Marketing Research MKT 319
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Exam 1 Study Guide 50 Multiple choice questions Chapter 1 Marketing Research The systematic and objective identification collection analysis dissemination and use of information that is undertaken to improve decision making related to identifying and solving problems also known as opportunities in marketing Problem identification research Research undertaken to help identify problems that are not necessarily apparent orthat are likely to arise in the future ProblemSolving Research Research undertaken to help solve specific marketing problems Marketing research process A set of six steps that defines the tasks to be accomplished in conducting a marketing research study Problem definition Developing an approach to the problem Research design formulation Fieldwork Data preparation and analysis Report preparation and presentation WPPN Competitive intelligence The process of enhancing marketplace competitiveness through a greater understanding of a firm s competitors and the competitive environment Internal supplier client side Marketing research departments locating within a firm External supplier supplier side Outside marketing research companies hired to conduct a complete marketing research project or a component of it Full service suppliers Companies that offer the full range of marketing research activities Syndicated Services Companies that collect and sell common pools of data designed to serve the information needs of multiple clients Customized services Companies that tailor research procedures to best meet the needs of each client Internet services Companies that specialize in conducting research on the Internet Limited service suppliers Companies that specialize in one or a few steps of the marketing research process Field services Companies whose primary service offering is their expertise in collecting data for research projects Focus group and Qualitative services Services related to facilities recruitment and other services for focus groups and other forms of qualitative research such as oneonone depth interviews Technical and Analytical services Services related to design issues and computer analysis of quantitative data such as those obtained in large surveys Example question Customized services A specialize in one or a few phases ofthe marketing research project B are research studies conducted for different client firms but in a different way C collect and sell common pools of data designed to serve information needs shared by a number of clients Chapter 2 Problem definition A broad statement of the general problem and identification of the specific components of the marketing research problem Problemdefinition process The process of defining the managementdecision problem and the marketing research problem Secondary data Data collected for some purpose other than the problem at hand was not collected for the current research project Primary data Data originated by the researcher to address the research problem at hand Qualitative research An unstructured exploratory research methodology based on small samples intended to provide insight and understanding of the problem setting Management decision problem The problem confronting the decision maker It asks what the decision maker needs to do Marketing research problem The marketing research problem asks what information is needed and how it can best be obtained Research questions Refined statements of the specific components of the problem The Problem Audit A comprehensive examination of a marketing problem to understand its origin and nature Example question The is a broad statement ofthe general problem and identification of the specific components of the marketing research problem A problem audit B management problem C WE D none of the v 39 i v quot above Chapter 3 Research design A framework or blueprint for conducting the marketing research project that specifies the procedures necessary to obtain the information needed to structure andor solve the marketing research problem Exploratory research A type of research design that has as its primary objective the provision of insights into and comprehension of the problem situation confronting the researcher Conclusive research Research designed to assist the decision maker in determining evaluating and selecting the best course of action for a given situation Descriptive research A type of conclusive research that has as its major objective the description of something usually marketing characteristics or functions Ex to develop a profile of a target market Crosssectional design A type of research design involving the onetime collection of information from any given sample of population elements Cohort analysis the analysis of cohorts in regards to big data and business analytics o Cohort analysis is a subset of behavioral analytics that takes the data from a given eCommerce platform web application or online game and rather than looking at all users as one unit it breaks them into related groups for analysis These related groups or cohorts usually share common characteristics or experiences within a defined timespan Longitudinal design A type of research design involving a fixed sample of population elements that is measured repeatedly The sample remains the same