Social Psychology 3623 Social Psychology
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3623 Social Psychology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dana Bramlitt on Sunday March 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3623 Social Psychology at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Thomas Carskadon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 03/13/16
Social Psychology Notes 3/4/163/11/16 Boredom makes you yawn. Sleepiness yields yawning, but we yawn more when we’re waking up. Another source that causes yawing is tension. Mass Modeling (Mass Hysteria): There was a plague between nuns of cat scratching fights. No explanation for what happened though. Auto kinetic Effect and UFOs Jay Alan Hynek’ was impressed by UFO sightings from honest and bright people like policemen, and resigned his job to prove that UFOs were real. S. Ash and effect of conformity pressure on perception Famous study of cards with 1, 2, or 3 vertical lines where the participant would have to match the lines. He hired people with only one actual subject to partake in experiments. 37% of all responses were conformity. ¾ of people conform at least once. He never told them to pick a certain answer, they chose themselves and people followed the same answering pattern. S. Milgrim: What circumstances would people do destructive things just because they were told to without group pressure? Milgrim wrote an ad in a newspaper asking for people to be in an experiment. He wanted to avoid having all university students as participants. Some university students were taken, some educated men, some business people, and all sorts of people except women. He believed that women weren’t reliable subjects. The Experiment: Two people arrive at his lab around the same time. One didn’t know anything, but the other was an actor made to look like a participant. They were told the experiment was on effects of punishment on learning. One was to be “learner” and one was to be “teacher”. The actor was always the “learner” while the actual participant was always the “teacher”. The actor was strapped into chair. The participant sat in front of a machine. The teacher reads word pairs to the learner. If the learner gives right answer, nothing happens. However, if he’s wrong, he gets and electric shock. Each time he makes a mistake, the shock goes up in voltage. Milgrim keeps encouraging the teacher to punish the learner. He used different ways to make the teacher to continue the experiment. 26 out of 40 men continued all the way through the experiment. Those who did stopped typically stopped when the learner demanded to stop. In the second experiment, he intensified the suffering of the learner and gave the actor a heart condition to see if it reduced the number of men continuing. 25 out of 40 continued because Milgrim told them to. He altered variables: shut off sound and sight between teacher and learner; put them both in the same room. The on variable where no one complied was where learner ran around the room after shock and teacher was ordered to drag him back. WWII Gas Chambers: Heimlich created these so that soldiers wouldn’t have to kill people by shooting them. They could not handle killing their prisoners, so this was an easy way for them to avoid killing their prisoners directly. Bomber Crews: dropped bombs on cities without much difficulty handling the guilt of killing because they were removed from the horrors of it. When Milgrim wasn’t in the room but over the phone, the number of men continuing with the experiment dropped. He did a study with nurses: What would you do if a doctor ordered you to give a dosage that you knew was a lethal overdose and could kill the patient? Most nurses said they wouldn’t go along with his order; however, 21 out of 22 in the experiment went along with a doctor’s order. He added 3 teachers where 2 were phony to the experiment. If the actual subject sees the two refuse, they will refuse as well. Conformity obedience isn’t always bad. Ex: 9/11 rescue people kept going into the building to get others out when they were ordered to and knew they might die. Importance of situation In one experiment people were asked what they would do if they were in a group of people that were blatantly making sexist comments. Most said they’d not allow it, and that they would say something. 5% said they’d let it go. 55% didn’t say a word. Holocaust: people agreed to kill Jews because they weren’t actually involved in the killing. Influences on conformity Ash proved that if just one person disagreed, the number of people who conformed decreased. Most people who conform don’t think other people influence them. Many decisions are either unanimous or split down the middle. Ex: politics The more you’re attracted to a group, the more you are likely to conform to that group. We assume that people our age don’t share our musical tastes, and we usually conform to what we think people our age likes. Our musical likes are influenced by conformity. If you have to make a public response, you are more likely to conform. Prior Commitment: Once people make a public response, they usually never back down from it. But they may change their future behavior, but not their current behavior. Two Types of Conformity 1. Normative Influence: Conformity in order to be accepted to avoid feeling embarrassed, being rejected, or have people think ill of you. You want to be liked. 2. Informational Influence: Conforming due to information, evidence, or facts. Because of what you learned not because you want to be liked. There was a study on the real time brain function (MRI): When participant would go along with the wrong answer and conformed, the brain region associated with perception was most active. If they didn’t go along with it, the brain region associated with emotion and emotional pain were most active. Is there a conforming personality? No. To a certain degree some personalities are more likely to conform but for the most part it is situation not personality. Notion of Reactance: Motive or process to protect or restore one’s freedom and available choices. If you see the opportunity to make a choice diminishing, it will make that choice more attractive to you. Ex: Obama is a gun dealer’s best friend. Because Obama is wanting to put restrictions on guns. Therefore, getting a gun is becoming harder to achieve. So, people want to take the opportunity to buy guns and ammo before they aren’t allowed to. Ex2: Police carsCrown Victoria since 1980s Finally, Ford stopped production of Crown Victorias. So, police tried to buy as many as they could. Sales went up as a result. Ex3: Who is it that wants to get drunk? Teens. Because they aren’t legally able to do it. So, they make more of an effort. After they no longer make the effort. Rivalries: The most intense rivalries are between groups that most closely resemble each other. Ex: MSU and Ole Miss. CH. 7 Persuasion If something we think is good and like it, we consider it education. If something we think is bad and we don’t like it, we consider it propaganda. Education is more factually based. We assume that our beliefs and behavior are what we chose. Persuasion is inevitable. Our beliefs come from somewhere. The study of persuasion came around during WWII. Classical Steps in Persuasion 1. Get people to pay attention 2. Make sure they comprehend what it is that you want them to do. 3. You got to get them to believe it. 4. You have to get them to remember it. 5. You have to get people to change their behaviors. Two Routes of Persuasion 1. Central Route: Focused on facts and information. You put information in front of people and get them to think about it. 2. Peripheral Route: Focused on cues to trigger acceptance. It is the more emotional route. Ex: endorsing something that someone you know likes. A lot of consumer behavior includes spontaneous thought. Ex: You go shopping at Kroger to buy marinara sauce. There are a lot of choices. You buy the brand you recognize or that you think is good. This is an example of Peripheral Route. Central Route leads to more enduring change. Partly because when you are presented with facts and information, you are processing it. Peripheral Route leads to more temporary change. It is superficial. It tends to work when a person doesn’t have enough time or interest. Ex: sex education videos. The communicator is important because who is telling you something matters if you listen or not. Believability: The more you believe, the more you are persuaded. Perceive Expertise: If someone is an expert and trying to sell you something, then you are likely to be persuaded. If you believe they are experts that is. Sleeper Effect: Sometimes noncredible material can influence people. We tend to remember content of what we’re told longer and better than the source of the message. If someone with no believable influence tells us something, we don’t believe it until after time passes and the sleeper effect kicks in. Then we assume it was a better source than it is. Trustworthiness: To appear trustworthy you should: Look a person in the eyes when talking; don’t be shiftyeyed. Don’t appear to try to persuade the person The faster you talk, the more they’ll believe you.
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