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Biology I Organismal Biology

by: Hulda Donnelly Sr.

Biology I Organismal Biology LB 144

Marketplace > Michigan State University > OTHER > LB 144 > Biology I Organismal Biology
Hulda Donnelly Sr.
GPA 3.78

Gerald Urquhart

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Gerald Urquhart
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hulda Donnelly Sr. on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LB 144 at Michigan State University taught by Gerald Urquhart in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/207241/lb-144-michigan-state-university in OTHER at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
LB 144 BIOLOGY ECOLOGY QUIZ REVIEW Four Fundamental Concepts of Organismal Biology Ecology Genetics Evolution amp Diversity of Life 0 Ecology Interactions among organisms amp environment determine individuals survival 0 Genetics Cellular reproductive genetics amp development processes lead to variation among individuals 0 Evolution Population of organisms evolve because of variation among individuals acted upon by selective forces 0 Diversity ofLife Genetics Development Ecology lead to Evolution which equals Diversity of Life Biosphere to Atom Biosphere is the global ecosystem the sum of all the planet s ecosystems 5 Fundamental Concepts DNA Transcription9 RNA Translation9 Proteins DNA Stored info Nucleic Acids A C G T 4 Base PairsOne Form RNA Temporary instructions Nucleic Acids U C G T Proteins Functional products Amino Acids Leu Lys Arg Phe Gly etc 20 Amino Acidslnfinite Forms Functions include Structural membraneamp Chemical enzyme Transcription DNA n RNA with Transcription Translation RNA quotquot9 Proteins with Translation Think LATE from lation as last yield sign HIV Retrovirus RNA Genome Reverse Transcriptase lntegrase Protease Infect TCells membrane and hijack biochemical machinery In the beginning RNA yields a reverse transcription to a DNA RNA RT9 DNA Needs a CD4 amp CCR5 to attach to Mutates incredibly quickly Reverse Transcriptase Key Component in the HIV virus High level of mutation caused by inefficient reverse transcriptase AZT Azidothymidine AZT fools Reverse Transcriptase protein in HIV amp results in incorrect transcription of HIV genome Thymidine Nucleic acid base found in DNA involved in AZT Reverse Transcription RNA Reverse Transciption 9 DNA with Reverse Transcriptase Mutation DNA Production Error HIV Mutates very quickly Reverse Transcriptase is very error prone eve wo AZT Transcription errors made by RT lead to mutations in RT genes Lots of Variation Genetic Variation RNA RT Protein quot9 DNA quot9 RNA quotquot9 More viruses Cellular reproductive genetic and developmental processes lead to variation among individuals Has two of the four Fundamental Concepts of Org Bio Evolution Population of organisms evolve because of variation among individuals acted upon by selective forces Behavior Response or action to a stimulus Causes of behavior include Proximate amp Ultimate Causation Innate and Adaptive behaviors are another type of behavior that includes Adaptation amp Fitness Response An action which is instinct with behavior Proximate Causation Mechanistic How actions occur Ultimate Causation Evolutionary Why actions occur Adaption Adaptive Behaviors Characteristics of an organism that enhances its survival and reproduction in a certain environment Includes Fitness is a behavior too Innate Behavior Based on instincts Fixed Action Pattern Sequence of unlearned innate behaviors that are unchangeable Once initiated it is usually carried to completion Triggered by an external cue known as a sign stimulus Learning Change in behavior resulting from individual experiences Includes associative learning Associative Learning Animals associate one feature of their environment with another Types of Associative Learning includes Classicalamp Operant Conditioning Classical Conditioning An arbitrary stimulus is associated with a reward or punishment EX Train a dog to run over when a bell is rung bc food is his reward for obeying Operant Conditioning An animal learns to associate one of its behaviors with a reward or punishment EX A Mice s excellent scent of smell leads him to the end of the maze where the cheese is the reward or A coyote attempts to attack a porcupine but the porcupine s quills spines get stuck in his eyes which he learns not to attack them Migration Animals orient themselves based on Position of sun amp an external 24 hour clock position of the North Star and Earth s magnetic field They migrate because animals move closerto a food supply to help raise their offspring increases chances of survival Evolutionary Psychology Explains human social behavior from an evolutionary perspective Grew out of sociobiology movement of 1970 s and repackaged most of ideas Cognition Process of knowing that may include awareness reasoning recollection and judgment Problem Solving Process of devising a strategy to overcome an obstacle Some animals learn to problem solve by observing other animals New Caledonian Crows They experimented to see if a crow could use problem solving to get