overtime providing a series of pictures that when viewed together portray both the situation and the changes that are taking place Panel A panel consist of a sample of respondents generally households that have agreed to provide information at specified intervals over an extended period Marketing research proposal Contains the essence of the project and serves as a contract between the researcher and management Chapter 4 Primary data Data originated by the researcher for the specific purpose of addressing the research problem Secondary data Data collected for some purpose other than the problem at hand Database marketing The practice of using CRM customer relationship management databases to develop relationships and highly targeted marketing efforts with individuals and customer groups Data mining Technique involving the use of powerful computers and advanced statistical and other software to analyze large databases in order to discover hidden patterns in the data Syndicated services Information services offered by marketing research organizations that provide information from a common database to firms that subscribe to their services Chapter 5 Syndicated sources Companies that collect and sell common pools of data designed to serve information needs shared by a number of clients including competing firms in the same industry Psychographics Quantified psychological profiles of individuals Purchase panels A datagathering technique in which respondents record their purchases in Media panels A datagathering technique that involves samples of respondents whose television viewing behavior is automatically recorded by electronic devises supplementing the purchase information recorded in a diary Scanner data Data obtained by passing merchandise over a laser scanner that reads the UPC code from the packages Volume tracking data Scanner data that provide information on purchases by brand size price and flavor or formulation Scanner panels Scanner data collected from panel members who are issued an ID card that enables their purchases to be linked to their identities Chapter 6 Qualitative research vs quantitative research see Table 61 TABLE 61 Qualitative Versus Quantitative Research Qualitative Research Quantitative Research Objective To gmu it qual39 e understanding To quantify the data and generalize ofquot the underlying reasons and the results from the sample to the motivations population of interest Sample Small number of unmeprcsentative Large number of representative cases cases Data collection Unstructured Structured Data analysis Nonstattstical gl lisliw omenme Develop a richer understanding Recommend a nal cause of CUDn J 7 Focus groups An interview conducted by a trained moderator among a small group of respondents in an unstructured and natural manner Depth interviews An unstructured direct personal interview in which a single respondent is probed by a highly skilled interviewer to uncover underlying motivations beliefs attitudes and feelings on a topic Laddering Further probing to uncover underlying or hidden information Ex the laddering exercise in class Think Why is thatimpontant to you Projective technique An unstructured and indirect form of questioning that encourages respondents to project their underlying motivations beliefs attitudes orfeelings regarding the issues of concern Association techniques A type of projective technique in which the respondent is presented with a stimulus and asked to respond with the first thing that comes to mind Completion techniques A projective technique that requires the respondent to complete an incomplete stimulus situation ie sentence paragraph or story Story completion A projective technique in which respondents are provided with part of a story and required to give the conclusion in their own words Sentence completion A projective technique in which respondents are presented with a number of incomplete sentences and asked to complete them Cartoon tests Cartoon characters are shown in a specific situation related to the problem The respondents are asked to indicate the dialogue that one cartoon character might make in response to the comments of another character Chapter 7 Survey method A structured questionnaire given to a sample of a population and designed to elicit specific information from respondents Methods of collecting survey data Telephone Personal Mail Electronic internet Response rate The percentage of the total attempted interviews that are completed Social desirability The tendency of the respondents to give answers that might not be accurate but that might be desirable from a social standpoint Incentives Can be prepaid or promised Coupons money or some other incentive to participate that is included with the survey or questionnaire If promised only given to those who complete Observation The recording of behavioral patterns of people objects and events in a systematic manner to obtain information about the phenomenon of interest Observation methods Personal An observational research strategy in which human observers record the phenomenon being observed as it occurs Mechanical An observational research strategy in which mechanical devices rather than human observers record the phenomenon being observed Ethnographic The study of human behavior in its natural context that involves observation of