History 10 Week 10 Lecture Notes
History 10 Week 10 Lecture Notes Hist 10
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nancy Notetaker on Sunday March 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 10 at University of California Riverside taught by Steve Chrissanthos in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see World History in History at University of California Riverside.
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Date Created: 03/13/16
March 8 Week 10 (T) Outline: Japan Mori Terumoto 1582 Jimmu 660 BC Kyoto Feudalism 1185-1868 AD Hideyoshi Oda Nobunaga 1551-1582 Akechi Mitsuhide Owari Pyramid of power: Emperor, Shogun, Daimyo, Samurai (95%) Imagawa 1560 Bushido Part 1 of the history of Japan Like all Asian peoples the Japanese were shaped by their environment, “geography is destiny” Throughout history Japanese civilization was centered on Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu, these 3 islands were separated off the coast of Asia by 120 miles • this has a huge impact of the development of Japanese civilization bc it meant the Japanese were close enough to engage in trade with the people of Asia & close enough to learn from the different civilizations of Asia (like China) BUT far enough away from Asia that through most of Japanese History the Japanese were almost never successfully attacked from the outside world for more than 2600 years (until WWII) o bc they were never successfully attacked the Japanese believed they were a chosen people, chosen by there gods to live on these islands safe from outside attack According to Japanese legend: • 660 BC a man named Jimmu first unified the 3 main Japanese islands making him Japan’s first emperor o Jimmu was the great grandson of the sun, so the Japanese believed that Jimmu was divine and Jimmu began what continues to be the longest continuous family line of reign in the history of the world HOWEVER fairly early on in Japanese history the emperor ceased to actually play a powerful role, instead the Japanese Emperor became a figure head with no actual political and military power (only in rare instances did the emperor have an effect in the course of history) INSTEAD political and military power has always been in the hands of some other leader(s) In particular you have to understand the Japanese system of feudalism: • Feudal Pyramid 1185 AD- 1168 AD o Emperor: no real political/military authority o Shogun: only one at a time, held political & military power, shogunate was like a hereditary monarchy so when he died the son would take the title § shogun claimed to run on behalf of the emperor but in reality during this period it was usually the shogun that was in charge Below the Shogun there are two ranks of nobility, the daimyo and samurai (since this is a nobility this is something you have to be born into) In Japan during this time it was easy to identify a noble bc: 1) a noble had 2 names (in japan the last name came first for w & m), commoners had 1 name 2) only a noble was allowed to carry weapons, specifically 2 swords, a long sword to fight with and a short sword to commit suicide with o Daimyo: # varied throughout Japanese history, during this period there was 120 § Japan was divided into 66 provinces, a Daimyo ruled all (or a part) of a province on behalf of the shogun and the Daimyo performed certain important functions for the Shogun: 1) collected taxes 2) enforced the laws for the shogun 3) performed certain jobs, like building roads/bridges/harbors 4) served in the shogun’s army when called 5) recruited soldiers from his lands to bring with him to fight o Samurai: thousand within Japan, each Samurai worked for a Daimyo § each Samurai controlled a small amount of land on behalf of a Daimyo & the Samurai performed the same functions for a Daimyo that the Daimyo performed for the Shogun ú the officers (daimyo or samurai) & commoners were forced to fight All the nobles lived by a code: The Bushido Code (the way of the warrior) 1) All Japanese owed their highest loyalty to the Emperor 2) All Japanese were expected to obey their immediate superior 3) All Japanese must exemplify bravery in battle 4) NEVER were you to flee from a battle 5) NEVER were you to allow yourself to be captured, if worst came to the worst you are expected to fight to the death or commit suicide o If you did not live up to the code not only would you dishonor yourself but