Compar Anat & Bio Verteb (W)
Compar Anat & Bio Verteb (W) ZOL 328
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marlon Brown on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ZOL 328 at Michigan State University taught by Susan Hill in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see /class/207229/zol-328-michigan-state-university in Animal Science at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Zoology 328 22211 Study Guide 6 Words to Know pygostyle alula furculum carina keratin cleidoic Archaeomithes Neomithes amniote anamniote Prototheria Theria Metatheria Eutheria Monotremes marsupials stapes incus malleus cloaca egg sperm fertilization cleavage yolk blastomeres micromeres macromeres blastula blastocoele gastrula archenteron blastopore ectoderm endoderm mesoderm nm ents F 39 39 etc Which group of reptiles gave rise to birds to mammals How do birds differ from reptiles Why is Archaeopteryx considered a bird What reptilian features did it have To what extinct and extant reptilian groups are birds most closely related How are birds adapted for ight In particular what skeletal adaptations facilitate ight What functions do feathers serve What important feature do the new mouth birds exhibit What are the differences between the Paleognathae and theNeognathae Why are birds like ostriches and rheas placed in a different group than crows robins and penguins What are some ightless birds Are all ightless birds grouped together What is endothermy Which two classes of animals are endothermic Did endothermy arise only once or more than once Support your statement From what structures did jaws evolve How did the bones of the middle ear arise What change in jaw suspension occurred at the reptilemammal transition What skeletal structures are unique to mammals Nervous System I Function sensing and relaying info to effectors a CNS brain and spinal cord b Peripheral nerves that extend beyond CNS i Effectors ii Receptors c Neuron basic unit nerve cell i Nerve cell body ii Dendrites receptive part iii Axon conductive part iv Terminal transmits signal to another cell d Nerve Impulse i Transmitted as wave of depolarization ii Resting nerve polarized l Na high outside low inside electrical potential of about 60 mV across cell membrane 2 Stimulated Na rushes in 3 9depolarizes membrane 4 Spreads along axon wave of depolarization e Myelin Sheath i Myelin arises from neural crest cells ii Myelin wraps around nerve cell 1 Schwann cells a Wrap concentrically around axon 2 Node of Ranvier a Space between adjacent Schwann cells i Impulse jumps from node to node f Synapse space between the two not direct contact i Axon of one dendrite of another neuron g Chemical neurotransmitter i Released from terminal diffuses across cleft ii Bind to receptors on membrane 1 Common neuro transmitters a Acetyl choline b Noradrenalin c Seratonin d Dopamine i C and D only in brain II Development a CNS from neural tube i Ectoderm indiced by developing notochord ii Enlargement at anterior end brain b Much of Peripheral NS neural crest origin i sensory neurons c If nerve cell body lies away from CNS neural crest origin i Includes i 1 all sensory neurons 2 postganglionic bers of autonomic system d Brain enlargement of neural tube 3 bulges l prosencephalon 2 mesencephalon 3 rhombencephalon a Prosencephalon 2 parts i amp ii below i Telencephalon l cerebral hemispheres or cerebrum a EOE3979 largest part of telencephalon integration i integration of both motor and sensory signals site of memory choice learning conscious control thinking in humans may be covered by cerebral cortex i in mammals 2 Olfactory bulbs and lobes a Fquot 0 ii Diencephalon Bulbs receive input from olfactory epithelium Olfactory tracts carry sensory info to olfactory lobes shark or pyriform lobes mammals Lobes integrate olfactory input Much more important in somegroups than others Center is ancient originates from part of cerebral wall called paleopallium During development outgrth of brain V39wa a b optic cups and optic nerves tracts olfactory bulbs thalamus walls of diencephalons hypothalamus oor maintains homeostasis regulates i body temp ii appetite ii39 water balance iv blood glucose glands that produce hormones pituitary v39 blood pressure c Part of limbic system 39 Ancient part of brain Abuts olfactory portion Responsible for aspects of behavior relating to preservation of self and species iv Eating and drinking lt i39 ii39 v Reproduction sexual behavior vi Care of young vii Aggressive behavior 6 epithalamus roof 7 Surrounds 3rd ventricle 8 Pituitary gland a 2 parts infundibulum ventral outgrowth of hypothalamus Rathke s pouch from developing mouth Endocrine gland controls many endocrine glands iv leader of hormone orchestra under hypothalamic control ii39 lt 9 Thalamus a Walls of diencephalons b Major area for relaying sensory info to cerebral cortex or cerebrum i Exception olfaction 10 Epithalamus roof of diencephalons a Pineal gland i Dorsal outgrowth of epithalamus ii39 i lt Originally light sensitive has acquired endocrine function Primitive may form 