behavior and setting along with depth interviews Lectures Introduction The role of marketing research Chapter 2 CASRO Code of Standards Responsibilities to respondents ll Responsibilities to clients lll Responsibilities in report to clients and the public Chapter 3 Cohort analysis from Wikipedia Age effect An aging effect is a change in variable values which occurs among all cohorts independently of time period as each cohort grows older Period effect A period effect is a change which occurs at a particular time affecting all age groups and cohorts uniformly Cohort effect A cohort effect is a change which characterizes populations born at a particular point in time but which is independent of the process of aging Chapter 4 Simmons OneView Chapter 6 Meansend chains It explores the connection between consumer and product through the construction of a simple associative network between concrete and abstract product attributes functional and psychosocial consequences linked with product use and finally consumers instrumental and terminal values Product attributes are but means through which consumers achieve their ultimate values ends via the positive consequences or benefits accruing from the attributes In other words goodsservices are seen as means to satisfy needs that are conscious to a varying degree Grand tour grand tour of the field ethnographic research researchers speak of taking a grand tour of the field an initial visit aimed at generating an overview For ex taking a look into a consumers home where the product was stored how and when it was used etc Metaphor elicitation ZMET is a technique that elicits both conscious and especially unconscious thoughts by exploring people39s nonliteral or metaphoric expressionsResearch study participants are usually asked to collect a set of pictures that represent their thoughts and feelings about the topic of interesthe goal of the ZMET interviews and analysis is to uncover the relevant fundamental structures that guide people s thinking about a topic These deep structures are unconscious basic orienting frames of human thought that affect how people process and react to information or a stimulus They manifest themselves in surface metaphors used in everyday language and conversation when grouped they point to the deeper frames or structures a person is using to understand a topic Laddering MKT 319 Exam 2 Study Guide Textbook CHAPTER 8 CAUSAL RESEARCH DESIGN EXPERIMENTATION Causality When the occurrence of X increases the probability of the occurrence of Y Conditions for causality At least three conditions must be satisfied in order to justify the interference of a causal relationship between two variables 1 Concomitant variation 2 Time order of occurrence of variables 3 Absence of other possible causal factors Concomitant Variation A condition for inferring causality that requires that a cause X and an effect Y occur together or vary together as predicted by the hypothesis under consideration Time order of occurrence of variables For one variable to hypothetically cause another it must precede or occur simultaneously with the effect it cannot occur afterwards Independent variables Variables that are manipulated by the researcher and whose effects are measured and compared Dependent variables Variables that measure the effect of the independent variables on the test units Extraneous variables All variables other than the independent variables that affect the response of the test units History HSpecific events that are external to the experiment but that occur at the same time as the experiment Maturation MA Changes that occur in the test units themselves with the passage of time Testing effects Caused by the experimentation process Typically these are the effects on the experiment of taking a measure on the dependent variable before and after the presentation of the treatment 0 Instrumentation I Changes in the measuring instrument in the observers or in the scores themselves 0 Statistical Regression SR Occurs when test units with extreme scores move closer to the average score during the course of the experiment 0 Selection bias SB Refers to the improper assignment of test units to treatment conditions 0 Mortality MO The loss of test units while the experiment is in progress Internal validity A measure of accuracy of an experiment It measures if the manipulation of the independent variables or treatments actually caused the effects on the dependent variables External validity A determination of whether the causeeffect relationships found in the experiment can be generalized Experimental designs 0 Preexperimental designs Designs that do not control for extraneous factors by randomization o Oneshot case study A preexperimental design in which a single group of test units is exposed to a treatment X and then a single measurement on the dependent variable is taken 0 Onegroup pretestposttest A preexperimental design in which a group of test units is measured twice once before and once afterthe treatment 0 True experimental designs Experimental designs distinguished by the fact that the researcher can randomly assign test units to experimental and control groups and also randomly assign treatments to experimental groups 0 Pretestposttest control group A true experimental design in which the experimental group is exposed