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Cognition and Technology

by: Burdette Lang

Cognition and Technology CEP 909

Burdette Lang
GPA 3.72


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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Burdette Lang on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CEP 909 at Michigan State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see /class/207233/cep-909-michigan-state-university in Human Dev And Family Sciences at Michigan State University.

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Date Created: 09/19/15
Cognition Second Edition ch 1 Summary Scott Schopieray 7 91001 The first chapter of this book was exceptionally interesting to me as it helped give some practical applicable knowledge of cognitive theory The writing starts out by pointing out that when a person thinks about things they know they often leave out things that are inherently known by all people Most of what people leave out are what cognitive scientists study A quick example of reading as processing information precludes much discussion on cognition mostly to give readers a bit of an overview as to what the chapter will be including Glass then takes us right into a statement of two problems that cognitive psychology faces How is knowledge stored and How is knowledge used to perform cognitive tasks The second question is especially important as every cognitive skill we exhibit depends on using information stored in memory The cognitive mind worls partly by using a concept called mental representation Parts of mental representation are word coding parts of codes called mediums and then levels of representation These all build on one another and are discussed at length in the chapter Word coding is the way something is expressed The example given in the chapter is the English word cat This can be translated into Spanish morse code or Braille but it still means the same thing In this case the code was changed but the meaning was kept A very interesting study done by Conrad is cited here It shows how humans are able to change codes as they perceive letters Ifthis is possible for humans to do would it be possible for a machine to do After we are given the concept of the code to think about Glass introduces the concept of medium Codes may be broken into different mediums but still keep the same meaning and code The example given here is listening to someone singing a song live then listening to the person singing the song on a recorded tape In both cases the code and meaning are the same but the song is being delivered by diiferent mediums Once we can comprehend both of these terms the idea of levels of representation is formally introduced A er reading this I realized they had been alluding to this all along but now a formal introduction is given Codes are broken into levels of representation These levels of representation are what allow complex processes to come out of several more simple processes Mental procedures are the next topic of discussion Basically mental procedures are executed to pull knowledge from the brain in much the same way as a database query would pull information from a database on a computer These mental procedures allow the brain to recode information it s receiving in order to make more sense of it A great example given is the use of three dimensional block objects The subject is given two objects represented by three dimensional blocks that are seen from diiferent angles and asked to tell whether the objects are the same or not To accomplish this the brain uses a mental procedure called Visio spatial rotation in which the brain mentally rotates one object to be the same orientation as the other object thus creating a match or seeing that the objects are diiferent This again helps to create complex procedures out of simple processes Glass talks about four important characteristics of human information processing next feature analysis hierarchical procedure bottomup vs topdown processing and Thinking Without a Brain from Machinery of the Mind Chapter NotesSumm ary Scott Schopieray September 18 2001 Al was started midway through 20th century by scientists looking to find the structures that underlie thought and show that mind arises from patterns underneath McCarthy lLinsky Simon and Newell 1956 Dartmouth conference begins for most part field of AI As AI matures scientists go different ways I McCarthy using logic to explain intelligence Simon and Newell usiong computers to model human problem solving skills I Minsky general inquiry on what computers and programming can teach us about the mind quotTo the progenitors of Al the assertion that a computer can do only what it is told was best rephrased in a positive light a computer can do anything that can be precisely described as a finite number of operations including they believed what we call thinking To me this is suggesting that thinking involves a finite number of operations and if this is true AI that is humanlike should be possible shouldn39t it Cannibals and Missionaries puzzle was the subject of many early AI machine tests Early attempts fell short of proving that computers could be as smart as people but they provided a demonstration that intelligence can be broken down into many tiny operations and run on a machine There is talk about early machines relying on logic such as quotAll A39s are E C is an A39 therefore C is Bquot This is interesting from a linguistics standpoint A friend of mine studies linguistics at another university and she shared some interesting information on this process A normal person reading the previous argument would agree that C is B just as it says However there is evidence that something we learn when we learn to read and write is what allows us to agree with that There was a study done of some rural russian farmers that either could not read or could read very little They were given a statement such as quotAll bears that live in the north are white Polar bears live in the north Therefore what color are polar bears The responses were amazing The people that could not read responded with something like quotHow do you expect me to know what color they are I39ve never seen one and the people who could read very little responded with something like quotWell from what you are saying they are white as if they didn39t really believe or understand the logic but could make some sense out of it Boole developed a system in which most complex chains of reasoning could be performed Boole and Liebniz If logic can be done syntactically by manipulating symbols without regard to their meaning then theoretically it can be mechanized Computers using AI programs were first developed in England and US for military reasons Shannon was interested in the question of how to preserve order amidst chaos Wiener believed that much biological behavior could be explained by such mechanical concepts as feedback and equilibrium McCullough and Pitts made first serious effort to show how the brain might be electronically stimulated They also showed that neural nets were essentially equivalent to a Turing machine


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