your family, ancestors, and decedents (a lot of these ideas were still taking play in WWII) o code also applied to women & children Nobility made up ~5% of the population, so ~95% of the people were commoners (if you are born a commoner you stay a commoner), commoner life: • commoners are usually under the direct control of a noble (samurai or daimyo) • commoners had to work on the lands of the nobles whenever called • commoners had to pay high taxes to the local noble • commoners were completely at the mercy of their local noble • not considered to be equal before the law, a noble could kill a commoner w/o any fear of repercussions Feudal System works if and only if the shogun is powerful enough to keep the daimyo and samurai under control In 1551 the Shogun had no power, so the Daimyo basically ran independent little Japanese states • problem? the states were constantly at war with one another AKA The Age of Warring States 1551 the feudal pyramid has broken down and there is no feudal Japanese country, instead a ton of little states but eventually a new Japanese state will be created as a result of the work of 3 famous Japanese leaders: 1) Oda Nobunaga: In 1551 after the death of his father, Oda became daimyo of the northern half of the province of Oari (1/120 daimyo) o By 1560 Oda had conquered all of Oari, which means he now controls an entire province & exterminated the other Daimyo and his family (he was ruthless) Then Oda found himself neighboring another powerful Daimyo, Imagawa Yoshimota § Imagawa controlled 3 provinces, making him one of the most powerful Daimyos in Japan 1560 Imagawa decided to conquer Oda & invades his territory, things don’t look good for Oda bc Imagawa has a huge army and Oda’s army is only half the size BUT luckily of Oda bc Imagawa has such a great advantage he isn’t taking his campaign too seriously and he’s drunk for most of the campaign and doesn’t take the normal precautions necessary during the invasion of enemy territory SO one night Imagawa and his men make camp, get drunk and Oda decides on a surprise night attack ú Now, as part of the Bushido Code you are NOT supposed to attack at night, but at this point Oda could care less The attack is launched, Imagawa and his men are taken by surprise ODA DEFEATS IMAGAWA’S ARMY & kills Imagawa • He then marches into Imagawa’s territory and kills his family BAM Oda now has 4 territories making him one of the most powerful Daimyo in all of Japan & will use this as a spring board to conquest almost half of the country • 1560 Oda has 4 provinces 1582 Oda has 31 provinces & during this period Oda killed the last Shogun However Oda didn’t care about the title, he just wants power so he never made himself shogun SO for a brief time there was no shogun o Reasons for Oda’s success § 1) great military leader § 2) ruthless § 3) Oda had been one of the first Japanese leaders to take advantage of new European military technology (guns & cannons) ú first Europeans that arrived just before Oda became daimyo had brough with them the latest guns/cannons ú At this time the Japanese didn’t have guns or cannons BUT they had steel and gun powder so they were able to replicate them for themselves HOWEVER most daimyo and samurai thought guns were a really wimpy was to fight, but Oda didn’t give two ***** so he used the weapons a lot and eventually everyone begins to catch on Oda controlled almost half of Japan, which means just over half the country is outside his control & he wants to conquer the whole thing • So in 1582 Oda decided to try to conquer Mori Terumoto (Mori was a daimyo who controlled 9 provinces) o Oda holds a conference with all his important generals in the city of Kyoto (one of the biggest and most important Japanese cities) Oda tells his generals of his plan to attack Mori & he first orders on of his general, Hideyoshi, to lead the initial attack against Mori (Hideyoshi is a commoner, Oda didn’t care if you were a noble or not he just wanted great generals) Hideyoshi leaves Kyoto and goes South to attack Mori Oda then orders his other generals to go back to their provinces, get their soldiers, and then return to Kyoto THEN once they’re back Oda will lead the main force/army South against Mori Oda stays in Kyoto while his generals get their solders, Oda is staying in a castle in Kyoto and he has with him only 50 samurai body guards SO one of his generals, Akechi Mitsuhide, decides