to the treatment but the control group is not Pretest and posttest measures are taken on both groups Test units are randomly assigned 0 Posttestonly control group A true experimental design in which the experimental group is exposed to the treatment but the control group is not and no pretest measure is taken Posttest measures are taken on both groups Test units are randomly assigned 0 Quasiexperimental designs Designs that apply part of the procedures of true experimentation while lacking full experimental control 0 Time series Aquasiexperimental design that involves periodic measurements on the dependent variable for a group of test units Then the treatment is administered by the researcher or occurs naturally After the treatment periodic measurements are continued in order to determine the treatment effect Demand artifacts Responses given because the respondents attempt to guess the purpose of the experiment and respond accordingly Test market Carefully selected parts of the marketplace that are particularly suitable for test marketing CHAPTER 9 MEASUREMENT AND SCALING FUNDAMENTALS AND COMPARITIVE SCALING Measurement The assignment of numbers or other symbols to characteristics of objects according to certain prespecified rules Characteristics of the item are measured rather than the item directly Scaling The generation of a continuum upon which measured objects are located Scale characteristics 0 Description Refers to the unique labels or descriptors that are used to designate each value of the scale A scales possess description 0 Order The relative sizes or positions of the descriptors it is denoted by descriptors such as greater than less than and equal to 0 Distance The absolute differences between the scale descriptors are known and can be expressed in units 0 Origin A unique or fixed beginning or true zero point of a scale Primary scales of measurement The word primary means basic or fundamental There are four primary scales of measurement 0 Nominal A scale whose numbers serve only as labels or tags for identifying or classifying objects When used for identification there is a strict onetoone correspondence between the numbers and objects Ex Numbers assigned to football players on a team 0 Ordinal A ranking scale in which numbers are assigned to objects to indicate the relative extent to which some characteristic is possessed Thus it is possible to determine whether an object has more or less of a characteristic than some other object 0 Ex Asking respondents to rankorder various sports in terms of their preference 0 lnterval A scale in which the numbers are used to rank objects such that numerically equal distances on the scale represent equal distances in the characteristic being measured No xed zero point 0 Ex Attitude towards a certain sport on a scale from 17 not at all to like very much 0 Ratio This is the highest level of measurement It allows the researcher to identify or classify objects rankorder the objects and compare intervals or differences It also is meaningful to compute ratios of scale values Fixed zeroorigin point Ex Price YABLE 92 An Illustration of Primary Scales of Measurement Nnmlnal Ovd39mal Inlerval Ratio Scale Scale Stale Stale Jean Preiemnce Preference Ratings Pike in No Brand Rankings 14 n 17 Dalian 5 l Bug Buy 7 70 5 IS in 2 Calvin Klulll 1 25 1 n la 3 Diusel 3 x1 4 l4 4 Gltp a Llll r m s Guess l I In 7 7 a n munch 5 53 s 15 5 7 0 95 J N w B l a El 5 I5 v 9 old Navy 5 it in 9 m gl It l is 2 i u paired co 0 Paired com parison A comparative scaling technique in which a respondent is presented with two objects at a time and asked to select one object in the pair according to some criterion The data obtained are ordinal in nature 0 Rank order A comparative scaling technique in which respondents are presented with several objects simultaneously and asked to order or rank them according to some criterion 0 Constant Sum A comparative scaling technique in which respondents are required to allocate a constant sum of units such as points dollars chits stickers or chips among a set of stimulus objects with respect to some criterion CHAPTER 10 MEASUREMENT AND SCALING NONCOMPARITIVE SCALING TECHNIQUES Noncomparative scales One of two types of scaling techniques in which each stimulus object is scaled independently of the other objects of the stimulus test 0 Continuous rating scale A measurement scale in which respondents rate the objects by placing a mark at the appropriate position on a line that runs from one extreme of the criterion variable to the other 0 Likert scale A measurement scale with five response categories ranging from strongly disagreequot to strongly agreequot which requires the respondents to indicate a degree of agreement or disagreement with each of a series of statements related to the stimulus object 0 Semantic differential A 7point rating scale with end points associated with bipolar labels that have semantic meaning Noncomparative itemized rating scale decisions 0 Number of scale categories The larger the number of categories contained in a scale the finer the discrimination between the brandsobjects under study 0 Sensitivity The ability to detect subtle differences in the attitude or the characteristic being measured 0 Balanced vs unbalanced scales 0 Balanced Scale A scale with an equal number of favorable