food out of a container by bending wires to get the bucket from the tube Different Levels of Ecology Organismal Population Community Ecosystem Landscape and Global Ecology Organismal Ecology Studies how an organism s structure physiology and behavior meet environmental challenges Population Ecology Studies factors the affect how many individual species live in an area Community Ecology Deals with the whole array of interacting species in a community At least two different species Ecosystem Ecology Emphasizes on energy flow and chemical cycling among various biotic and abiotic components Chemicals Landscape Ecology Deals with the arrays of ecosystem and howthey are arranged in a geographic region Global Ecology Studies the influence of energy and materials on organisms across the biosphere Exponential Growth Population increase under idealized conditions Characterizes some rebounding populations if a species stops hunting certain prey then the old prey s population increases Occurs when organisms colonize new environment Logistic Growth Exponential growth cannot be sustained for long in ANY population More realistic population model limits growth by having a CARRYING CAPACITYthe maximum population size a certain environment can support AN Per Capita Growth Rate N Populationt timeA Change in Per Capita Rate of Increase declines as carrying capacity is reached Human Population Growth Population Growth has increased but the Per Capita Rate is decreasing Herbivory Interaction Interaction which an herbivore consumes parts of plants or algae Leads to an evolution of plant mechanical amp chemical defense and adaptations by herbivores EX Ants Manatee Ecological Niche Sum of a species use of biotic amp abiotic resources in environment Many characteristics that describe how an organism makes its living What it eats Where it lives When its active amp no two organisms have same niche Symbiosis Relationship where two or more species live in direct amp intimate contact with each other Living Together Parasitism Interaction One organism parasite nourishes from another organism host which is harmed The parasite does not want to kill host they want to infect it so blood can be transported to another organism is parasite Mutualism Interaction Interspecific interaction that benefits both species Mutualism can be obligate or facultative Commensalism 0 Interaction One species benefits while the other is unaffected and little benefits Competition Interaction Biotic Interaction Fitness of one could be lowered by the presence of another Food Chain Link the trophic levels from producers to top carnivores Primary Producers 9Primary Consumers 9 Secondary Consumers Tertiary Consumers 9 Quaternary Consumers LB 144 Bio Exam 2 Key Terms Aneuploidy Results from fertilization of gametes which nondisjunction occurs Offspring have abnormal of particular chromosomes Polyploidy Condition which organism has more than two complete sets of chromosomes Common in plants Tetraploid Polyploidy where there are 4 sets of chromosomes 4n Triploid Polyploidy where there are 3 sets of chromosomes 3n SRY Sex Determining Region of the Y Chromosome Early in development the immature gonads of males and females are indistiguishable Turner Syndrome Monosomy X Produces X0 females who are sterile only known viable monosomy in humans Klinefelter Syndrome Result of an extra chromosome in a male produces an XXY individual Cri du Chat Syndrome 47XXY An SRY negative XXY mother and daughter SRY Negative XXX Diploid Zygote Fertilization brings haploid nuclei of sperm and eggs together and forms this Embryo Fertilization Acrosome Tip of the sperm releases hydrolystic enzymes that digest material surrounding the eggs Acrosomal Reaction Polyspermy Gamete contact andor fusion depolarizes egg cell membrane and blocks these Fertilization Envelope Fertilization in mammals is internal Cortical reaction modi es the zona pellucida Cortical Reaction Fusion of egg and sperm initiates this Induces rise in Calcium ions that stimulates granules to release contents outside egg Releasing causes formation of fertilization Cleavage Period of rapid cell division wo growth Fertilization followed by 7 Patterns of Cytokinesis Holoblastic Complete division of the egg Occurs in species whose eggs have little yolk sea urchins frogs Meroblastic Incomplete dicision of the egg Occurs in species with yolkrich eggs reptiles fish birds Blastulation A hollow ball creating a blastula Embryo has reached more than 128 cells Gastrulation Rearranges cells of a blastula into a 3 layered embryo which has a primitive gut Organogensesis Three layers interact and move to give rise to organs Determination Differentiation Differential Gene Expression Blastocoel Fluid lled cavity in the blastula Blastopore Becomes the anus Archenteron Newly formed cavity Endoderm Becomes gut lining Mesoderm Becomes muscle skeleton gondad kidneys amp circulatory system Ectoderm Becomes skin amp central nervous system Primitive Streak Neural Fold Plate amp Tube Regulatory Transcription Factors Protein that binds to an enhancer and controls transcription of specific genes At each step in development