to take advantage • like all of Oda’s generals, Akechi hated Oda bc he was so ruthless, bc he was mean and made fun of people, and bc as long and Oda is on top no one else can raise any further o So Akechi pretends to go back to his provinces, but them with 250 of his own Samurai he sneaks back to Kyoto and attacks Oda Oda’s samurai fight to the death but they are overwhelmed Oda realizes he is about to be captured and commits suicide Oda is dead Oda conquered half the country, but he was unable to conquer the other half so once again Japan is plunged into anarchy and civil war March 10 Week 10 ® Outline: Japan Ishida Mutsinari Akechi Mitsuhide 1582 AD Sekigahara 1600 Hideyoshi 1582-1598 Adams Taiko 1590 Shogunate 1603-1868 Hideyori 1593-1615 Osaka 1615 Tokugawa Ieyasu 1598 Unification of Japan, Creation of the Modern Country of Japan & the arrival of the Europeans in Japan 1582: Oda (First of the 3 great unifiers of Japan) had conquered almost half the country, but he wanted to rule all of Japan HOWEVER Akechi rebelled and Oda was forced to commit suicide L • So suddenly with Oda gone it appeared that Japan would be plunged into an era of anarchy However though there would be Civil War it would not last long because after Akechi forced Oda to commit suicide he sent a letter to Mori Taramoto (the guy Oda was supposed to attack) o Akechi told Mori what he had done, that Oda was dead, and in the letter Akechi asked Mori for an alliance because he wants to take Oda’s place BUT the letter sent by Akechi never made it to Mori o The letter was intercepted by Hideyoshi (Hideyoshi was the guy Oda sent to fight Mori first) this makes him extremely lucky because he finds out (almost before everyone else) that Oda is dead This is a golden opportunity for Hideyoshi § Hideyoshi takes his army and races back to Kyoto, he moves so quickly that no one knows he is coming & takes Akechi by surprise Hideyoshi attacks Akechi and Akechi is killed § With Akechi dead and Oda dead, Hideyoshi moves quickly to take control of Oda’s old territory 1584: Hideyoshi eliminated all rival generals, and wiped out Oda’s family (sons, grandsons, etc.) & took over Oda’s old territories During the next 6 years (1590), Hideyoshi conquers all of Japan • all 3 islands are under one government • there was no shogun because Oda had killed the last shogun and never took the title himself • Hideyoshi was a commoner, that meant the couldn’t be shogun SO Hideyoshi takes the title of Taiko (the great regent) o meaning he’s ruling Japan on behalf of the emperor but he has all military and political power making him the 2 of the Great Unifiers and rules for 15 years o Hideyoshi was very concerned about the succession, who will take his place when he dies? He wants an heir to ensure a peaceful transition Hideyoshi had a problem of succession because he had no children SO at first he decided his nephew will be the successor BUT in 1593, his son was born: Hideyori § Hideyoshi is very happy J and to ensure there is no problems Hideyoshi orders his nephew and his family to commit suicide and they do J Unfortunately, in 1598 Hideyoshi becomes very sick L it is clear he is dying • this is a problem because Hideyori is only 5 years old SO Hideyoshi sets up an elaborate system that he hoped would govern Japan while allowing Hideyori to grow up and eventually take over nd 1598 Hideyoshi Dies (2 Great Unifier) Almost immediately the system Hideyoshi develops breaks down mostly bc of Tokugawa Ieyasu • With Hideyoshi dead, Tokugawa was now the most powerful Daimyo in Japan o Tokugawa controlled 8 provinces that were extremely fertile Capital of Tokugawa is Edo • After Hideyoshi dies, Tokugawa wants to take over Japan (never says it publicly) and immediately begins to maneuver for his grab for power o There were many Daimyo that wanted to stop Tokugawa, they were led by Ishida Mutsinari § Daimyo opposed Tokugawa because they either didn’t like him, or they wanted Hideyori to eventually be the ruler, or they opposed him because if Tokugawa took over they couldn’t 1600 Japan is divided in half: East- Tokugawa and his Allies | West- Ishida and his Allies • When you have a country divided in this way there has to be a battle right? J SO in 1600 the Battle of Sekigahara takes place o each army had ~90 Men § Tokugawa VS. Ishida o Ishida’s Plan: § He had guys stationed up in the hills so Tokugawa could not see them