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Chemistry I

by: Hulda Donnelly Sr.

Chemistry I LB 171

Hulda Donnelly Sr.
GPA 3.78

Samantha Cass

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Samantha Cass
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hulda Donnelly Sr. on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LB 171 at Michigan State University taught by Samantha Cass in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/207238/lb-171-michigan-state-university in OTHER at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
Study Guide Exam 2 Cass Periodic Trends All group one elements form a 1 cation because they want to have a noble gas configurationit is the most stable and least reactive Group two elements form a 2 cation Group 7 form a 1 ion Group 6 form a 2 ion Group 5 form a 3 ion Atomic Radii the size of the atom The periodic trend is as you move down the periodic table size increases because there are more energy level shells Moving from the right to the left on the periodic table radius size increases as well An increased number of electrons also increase the number of protons More protons means the nucleus filled with protons pulls the electrons in tighter therefore making the atom smaller The more negative an atom the larger the radius because the proton s center Atomic Rad does no exert a high enough pull The more positive an atom the smaller the radius because there is more of a pull toward its center Inc 355 Zeff The pull mentioned above The higher the zeff value the higher the pull towards the center meaning the smaller the atom 29 f 2 5 z is the nuclear charge or number of protons sis the number of NONvalence electrons Increase Anions negatively charged elements Electron Affinity EA means the gaining of an electron it is the desire of an atom to absorb an electron Electron affinity is fueled by the desire to become a noble gas and fill its octet EA is measured in the energy usually negative values because energy is typically released when an electron is absorbed A decrease in distance between two molecules or atoms increases EA An increase in a positive charge also increases EA To predict EA use the electrostatic equation lrorc ticrge to shame electrostatic attraction d is distance i Ionization Energy The energy required to remove an electron An increase in atomic size decreases ionization energy because it makes harder for zeff to pull Ionization energy increases as you l39uw39Lgt move to the right and up on the periodic table the elements in group 6 have a slightly lower ionization energy than group S because losing an electron allows for those elements to have a half filled p orbital and is therefore Formulas Structural shows connectivity between atoms Ball and stick model Different color ball represents elements sticks represent bonds Spacefill model atoms overlap each other Naming Why To illustrate how atoms are connected Need a universal way to represent and refer to compounds Ionic naming l Cations named lit leave as is no prefix or suffix 2 Anions named 2 using suffix IDE except for polyatomic ions which are named as is ie Nal Sodium Iodide Magnesium Chloride MgCZ No prefixes for ionic compounds because we know the ion it will make so we also know how much of each ion is required to form a neutral charge except hydrates Prefix and Hydrates a hydrate is an ionic compound in which water cocrystalizes with it Use the suffix only to represent the amount of water present gtllt Ionization Energy o Hexahydrate mono penta 2 3 tri 4 tetra Roman to of a cation that can form more than one type of cation Groupl metals 1 only Group2 metals 2 only Beneath metalloid line different charges ie PbCl4 LeadlV Chloride Cobaltll Chloride Hexahydrate CoCl6HZO Ionic quotbondsquot Ionic compounds are a metal and a nonmetal Not really a bond because the electron is being transferred NOT shared Just an electrostatic attraction Valence electrons tell us what kind of ion can be formed it can also tell how many electrons it can or wants to share Octet Rule each atom has coownership of 8 electrons total C N O F never violates the octet rule Exceptions Period 3 elements and bellow because they have an empty d orbital Polyatomic Ions See the polyatomic ion sheet from angel Lewis Dot Structures All atoms want to fill their octet and electro negativity tells whether an electron is transferred or shared Study Guide Exam 2 Cass Gives a 2D picture ofwhat bondsto what bond poiarities and reactivity ofa rnoiecuie Count nurnber ofvaience eiectrons they shouid be iiiustrated inthe drawing Piace the LEAST eiectronegative eiernent in the center except Hydrogeni Connect the outer atorns using singIe 3 g ue ei u 39 39 Fiii the octet ofouter atoms by pIacing eIectrons around the atorn hydrogen foiiows the duet ruie onIy 2eI Any Ieft overquot eiectrons get piaced around the center atorn Deterrnine forrnai charge of each atorn Ifthe center atorn has a positive forrnai charge and an outer has a negative forrnai charge the outer atorn wiii donate an e ectron pairto form a rnuitipie bond with the center atorn Forrnai Charge FC totaI vaIence e in atorni it of bonds 3 Ione eI 0 never goes inthe rniddie uniess it is paired with F nt u IOVU IbWNb I rnoverne the rnoiecuieion They do NOT rearrange which atorns are attached to which Increased resonance increases the stabiiity ofan ion They take turns being in a rnuitipie bond or having a negative charge 9 univ Increase bond order decreases bond Iength Increased bond order increases bond w a aunts mm energy the arnount ofenergy required to eiirninate a bond Ifa rnoiecuie has no resonance forrns then the bond order is just the bond between the two atorns so a doubie bonded rnoiecuie with no resonance wouid have a bond order onI The bond orderfor NO above wouid be 43 rneaning the 13 ofthe time it a particuiar NO bond is a doubie bond and the other23 ofthe tirne it is a singIe bond Electronegativity causes unequai sharing ofeiectrons Linus amau s v w eIectrons As you