and unfavorable categories In an unbalanced scale they are unequal 0 Odd vs even number of categories 0 When an odd number of categories are used in a scale the midpoint typically represents a neutral category The scale should have an odd number of categories if the researcher has reason to believe that a portion of the resident population is actually neutral on a particular subject If the researcher wants to force a response or believes that no neutralindifferent response exists a rating scale with an even number of categories should be used 0 Forced vs unforced rating scales 0 In a forced rating scale the respondents are forced or required to express an opinion because a no opinionquot option is not provided Anunforced scale that includes a no opinionquot category can improve the accuracy of data in situations where a significant portion of the population holds no opinion 0 Verbal descriptions o The way a scale category is described Providing a verbal description for each category may not improve the accuracy or reliability of the data However an argument can be made for labeling all or many scale categories to reduce scale ambiguity mm 102 Summlry of ltemlxed RitingScaIe Damon Damian Factor Guldalmex mime m magma hilc mcrr 1m music mm minkx Mllmnnl gmhxm mm mv mm b Mimi m ml rim m u Nahum n unlmlmmi In mum um I mm M haliliwm m mquot anyJuan 11 1 n m v w the Inpumkmum qu number m culmnn Khrvnhl k 3 mm whm awed m Imz mm mm m nuth In mm uh mwndcnh m 1 lwnnmmy nrdmn may he mlmu nu nnnfnwul uh ahul Alm39tlpllun Au mymuwn b mad lrr labeling all at man w categories n mm amnpuxm mum in Im u n n m my mom mayqu in pasubln 11mm roan A muva nfupllnln EhultllI m mm mm m be um 0me Validity The extent to which differences in observed scale scores re ect true differences among objects on the characteristic being measured rather than systematic or random errors Reliability The extent to which a scale produces consistent results if repeated measurements are made on the characteristic CHAPTER 11 QUESTIONNAIRE AND FORM DESIGN Questionnaire A structured technique for data collection that consists of a series of questions written or verbal that a respondent answers Doublebarreled questionA single question that attempts to cover two issues Such quesionsc n 39 g r J 4 result in quot39 Inab39 39ty to answer 0 Respondent informedManywill still provide an inaccurate answer 0 Respondent rememberThe more personally relevant unusual or recent an event the more readily the event will be recalled Aided or unaided recall Responden able to a iculateProvide alternate descriptions or visual aidsverbal descriptions to help respondents articulate responses Unwillingness to answer 0 ort 0 Although most individuals are willing to participate in a survey this sense of cooperation might vanish ifthe questions require too much effort to answer Relieve this by offering a list for responders to merely check off options 0 Legitimate purpose 0 Responders object to questions that do not seem to serve a legitimate purpose Overcome by explaining why the data is needed and clearly explaining the context ofthe survey 0 Getting sensitive information methods to increase willingness to answer 39 rease the likelihood of obtaining sensitive information such topics should be placed at the end of a questionnaire When appropriate sensitive information should be obtained in the form of response categories buckets rather than asking for speci c gures Unstructured questions Openended questions that respondents answer in their own words Structured questions Questions that prespecify the set of response alternatives and the response format 0 Multiple choice In multiplechoice questions the researcher provides a choice of answers and respondents are asked to select one or more of the alternatives given 0 Dichotomous A structured question with only two response alternatives such as yes or no 0 Scales Sometimes multiplechoice questions can alternatively be framed as scales Branching questions Questions used to guide respondents or interviewers through a survey by directing them to different spots on the questionnaire depending on the answers given Pretesting The testing of a questionnaire on a small sample of respondents for the purpose of improving the questionnaire by identifying and eliminating potential problems before using it in the actual survey CHAPTER 12 SAMPLING DESIGN AND PROCEDURES Element Objects that possess the information the researcher seeks and about which the researcher will make inferences The object or person about which or from which the information is desired Population The total of all the elements that share some common set of characteristics This comprises the universe for the purpose of the marketing research problem Census A complete count of each element in a population Sample A subgroup of the elements of the population selected for participation in the study Target population The collection of elements or objects that possess the information the researcher seeks and about which the researcher will make inferences Sampling unit The basic unit containing the elements of the population to be sampled Sampling frame A representation of the elements of the target population It consists of a list or set of directions for identifying the target population Nonprobability sampling Sampling techniques