3rd eye lamprey Spenodon tuatara b Pineal and parietal eyes i ii39 lt v39 S viii 2 structures may have been paired 1 both may 9 eye or light sensitive region lampreys tadpoles larval salamanders some reptiles May have lens retine nerve Birds and mammals NOT directly light sensitive Melatonin from seratonin in dark Involved in responses to photoperiod hibernation migration antler growth perhaps sleepwake cycles b Mesencephalon remains undivided b l ii39 lt i Important for integrating visual and auditory signals sh optic lobes large amniotes 2quotd pair of lobes optic and optic lobes may be very large birds mammals corpora quadrigemina superior colliculi anterior visual input inferior colliculi posterior auditory a cerbreal cortex takes over much of visual integration c Rhombencephalon 2 Parts Metencephalon cerebellum largest area of metencephalon movement and equilibrium primarily concerned with coordination of muscular activity maintenance of posture ii Myelencephalon l Medulla oblongata a Major component of myelencephalon Base of brain joins spinal cord Everything going to and from the brain pass through medulla i Much sorting out of signals Control and integration of internal physiological features heart rate breathing Much of medulla operates at re ex level re ex centers for 06x 3 1 Fquot 0 3 1 D Rate of heart beat Respiration Constriction of blood vessels to maintain normal BP iv In uenced by hypothalamus but basic rate set by medulla f injuries to medulla can be life threatening ii39 III Evolution of the brain a Amphioxus i Very little enlargement ii Pigment spot at anterior iii Collection of photoreceptors in oor of central canal of nerve cord 1 respond to light entering through integument b Tunicate larva larged regioni brain i Ocellus and otolith c Neural crest cells inidications of presence in both tunicates AND amphioxus d Lampreys hag shi3 part brain neural crest cells i Fish complex brain specialized areas l Forebrain olfactory bulbs lobes and cerebrum a Mostly involved with olfaction b Optic lobes tectum of mesencephalon i Large ii Receive and integrate visual information iii Major integrating visual center in sh ii Reptiles l cerecrum much larger than amphibians a part of dorsal pallium roof of cerebrum 9 neopallium iii Mammals l cerebral hemispheres Very Large 2 increase mostly due to expansion of neopallium a neocortex cerebral cortex b composed of many additional nerve cell bodies grey matter c surface probably originally smooth d is in some mammals many rodents monotremes e in many humans sheep highly convoluted ridges gyri and grooves sulci 3 Cerebral cortex becoame dominant integrating center 4 much of integration of visual input shifted to cortex a some still in superior colliculi but no large optic lobes 5 Areas for speci c somatic sensory and motor function 6 Rest association neurons where processing of info occurs a Where learning memory and conceptual thought are believed to occur e Parts of nerve that are myelinated white matter f Nerve cell body unmyelinated g Spinal cord i Outer layer 1 white matter a myelin 2 Grey matter a Inside IV How does Nervous System work a Re ex arc involves at least 3 neurons i Sensory Neuron ii Intemeuron iii Motor Neuron l Simplest arc b Nerve impulse i Carried by sensory neuron to spinal cord ii One loooooooooooooooooooong cell iii Nerve cell body lies in dorsal root l ganglion 7 collection of nerve cell bodies iv synapse with intemeuron in spinal cord V synapse with motor neuron in spinal cord vi impulse carried by axon leaving through ventral root effector l Nerve cell body of motor neuron is in spinal cord vii Usually more neurons involved viii Signal carried to brain perhaps other effectors c Typial spinal nerves i Sensory l Somatic sensory SS receptors in skin striated muscle tendons a Touch pain temperature pressure proprioception 2 Visceral sensory VS receptors in viscera a Fullness pain etc ii Motor 1 Somatic Motor SM skeletal muscle 2 Visceral Motor smooth muscle viscera cardiac muscle glands a AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM d All sensory neurons in mammals Enter nerve cord NC through dorsal root All motor neurons leave through ventral root Chain of ganglia lie beside NC i Sympathetic ganglia 1 Also ganglia that lie on or near viscera a Parasympathetic ganglia i Both are part of the Autonomic Nervous System quot759 V Autonomic Nervous System a Composed only of visceral motor neurons i Motor neurons to glands smooth muscle and cardiac muscle 1 Sensory input somatic sensory visceral sensory a NOT part of autonomic system b Differes from somatic motor system i Autonomic always another synapse outside NC ii Axon of cell from within CNS iii Synapses w motor neuron OUTSIDE CNS which then innervates effector c Synapses occur in ganglia i l axon leaves CNS and terminates in ganglion l presynaptic ber or preganglionic ii 2quotd axon leaves ganglion terminates at effector l postsynaptic ber or postganglionic d Dual innervation i 2 divisons ii 2 actions usually antagonistic
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