from the valley, he only sees the one that are right in front of him § Ishida hoped that Tokugawa would come into the valley, see the “blue guys”, think he has an advantage and he will attack § THEN once Toku attacks the blue guys the yellow guys will hit them from the side & from behind § If all goes well Toku will be taken by surprise, the guys will panic, break, and flee J § Problem? The guys in yellow (mountains) were actually secretly in league with Tokugawa SO the battle begins, Toku attacks the blue guys, Ishida calls the guys in yellow to come attack Toku BUT instead they attack his army L so it is Ishida’s men who are taken by surprise, break and flee TOKUGAWA WINS THE BATTLE OF SEKIGAHARA ú Important because: 1) Allows Tokugawa to take over Japan and 3 years later Tokugawa proclaims himself shogun By becoming shogun Tokugawa establishes the Tokugawa Shogunate • meaning that Tokugawa and his decedents ruled as Shoguns during 1603-1868 • with a few exceptions, the Tokugawa Shogunate was a period of peace and prosperity in Japan in large part because after the Battle of Sekigahara Toku confiscated a lot of the good land in Japan eventually controlling over a quarter of the country, no daimyo could challenge them • to encourage the loyalty of the daimyo, Tokugawa demanded that the daimyo’s families live in Tokyo while the daimyo spent half the year in their provinces • all the major roads out of Tokyo had dozens of checkpoints to make sure no one escaped “no guns in, no women out” Now, Hideyori is growing up and the older he gets the more he reminds people of his father Hideyoshi • SO Tokugawa wants to get rid of Hideyori but he needs an excuse and he eventually finds a ridiculous one: 1615 Hideyori was living in the city of Osaka and he has a big bell made and on this bell Hideyori has inscribed the name of all the great men that have ruled japan including Tokugawa Unfortunately Tokugawa’s name was misspelled and Toku says he cannot live through this dishonor so Toku attacks § Hideyori realizes there is no way he will survive so he send Toku a letter asking him to spare his life and his family’s Hideyori thinks this might work because his wife is Toku’s granddaughter BUT Toku says, “No, please kill yourself’ and they do So 1615, the last Japanese threat to Toku’s power is eliminated Europeans arrive for the first time (just before Oda took over) • The Spanish did not hesitate to conquer native people, however when they arrive in Japan they quickly realize they did not enjoy the same advantages that they did in the Americas 1) The Japanese also had steel armor & weapons 2) The Japanese already had the horse 3) The Japanese did not have guns or cannons, but they had steel and gun powder so they figured out how guns and cannons worked and started manufacturing them 4) The Japanese already had the same diseases as the Europeans, so disease would no decimate the Japanese population • So the Spanish realized they wouldn’t be able to conquer Japan militarily, so instead they would try to conquer Japan religiously o Christian Missionaries began to show up in Japan and began to convert the population to Christianity, they were successful By the time of Tokugawa ~5% of the population converted to Christianity § Toku was becoming really concerned with the growth of Christianity because he feared Japanese Christians would be more loyal to the pope and their God than to the Shogun § Upon the arrival of Will Adams, Toku finally decided to act ú Adams was an English sailor who was shipwrecked in Japan the same year as Sekigahara At this time the English were bitter enemies of the Spanish SO Adams tells Toku about all the bad stuff the Spanish did in the Americas to the Aztec and Inca Empires As a result Toku decides to close Japan, so no foreigners will be allowed in the country and no Japanese can leave • Japanese Christians were given a choice: 1) Give up your new religion 2) Die ú SO Toku and his successors were able to stamp out Christianity, Japanese had the power to kick out the Europeans and keep them out ú Through most of the Tokugawa Shogunate Japan would be closed to the outside world HOWEVER, Japan had now been unified, it was a peaceful and wealthy country Which is why when Japan was finally forced open (1853 the Americas forced it open) it quickly became one of the world’s greatest super powers
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