rnove up and tothe right on the periodictabie eIectro negativity increases Fiuorine isthe rnost eiectronegative Bond Polarity The difference in eIectro negativity deterrninesthe poIarity of bonds CH bonds are aIways nonpoIar 0 on poiarcovaien Poiarcovaient Ionic VSEPR Vaience Sheii Eiectron Pair Repuision theory Eiectrons ciusters around the center atorn wiii arrange thernseivesas far rorn each other as possibie Negative charges do not want to be cIose to each other gtk I I N iv I I I r ingie eIectron VSEPR heIps predict shape eIectron geornetryi based onthe nurnber ofeiectron groups around the center atorn Study Guide Exam 2 Cass octahedra SFE Molecular Geometry He ps to determine the poiarity If no ione pairs on the center atom moiecuiar geometry is the same as 15hu wwwuw lattedu sundin 114 I114 30htm Covalent Naming inciude pre xes binary nonmetaisi When there is oniy one first atom then do NOT use prefix Ie SuifurDioxide P4010 Tetraphosphorus decoxide ArrheniusAcidA substance that increases H concentration in a soiution Ie HCi H20 gt Hgo 039 ione pairs on oxygen are attracted to hydrogen hydrogen is partial positive Arrows show movement of electrons NOT where the atoms are going Single headed arrows indicate a strong acid because strong acids fully ionize only form porduct double headed arrows indicate weak acids Stron Acids H1804 HCI HN03 HBr HI HCIOA All other acids are w Criteria for being an acid polarized bond with Hydrogen Stabilization ofan anion ifan anion is stable it is easierto use an H Acids with one acidic HrMonoprotic acid With two acidic Hediprotic acid Three acidic He polytriprotic acid Resonance stabilization means that more than one element must share the burden of a negative charge Naming Acids Polyoxoacids identify the polyatomic ion first Ifthe polyatomic acid ends in ate the acid will end in quoticquot If it ends in quotitequot the acid will end in quotousquot Ifthe anion has a prefix the acid has the same quothypoquot prefix o 5 303 Chlorate HCI03 Chloric acid 5031395ulfite D H1503 Sub urous acid BrO hypobromitH HBrO hypobromous acid Study Guide Exam 2 Cass A monoprotic acid means it has 1 Hydrogen Diprotic 2 H etc If it is hydrogen and one other eiement Use hydro pre x and other atom with ic suf x and a hydro prefix Ie HCi Hydrochioric acid Arrhenius Bases Increasing the 39OH concentration in a soiution Strong Bases AII group 1 metai hydroxides and Ba0HI One way arrows are used for strong bases group 1 metai hydroxides are aii rst coiumn eiements added to 70H Nitrogen containing compounds can act as a base as weii because if N has a Ione pair it is abie to bon A i t a Double replacement reactions AII species switch partners Ie HCIOJ NaOH gt H20 NaCi03 Hand Na are positive 703 and OH is negative They then switch Solving AcidBased Calculations 1 Write a baianced equation 2 Determine moies ofthe substance that has voiume and moiarity 3 Use moimoi ratios to determine the moies ofthe other substance NEVER use M1V1M2V2 caicuiations this is oniy used for diiution caicuiations Molecular Polarity Ifthe moiecuie is diatomic 2 atomsi thenthe bond poiarity is the same as moiecuiar poiarity Ifthe outer ms are puiiing at the same magnitude ut39 pp 39 39 39 39 uuiiu p quot T erefore there is no net dipoie moment in the moiecuie dipoIethe unequai sharing ofan eiectron one side ofthe bond is the other is I To determine ifa bond is poiar you must draw the 3D structure Ie CO 39390C0quot the individuai bonds are poiar but because they are puiiing in opposite directions at the same magnitude then it is nonpoiar Moiecuiar poiarity determines reactivity in acid based reactions physicai properties and how the moiecuie wouid interact with other moiecuies ifa bond is polar 1 Must contain at ieast one poiar bond 2 Moiecuie cannot be symmetricai Poiar BOND Symmetricai Non poiar moiecuie Non poiar moiecuie 39 Non poiar moiecuie I Poiar moiecuie 39 ermine ii any puiai uuiiu aie present 3 Determine if How to determin 39 puldliLy1 we 2 Det the 3D shape is symmetricai Ifoniy one Ione pair around the center atom the moiecuie wiii aiways be unsymmetricai airs aiso Iiilte to be inthe same Iane Inter Molecular Forces IMF the attraction between moiecuies IMF are what hoid moiecuiestogether it is NOT breaking bonds n increase in moiecuie size increases IMF because it makes it easierto distortthe eiectron cioud An increase in IMF resuits in an increase in boiiing point because it makes it harderto breailtthe IMF s 1 DipoIeDipoie the force between two poiar moiecuies 2 Induced Dipoie between a poiar and non poiar moiecuie weakerthan dipoiedipoie 3 London Dispersion Forces Van der waais two nonpoiar moiecuies but at any one time the moiecuie might have a partiai positive or negative side on one side ofan atom cioud 1i DipoIeDipoie 2i Induced Di oie 3i London Dispersion Forces Hm H5 anuman gt9VII IIIIIIIE er M5 B gt 777 5 6 6v a m Hydrogen Bonding NOT a bond it is a type ofIMF Itis a strong dipoiedipoie attraction that can oniy be formed between NO 0H nd FH bonds because oftheir smaii size and high eiectronegativities It is strongerthan the typicai dipoie They hoid together DNA give water its properties and heip in protein foiding me IMF s It39 39 39 h 39 d a poiar moiecuie It isthe strongest because instead of it being in attraction between two partiain charged moiecuies one ofthe moiecuies has a fuii charge and therefore greater strengt Ranking oflMFs Ion Dipoie gt H bonding gt dipoiedipoie gt induced dipoie gt London Dispersion Forces Solubilityand IMFS soiubiiity is when a new moiecuie is added to a substance the new moiecuie is breakingthe originai IMFs and creating new ones This can oniy happen ifthe moiecuie s IMFs are simiiartothe originai substance s Soiubiiity is imp Iail i i udyiug 39 39 39 oiispiiisetc es Viscositythe resistance to ow Increase in IMFs resuits in an increase inviscosity because the moiecuies want to interact with each ot er mmquot iimm m m z a I IVE


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