mobilized and fight / unite en masse. Root Causes of Terrorism 7. / 8. Facilitation / Resource Mobilization Globalization will have a Western flavor and there will be opposition to this. More democracy leads to more terrorism. ** The more the government physically disrespects their people, the quicker revolutions are Created. Oppression = Revolution. Ex: Arab Spring The more Foreign Press Bureaus leads to more terrorism. Large scale militaries tend to have more attacks as well. 9. Terrorism is an urban phenomena; the more cities there are, the more potential terrorism there will be. Totalitarian states don’t have terrorism because they don’t allow their people to mobilize. When mobilization is allowed amongst civilians (political groups, activists, rallies, ect) a percentage of that effort goes into terroristic groups. 10. Burgoon Social spending theoretically depresses terrorism. REalistically the “pattern” Reveals that it would affect specific terrorist types. Typically the affected are the Leftists terrorists, but really no affect (positively or negatively) on Islamic terrorism. ** Social Welfare does not equal the issue for the Islamic Terrorists. Identity and Power are the issues. 3/8/16 Sociology of Terrorism 1. Major difference between Social Movement (SM) and Social Movement Organizations (SMO’s): SM Typically under the radar and don’t openly publicize as we would expect. Like an iceberg. SMO’s Are the public face and voice of SM’s. Typically the SM’s will remain after the SMO’s end, but every once and awhile the SMO’s last longer (March of Dimes). SMO’s cannot be created in autocracies. The people have no say and are not allowed to form organized groups. ** Terrorists are SMO’s. 2. Terrorism and SM’s share characteristics, but Terrorists are violent radicals and extremists. *Framing is used massively in SM’s. **Terrorists typically require clandestine forces while SM’s require the exact opposite. This is persuasion vs. coercion. Understanding this allows us to analyze the terroristic groups much better. Because they are both a type of SM, applying the knowledge of SM’s to terrorism allows us to understand the inner workings and mindset of the terrorists. 3. Terrorism is something you resort to when you’re small and relatively powerless. *There is not a lot of difference between Terrorism and SM’s. Though it is not their goals to focus on. It is their tactics! 3/10/16 Social Movements Perspective 1. / 2. Early social movements gained supporters due to grievances. They society requires a grievance to be motivated to join a certain SM. If you have conduciveness, you will end up with structural strain. Ex: Muslim culture within the states. (c) You need to have hope for change, which is a Western highpoint and element. The belief of hope is slowly being introduced globally. ** Your society must be open enough to start a social change. (F) This is why you don’t see This in Totalitarian states; there is no hope to change in that type of environment. > F relies on having AE. 3. Perfect example of this structure: Arab Springs. 3.) Democratic movements were a possibility because they were just a 2day boat ride from Italy. The movement was supported and started by mostly foreigners. 4.) Public immolation is one of the most powerful display of giving your life in a very painful and public manner for a SMO. 5.) Cellphones were a huge tool. Items like Facebook, cellphones, ect were helpful in places like Egypt. 6.) This is when the military must respond in some way either severely or not at all. Egypt currently is dealing with situation. Quick changes are damn near impossible. **Most important things: Do they have an area to mobilize on? How bad was the triggering Events (4)? And how far will the social control go (6)? The grievance theory has been placed aside and replaced with three other theories (slide 1) Mass society theory doesn’t accurately fit the SMO’s, but can really apply to terrorism. Theory has been mostly rejected, but should be reevaluated in this light. 4. Why grievances aren’t enough Movement of Crisis: Not typically socially wide as a whole. These aren’t lifethreatening movements, these are issues people feel passionate about. These movements typically define a person’s identity. Ex: Labor Movements. *Provide social meaning and social identity to be able to control the society as a whole. 3/10/16 Social Movements Perspectives 5. Crisis Movements really only happen at the basic level because these individuals are literally fighting for their survival and they do not have time for Affluent movements. **Once there is security and a safe and solid base, you then begin looking for more Selfactualization. These people need to find more selfworth and selfmeaning after their Basic needs have been met. The people who are “deeply hungry” for this egoactualization are typically at a loss as to who they are. Most SMO’s are not a movement of crisis, but typically are movements of affluence. 