cell to cell signals activate these that direct expression of genes in cells throughout embryos Bicoid Shown to act as RTF within Drosophila embryos HOX Gene Homeotic genes Mutated genes in organism Allele Frequency Each diploid organism has TWO alleles for each gene P q 100 Hardy Weinberg Principle Describes a population that is not evolving Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium Frequency of alleles amp genotypes in population remain constant from generation to generation Genetic Drift Changes in allele frequency due to random events Bottlenecks amp Founder Effects Founder Effect Occurs when individuals become isolated from larger populations Bottleneck Effect Sudden reduction in population size due to environmental change If population remains small it may be affected by genetic drift Humans are main reason for Bottlenecking Natural Selection Acts on individuals and causes change in population Genetic Variation Different alleles must exist for a particular gene Originally comes from mutation and crossovers Random Effects Disasters amp Isolation 44 7111 39A within a 1 1 are variable Four 1 Variation is inheritable passed on from parent to offspring Every generation has more success at surviving amp producing offspring than others Survival amp Reproduction IS NOT RANDOM tied to variation in individuals Fitness Measure of an organism s ability to survive amp reproduce Absolute Fitness is the of offspring survive amp reproduce Relative Fitness is relative to other individuals Directional Selection Favors individuals at one end of the phenotypic range Disruptive Selection Favors individuals at both extremes of the phenotypic range m 39 quot39 39 S 39 quot Favors 39 I variants and acts against extreme phenotypes Gene Flow Sexual Selection Natural selection for mating success Can result in sexual dimorphism Adaption Increases an organism s fitness Peppered Moth During Industrial Revolution where dark moths adapted to the industrial age due to darkened trees Industrial Melanism With clean air dark moths became less common equal to pollution Dark formed moths decreased from 90 to 10 Sexual Dimorphism Results from sexual selection Marks difference between sexes in secondary sexual characteristics Good Genes Hypothesis Suggests that if traits are related to male health both male trait and female preference for trait should be selected for Microevolution Consists of adaptions that evolve within population con ned to one gene pool Macroevolution Evolutionary change above species level MRSA MethicillinResistant Staphylococcus Aureus Hospital amp Community acquired First identified in 1961 in England Use penicillin resistance for safety mecA Gene Encodes a methicillinresistant penicillinbinding protein that is not present in susceptible strains May come from genetic transfer with distantly related bacterium Evolution of Resistance mecA allele and MRSA Speciation Origin of new species is focal point of evolutionary theory Must explain how species originate amp evolution Prezygotic Barriers Postzygotic Barrier Isolation Morphological Species Concept Ecological Species Concept Phylogenetic Species Concept Allopatric Sympatric Sexual Sympatric Speciation Polyploid Sympatric Speciation Geological Clock Single Celled Life Oxygen Revolution Eukaryotes Endosymbiosis Colonization of Land Symmetry Body Cavities Acoelomate Pseudocoelomate Euoelomate Coelomate Phylogeny Phylogenetics Systematics Taxonomy Taxon Cladistics Molecular Phylogenetic Binomial Nomenclature Specific Epithet NodeBranch Polytomy Sister Taxa Clade Paraphyletic Polyphyletic Monophyletic Derived Character Ancestral Character Diploblast Trioblast Genetics and Unit 1 Vocab lVIitosis Division of the nucleus Phases are Prophase Prometaphase Metaphase Anaphase amp Telophase Meiosis Variation of cell division where gametes are produced Special type of division produces nonidentical daughter cells Yields nonidentical daughter cells that have only one set of chromosomes Prokaryote Single cell no nucleus single circular chromosomes Single DNA molecule Eukaryote Single or MultiCellular Nucleus one or more chromosomes Every species has a characteristic number of chromosomes in each cell Number of DNA molecules Daughter Cells Cell division results in genetically identical Most cell division results in daughter cells with identical genetic information DNA Somatic Cells Nonreproductive cells They have two sets of chromosomes Any cell other than a gamete Karyotype Ordered display of the pairs of chromosomes from a cell Gametes Reproductive cells sperm and eggs Have half as many chromosomes as somatic cells Chromosomes separated at the Centromere into two Chromatids during Anaphase Duplicated in S phase Somatic cells have 23 pairs of 7 Aster A radical array of short microtubules They extend from each chromosome Interphase Cell growth amp copying of chromosomes in preparation for cell division About 90 of Cell Cycle Cell cycle consists of Mitotic and this phase A I Prophase assembly of spindle microtubules begins in the C the 39 Ur aui in center The Centrosome replicates forming two Centrosomes that migrate to opposite ends