that do not use chance selection procedures but that instead rely on the researcher s personal judgment andor convenience 0 Convenience A nonprobability sampling technique that attempts to obtain a sample of convenient elements The selection of sampling units is left primarily to the interviewer o Judgmental Aform of convenience sampling in which the population elements are purposively selected based on the judgment of the researcher 0 Quota A nonprobability sampling technique that is a twostage restricted judgmental sampling The first stage consists of developing control categories or quotas of population elements In the second stage sample elements are selected based on convenience orjudgment Snowball A nonprobability sampling technique in which an initial group of respondents is selected randomly Subsequent respondents are selected based on the referrals or information provided by the initial respondents This process may be carried out in waves by obtaining referrals from referrals Probability sampling A sampling procedure in which each element of the population has a fixed probabilistic chance of being selected for the sample Simple random sampling A probability sampling technique in which each element in the population has a known and equal probability of selection Every element is selected independently of every other element and the sample is drawn by a random procedure from a sampling frame Systematic sampling A probability sampling technique in which the sample is chosen by selecting a random starting point and then picking every nth element in succession from the sampling frame Stratified sampling A probability technique that uses a twostep process to partition the population into homogenous subpopulations or strata Elements are selected from each stratum by a random procedure Cluster sampling A twostep probability sampling technique First the target population is divided into mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive subpopulations called clusters Then a random sample of clusters is selected based on a probability sampling technique such as simple random sampling For each selected cluster either all the elements are included in the sample or a sample of elements is drawn probabilistically CHAPTER 13 SAMPLING FINAL AND INITIAL SAMPLESIZE DETERMINATION Parameter A summary description of a fixed characteristic or measure of the target population Statistic A summary description of a characteristic or measure of the sample that is used as an estimate of the population parameter Confidence interval The range into which the true population parameter will fall assuming a given level of confidence Confidence interval approach Confidence intervals around sample means or proportions are estimated using the standard error formula See worksheet from class Sample size determination Means given the formula be able to calculate the sample size 1 9 Specify the level of precision Maximum permissible difference D between the sample mean and the population mean Specify the level of confidence Ex 95 percent Determine the 2 value associated with the confidence level using appendix table Ex 95 percent CL has a 2 value of 196 Determine the standard deviation of the population 5 Determine the sample size using the formula for the standard error of the mean Sample size determination Proportions given the formula be able to calculate the sample size Specify the level of precision Specify the level of confidence Determine the 2 value associated with the confidence level Estimate the proportion population Tl39 Determine the sample size using the formula for the standard error of proportion U39PF N Response rate The number of completed interviews divided by the number of eligible respondents in the sample Weighting Weighting is used to adjust the results of a study to bring them more in line with what is known about a population Wikipedia Lecture Chapter 8 Cross tabs Crosstabulation analysis also known as contingency table analysis is most often used to analyze categorical nominal measurement scale data A crosstabulation is a two or more dimensional table that records the number frequency of respondents that have the specific characteristics described in the cells of the table Crosstabulation tables provide a wealth of information about the relationship between the variables Correlation vs causality Chapter 11 Randomized response method allows respondents to respond to sensitive issues such as criminal behavior or sexuality while maintaining confidentiality Chance decides unknown to the interviewer whether the question is to be answered truthfully or quotyesquot regardless of the truth In class example used colored beads Honesty detectors GMI has developed an online statistical approach to remove over reporters from your studies Based on GMl s pioneering research Honesty Detector analyzes panelists responses to a unique combination of high and low probability statements as well as a benchmark question to identify dishonest respondents Any respondent that is deemed dishonest is blocked from entering surveys and as a result clients can be confident that the data they are receiving is trustworthy Gamification The process of applying gamelike thinking to nongamelike activities to encourage increased participation
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