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Biology II Cell & Molec Bio

by: Hulda Donnelly Sr.

Biology II Cell & Molec Bio LB 145

Marketplace > Michigan State University > OTHER > LB 145 > Biology II Cell Molec Bio
Hulda Donnelly Sr.
GPA 3.78

Douglas Luckie

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Douglas Luckie
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hulda Donnelly Sr. on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LB 145 at Michigan State University taught by Douglas Luckie in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/207237/lb-145-michigan-state-university in OTHER at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
THREE STEPS TO GETTING LINEAR GRADIENT PROBLEMS There are only three archetypes oflinear gradient problems possible for the light reactions of photosynthesis 1 HSTROMA gt HTHYLAK01D LUMEN 2 HSTROMA HTHYLAK01D LUMEN 3 HSTROMA lt HTHYLAK01D LUMEN These problem types are listed above in order of decreasing difficulty Luckily no matter how seemingly difficult the problem it can be solved like all others using three simple steps Before we define the steps lets think back and try to recall information about your best light reactions resource the quotmoviequot from the course website Do you remember any specific numbers resulting from actions in the movie Electrons moved Photons used Water molecules split Could you list them all lfyou39re drawing a blank watch the movie again and check to see if this list makes sense r r A I o gm lN HICM VIFRVM Man Y z x 7 Mom HIZOVGH 77 r739quot7J 2 37Eu5 wordJ5 7 gar1739 Hr THE 917070757546 Co 2 0 1 OLE L UL 5 AIL i S 0L T 59 E 4 I c 1392 an i 2 NAM amigo45 AZE ag395 7 0 ngcuf 15 gar9J0 FWM wch 7 2 That last number is especially important Because every action in the movie sums to produce a single molecule ofOz gas for the purposes of this class the movie can be considered the least amount ofwork the light reaction system is capable of performing we have no idea how to produce 38ths of an oxygen molecule so don39t try it Just round up This means that the quotmovie cyclequot has now become your basal unit for gradient problems Whenever you are confronted with a gradient problem you should immediately ask yourselfthe question quotHow many Mmovie cycles do I need to perform to solve thisquot Now you may have realized quotWait that movie cycle list doesn39t even talk about protons and I know they move around a lotquot You would be right on both counts The net movement of protons per movie cycle is so important that it will be though of as separate from our list of other numbers Do you know the changes in proton concentration on both sides of the thylakoid membrane during a movie cycle If not watch the movie again while looking at the simplified figure on the next page to see if the numbers make sense TMMA yDj 7 Trl 1L 5 f L Q 7 So the three players in proton gradients the manganese atoms plastoquinone and NADP reductase end up moving protons throughout a movie cycle in a way that looks like this of r Qo nx K 7 SW7quot 77ch gym Warning The conversion we are about to make scares and confuses many people so stick with it and believe We don39t care about absolute numbers of protons in these problems These are quotgradientquot problems We only care about the proton difference between the two sides of the membrane ATP synthase doesn39t care if there are five or fiftyfive protons in the thylakoid lumen it is only the difference in concentration between the two sides of the thylakoid membrane that induces quotproton motive forcequot and drives the production of ATP With this being said brace yourself for the part that confuses some students can you see that subtracting six protons from the stroma is just as productive as adding six protons to they thylakoid lumen They change the membrane potential by the same amount these actions are equal This equality allows us to convert our proton movements into a much more useful single number JUN3 L V fEKOTED ll39 1 f c Tet11010 LUMFJU V P r PER 44 LNE g r LL And as you remember it takes three protons running through ATP synthase to create one ATP Adding this fact to our new knowledge ofthe gradient we can generate per movie cycle allows us to determine the number of movie cycles required to produce any number of ATP we desire Let39s take an example from the most difficult archetype oflinear gradient problem to put our new knowledge to the test 7quot assuming 1 linear electron transport STEP 1 Find The Gradient We Must Develop to Produce Our Product Every gradient problem will provide you with an quotinitial conditionquot If none is explicitly stated you should assume that both sides of the thylakoid membrane begin the problem in a state of proton equilibrium there are the same number of protons on both sides This problem39s initial condition highlighted 52 reveals that we initially have more protons in the stroma than in the thylakoid lumen This is the opposite of the concentration difference necessary to produce ATP through the ATP synthase Ht thylakoid lumen gt H stroma so our first job is to get the two sides back to equilibrium We do this by moving protons from the stroma to the thylakoid lumen just as a plant cell would How many protons would we need to move through the membrane to equilibrate both sides Fifty LiLhl DOH39 977 OO1 Hquot 50 Remember those fifty protons this is the first part of the gradient we must develop Every gradient problem will also contain a quotproductquot ours is highlighted in n This product will almost always be a number of ATP or sugar molecules indirectly made by ATP and NADPH that we are required to produce Via proton motive force through ATP synthase Now that we have equilibrated the membrane we must move the number of protons required to produce our product through the same process 3ATP W x BMWM gt 9 PUTONJ f leCD To 391 7ATP w TinAacow ATP SFVV rAJF T0 K700 Cv L 3ATP Mamc7 Remember though protons only run through ATP synthase to reestablish equilibrium This means that only half of those nine protons would actually feel like moving We would need to double the amount of protons required to 18H to actually produce our 3ATP product So the true gradient we must develop in this problem is 50 H establish equilibrium plus 18 H make product which equals 68 Ht This is the answer for Step 1 STEP 2 Determine the Lowest Whole Number of Movie Cycles Required to Produce Our Product This step is easy You know the total gradient you need to develop to produce your product 68 W and you know what gradient you can develop per movie cycle 14 PF so just divide them g739 QADIENT MESSth I L39LE 397r V x 4 r j 3995 vac 14139 ammm mmrm l cfjjNL Remember we don t want to deal with fractional cycles so just round up 486 movie cycles to 5 This is the answer for Step 2 STEP 3 Answer Your Original Question Using the Movie Cycle Chart The wording ofa gradient problem contains one final element the actual question duh Don t think we forgot about that The question posed in this gradient problem highlighted asks for the number ofphotons required to make our product We just discovered in Step 2 that we need to run five movie cycles to make 3ATP If only we had some tool to relate movie cycles to photons oh wait We have that old list In fact the list doesn tjust help us convert to photons it can and should be used to solve any kind ofquestion a gradient problem may dish out A simple word change from quotphotonsquot to quotwater moleculesquot in the question of this gradient problem could have completely thrown offan unprepared student but someone reading this guide would have merely pulled a different number from their list Crisis averted Back to our example problem To finish up just multiply the number of movie cycles necessary to make our product five cycles by the number of photons per movie cycle eight photons This gives us our final answer to the question posed in this gradient problem x amm emmrzw 7 l 7 MaxIE 4 7Wv


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