of the cell as spindle microtubules grow out from them Prometaphase Spindle microtubules attach to kinetochores of chromosomes amp move the chromosomes Metaphase Chromosomes are all lined up at the metaphase plate Anaphase Sister chromatids separate amp move along the microtubules toward opposite ends of cell pulled by Kinetochore Microtubules are shortened by depolymerizing at their Kinetochore ends Telophase Nonkinetochore microtubules from opposite poles overlap and push against each other elongating the cell Genetically identical daughter nuclei form at opposite ends of the cell Cytokinesis The division of the cytoplasm Chromatid Separate during cell division Each duplicated chromosome has two sister G1 Phase First Gap S Phase Synthesis G2 Phase Second Gap NIitotic Spindle Apparatus of microtubules that controls chromosome movement during mitosis During prophase assembly of spindle microtubules begins in Centrosome Kinetochore Spindle microtubules attach to them in Prometaphase Centrosome Microtubule organizing center They replicate forming two Centrosomes that migrate to opposite ends of the cell as spindle microtubules grow out from them Centromere Narrow waist of the duplicated chromosome where two Chromatids most closely attached G0 Phase When no signal cell exists cellcycle switching into a nondividing state Binary Fission Prokaryotes reproduce by this type of cell division The chromosome replicates and two daughter chromosomes actively move apart Cancer Cells Do not respond normally to body s control mechanisms May not need growth factors to grow and divide Don t have any dependence inhibition Transformation Normal cell is converted to a cancerous cell by this process Cell Cycle Control Similar to clock Regulated by internal amp external controls Has speci c checkpoints Anchorage Dependence Most animal s cells have this Must be attached to a substratum to divide Density Dependence External signal Crowded cells stop dividing Cyclin A regulatory protein control cycle Cyclin CDK MPF Tumor Masses of abnormal cells within otherwise normal tissue Abnormal cells remain at original site and the lump is called a Benign 7 Types Benign amp Malignant Metastasis Secondary tumors Exporting cancer cells to other parts of the body Malignant Tumors invade surrounding tissue amp can metastasize where they may form secondary tumors CDK Cyclin Dependent Kinesis Amount of these uctuates in cell cycle MPF Maturation Promoting Factor CyclinCDK complex that triggers a cell s passage past G2 checkpoints into the M phase MPF increases as Cyclin concentration goes up Checkpoints Cell cycle stops until a goahead signal is received Gene Protein coding region of DNA Allele Version of a gene blue eye color brown eye color Locus Location on chromosome of particular gene Trait Any detectable version of a gene expression of an allele Haploid One of each pair of chromosomes called In Genetically different from parent cell amp each other Diploid Full set of chromosomes in a Eukaryotic organism called 2n Genetically identical to parent cell Zygote A fertilized egg Has one set of chromosomes from each parent Produces somatic cells by mitosis and develops into an adult Each has a unique genetic variation Meiosis I Homologous Pairs separated 2ngtgtln Two genetically distinct daughter cells Are haploids Two cells produced Proceeded by Interphase Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I Homologs The two chromosomes in each pair Meiosis 11 Sister chromatids are separated lngtgtln Very similar to Mitosis Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II Homunculus A diminutive human A miniature fully formed individual believed by adherents of the early biological theory of preformation to be present in the sperm cell Nondisjunction Occurs when homologous chromosomes fail to separate at Meiosis I or when Chromatids fail to separate at Meiosis II Genotype Set of genes your cells are carrying Phenotype Manifestation of environment and genes Inheritance Idea came from Mendel Heredity Transmission of traits from one generation to the next Hybrids Result ofthe crosses F1 is the first set of hybrids produced F2 is the result of breeding F1 x F1 Gregor Mendel Developed modern ideas about how genes are inherited Mendel s Model Heritable genes Two Alleles for each gene Segregation Both Parents Contribute to Genotype Dominance Heterozygous Two different Alleles Rr Are intermediates Are not truebreeding Homozygous Two identical Alleles RR or rr Genetic Variation Crossing over adds more variation Each zygote has a unique genetic identity Demonstrated by the differences in appearances that offspring show from parents and siblings Random fertilization adds to this type of variation Natural selection results in the accumulation of this variation favored by the environment Sexual reproduction contributes to the in a population which originates from mutations Mutation Changes in an organism s DNA and create a difference Original source of genetic diversity Sexual reproduction contributes to the genetic variation in a population which originates from


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