6. The rational are the those who pursue their needs. Though this is not much of an assumption. Grievances are so numerous that we can’t really on this as an explanation. Terrorism: People wouldn’t do it if it didn’t work. ** Resources can overcome the other elements of the strategies in the SMO’s. Doesn’t matter how dedicated you are if you don’t have the resources to back it up. 7. Having a diverse skill set can help progress the movement. Ex: Labor Movement lacked legal skills because they were predominantly mill workers. This is important for terrorism; they need diverse skills set for every role. Bomb builders, strategists, combatants, communications, ect. ** Media is the most important factor. Being able to manipulate the media is essential in Affluent movements. Crisis rely on force instead. Critical Mass: Without the numbers, no SMO’s will survive. Adherence: Must go where the people are. ** Symbolic Events: Paramount for terrorists. Taking an event and using it to “prove” their case allows them to broadcast the goal of their SMO. Typically used with recruitment. Access to Power: Hugely important. Can you get to the state? You need the power points to Thrive. Unstable Alignment: Religion (like Regan Catholics), political parties / alliances, ect. Wedge Issues are a way to infiltrate the party and start a beach head. Political Allies: Networking! Having an “in.” Ex: Civil Rights wedge / beach head. Divided Elites: Division leaves inroads for infiltration. 3/10/16 Social Movements Perspectives 8. Framing If you have an opinion about anything in the free world, it is more than likely a frame. Frames are the currency of SMO’s. If you change the mind, you can change the world. Which is from the Idealist school. Bridging Allows a common cause with a common enemy. Though they probably will never be Able to coexist 100% peacefully. They come together on one issue to fight the common enemy. Extension Extends the SMO’s original goal to another. Sometimes this is required to keep the SMO alive. Amplification Used to reinforce the meaning of the SMO’s. Ex: The 911 hijackers went to strip bars and / or watched porn before the actual crime. Could (1) reinforce their detest for the “seediness” of the west or (2) could reinforce their desire of the reward in the afterlife (sex). Transformation Like an organism, they rarely die, Typically change to keep the SMO group alive. Ex: The March of Dimes was originally created for the cure for Polio. We’ve cured it since then, so they MoD has jumped to the next big thing to be conquered. 9. If there are no grievances, it is very hard to gain supporters. We know very little, or understand very little, of the specific symbols being used. ** How many SMO’s exist, is there a competition and do they help each other? When they have many SMO’s, competition arises and the larger SMO’s “eat” the smaller. ** We must study this entire phenomena as a whole instead of individualized elements! 10. When a SMO reaches coalescene, the state must then step in and decide if they should be institutionalized or if a different path is needed. After fragmentation, the SMO (original) will die. They can create offspring and keep a form of the movement going. ** Can help determine a timeline of terrorism because of the natural order / timeline of groups. 3/10/16 Social Movements Perspectives 11. Global “charities” can be the most important element when fighting terrorism. Shutting down These charities, as well as global donations, will dramatically decrease their resources. The US has massive amounts of vulnerability; electric grid, toxic waste disposal, technological dependency, ect. **Global Media 911 was the most recorded event in history with the most publically photo’d and videoed numbers of before, during and after shots. This is what the terrorists want: big splashy, and bloody events to get their message out. There was absolutely no chance Bush could have put a media ban on it. 12. 2.) Must infiltrate slowly; they expect a primary attack. 3.) Once they have territory, they have already gained too much power. 4.) Must be just as adaptive; like evolution. 5.) ** When they win big, their support skyrockets! Cannot afford this as it because a supercharge. 6.) **** Countering these notions are what create a successful overthrow and defense. Sometimes giving them what they want works best (depending on the demand).