Refugees and Global Migration
Refugees and Global Migration POL2089
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by gricksecker on Sunday March 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POL2089 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Rebecca Sanders in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see International Human Rights in Political Science at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 03/13/16
3/8/14 Refugees and Global Migration Statistics 1. >60 Million people in situation of forced displacement by persecution or war a. 38 Million internally displaced peoples (IDPs) b. 1.2 million asylum seekers (applied for refugee status but have not been granted) 2. Developing countries host 86% of the world’s refugees a. Half of all refugees are children 3. UNHCR expects to receive just 47% of the funding needed this year Refugee Convention 1. Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (1951) a. A refugee is a person who: i. Has fear of persecution ii. Outside the country of his/her nationality iii. Unwilling to return to that country b. Nondiscrimination 2. Differing the terms “migrant” and “refugee” is important because refugees have more rights according to international law 3. 12,000,000 Syrians have been displaced a. 4,052,011 have been registered by the UN b. 900,000 asylum seekers in Europe 4. Refugee camps a. Camps can be perilous i. Lack of sanitation ii. Inadequate food iii. Little Employment iv. Limited education v. Women are targeted for sexual abuse Exclusions 1. Refugee Convention does not cover several categories of people 2. Should environmental catastrophe be grounds for seeking asylum? a. Rising sea levels b. Drought c. Earthquakes d. Hurricanes i. Endemic poverty and famine? ii. Who is responsible for providing relief to victims of global problems like climate change? iii. Do refugees have the right to choose where they want asylum? 3/10/16 Refugees Continued Human Smuggling o Refugees and other types of migrants increasingly rely on smugglers to move across border Home country may not let them out Destination may not let them in, build a wall o States make it increasingly difficult for asylum seekers to enter Visa entrance requirements and carrier enforcements Maritime interdiction o Human smuggling often take on characteristics if coercive and abusive trafficking Economic Migration o 244 million migrants worldwide, 3.3% of world population US hosts around 17% of all migrants o Legal migration for nonrefugees to wealthy countries is extremely difficult – involves: Family Sponsorship Employment Requirements Wealth Requirements o Migrant Labor Dynamics 105 million people working outside of country of birth, earn $440 billion Demand for migrant labor tends to outstrip supply – creates pull factor for workers, both documented and undocumented Exploited – low wages, dangerous working conditions Can end up in slavery like conditions Restrictions on movement Scapegoated for unemployment and political unrest E.g. migrant African workers targeted by Libyan revolutionaries, workers in Greece targeted after financial collapse. Migrant Workers in the Persian Gulf o Qatar one of the world’s richest countries, fueled by oil and gas Massive construction boom o 1.7 million people, but only 390,000 native Qataris o 94% of workforce are migrants from Asia Workers are poorly paid, owe high recruitment fees, abused by employers Migrant workers in the US Chinese recruited to build railways in 19 c. 1940s1960s “Bracero” guest worker program brings hundreds of thousands of Mexicans to work in agriculture o 16% of US workforce is foreign born – vary in skill level and educational attainment 72% of farm workers are foreign born o 1112 million undocumented immigrants Constrained in agriculture, slaughterhouses, construction, landscaping, hospitality, and service sector Migrant Workers Convention o Most States have implemented inadequate measures to protect migrant workers, particularly undocumented workers o States let it happen when profiting from it, crack down in recessions Growth of temporary/guest worker schemes Legally exploitable disposable work force Workers bound to employer for status Good for remittances if the workers can save, but undermines possibility of longterm immigration for better life for entire family
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