Introduction to Sociology
Introduction to Sociology SOC 100
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jan Torphy on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 100 at Michigan State University taught by Jerry Garcia in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see /class/207256/soc-100-michigan-state-university in Sociology at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
SOC 1001 Spring 2 0 1 1 Final Exam Study Guide The nal exam is scheduled for Monday May 2nd from 745am 945am in our regular classroom 158 Natural Resources Building The exam is worth 50 points 23 of your total grade There are 100 multiple choice questions You are only responsible for the information on this review sheet Chapter 1 I What is Sociology The systematic study of the relationship bn the individual amp society amp 0f the consequences of difference I What are theories and hypotheses and how are they related Theories are a set of statements that seek to explain problems actions or behavior Hypotheses are a testable statement about the relationship bn 2 or more variables They are both seeking an answer or a way to explain something I Compare and contrast the main theoretical approaches in sociology functionalism con ict interactionism and feminist their views on society level of analysis and examples of each The table on Three Sociological Perspectives will help you 1 Functionalist Perspective Each unit in society has a lnction amp is needed to maintain society 2 Con ict Perspective Whoever is holding biggest value in resources will struggle to maintain them amp those that don t have them struggle to get them 3 Interactionist Perspective Generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole I What is globalization and what are the effects Worldwide integration of gov39t policies cultures social movements 8L nancial markets through trade Chapter 2 I Be familiar with the scienti c method and each of the steps including key concepts in the research process 1 De ning the problem 2 Reviewing the Literature 3 Formulating the Hypothesis 4 Selecting research design collectinganalyzing data Chapter 3 I Be familiar with the various components of culture Compare and contrast material with nonmaterial culture the different types of norms and values and how they are enforced Material technological advances food architecture I NonmaterialReligionbeliefs I How does culture change over time Compare and contrast innovation with invention and discovery What is cultural diffusion Innovation The process of introducing a new idea obj ect to a culture through discoveryinvention InventionThe combination of existing cultural items into a form that didn39t exist before I DiscoveryPr0cess of making knownsharing existence of an aspect of reality Page 1 of 10 I Compare and contrast ethnocentrism with cultural relativism and xenocentrism Ethnocentrism tendency to assume one39s own culture is superior to all others Xenocentrism To devalue one39s own culture and prefer another39s I Cultural Relativism The viewing of people39s behavior from the perspective of their own culture Chapter 4 I Be familiar with the nature v nurture debate Be familiar with the research ndings that support both sides of the debate How do sociologists feel Both play meaningful part in who we are I What is socialization I The lifelong process through which ppl learn the attitudes values amp behaviors appropriate for members ofa particular culture I What is impression management I What are gender roles Chapter 5 I What is social interaction is what makes it distinct Social interaction The shared experiences through which people relate to one another I Through social construction we are always creating and being created The choices we make create patterns of behavior over time Our everyday interactions form the building block of society I Compare and contrast status with roles Understand the different kinds of statuses Be familiar with examples of each People hold a statusthe social positions we occupy relative to others and perform a roleA set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position status Ascribed Status A social position assigned to a person by society without regard for the person39s unique talents or characteristics Age sex race Achieved Status A social position that is within our power to change Employee friend student I Master Status Dominates others and thereby determines a person39s general position in society ie those with disabilities often seen as only disabled I Compare and contrast role strain role con ict role reversal and role exit Role con ict Occurs when incompatible expectations arise from 2 or more social statuses held by the same person Job vs School Role Strain When the same social status imposes con icting demands expectations militarythou shall not kill v must kill I Role Exit Process of disengagement from a role that is central to one39s selfidentity in order to establish a new role or identity From HS to College I Compare and contrast gesellschaft and gemeinschaft organic and mechanical solidarity Gemeinschaft A closeknit community often found in rural areas in which strong personal bonds unite members ie Amish Gesellschaft A community often urban that is large and impersonal with little commitment to the group or consensus on values ie NYC Chicago Mechanical solidarity Social cohesion based on shared experiences knowledge amp skills in which things function more or less the way they always have with minimal change traditionalprimitive societies social cohesion based on common culturemorality ppl w similar social rolesMore likely to nd I Organic solidarity A collective consciousness that rests on mutual interdependence characteristic of societies with a complex division of labor modernurban living social cohesion based on interdependence increased div of labor I Understand how technology and society have changed over time from preindustrial to post modern societies Page2 of 10 huntingandgathering society People rely on whatever foods 8L bers are readily available in order to survive Horticultural society ppl plant seeds 8L crops rather than merely subsist on available foods division of labor emergence of war opened door for slavery concentration on wealt Agrarian society Most technologically advanced form of preindustrial society Members are engaged primarily in the production of food but they increase their crop yields through technological innovations such as the plow Huge surplus of crops feudal Europe inheritance enables nobility social inequality becomes fundamental feature of life Industrial Society Depends on mechanization to produce its goods 8L services rise of lg cities complex division of labor universal education democratic reform Postindustrial society Economic system is engaged primarily in the processing amp control ofinfo h om manufacturing to service glnhalizatinnr I Postmodern society Technologically sophisticated pluralistic interconnected amp globalized stories images choices networks Chapter 6 I Be familiar with the Milgram experiment how it was conducted for what reasons and what were the results I People became obedient when they thought that the people who were telling them to shock other individuals were of higher authority They completely abandoned their morals in order to follow orders I Be familiar with the different theoretical perspectives on crime including Durkheim and anomie Durkheim39s theory there is nothing inherently deviant or criminal in any act it is how society responds to the act I Anomie theory of deviance merton39s theory of deviance as an adaptation of socially prescribed goals or of the means governing their attainment or both Lack of social integration increases the likelihood of deviance Chapter 7 I Compare and contrast family with kin I Kinship The state of being related to others It is different than the substantive de nition of family because it39s not totally determined by biological or marital tactics I Compare and contrast matriarchal patriarchal and egalitarian families Patriarchy A society in which men dominate in family decision making Matriarchy A society in which women dominate in family decision making I Egalitarian An authority pattern in which spouses are regarded as equals I What functions does the family ll Family ful lls societal needs reproduction socialization of children protection care of young 8L aged sexual control affection 8L companionship I Maintain social status I What are the current trends of divorce What factors might explain this Rates spiked in the 60s tapered off and current divorce rates have decreased 30 since the 80s This is due partly to the aging of the baby boomer population but it also indicated marital stability over recent ears I Greater social acceptance of divorce less restrictive divorce laws greater opportunities for women Page 3 of 10 I Be familiar with the most current data on gay marriage in the US What is the Defense of Marriage Act 41 states de ne marriage as bn a man 81 a woman and only 5 Washington DC Have legalized it Defense of Marriage Act De nes marriage bn a man 8L a woman for the purpose of federal laws States are not required to recognize marriages from another state I In 2009 40 felt that marriages bn same sex couples should be considered valid and 57 felt they should not be recognized How do gay and lesbian households compare to heterosexual households Gay 8L especially lesbian couples tend to be more exible 8L less genderstereotyped in their household roles than heterosexual couples Children from each household do not differ too greatly However those raised in a gay household are more likely to be stigmatized by others but are less likely to develop stereotypical gender roles amp are more openminded about sexual matters They are no more likely to be gay themselves I How are household responsibilities typically shared in US marriages What are the experiences of wives compared to husbands How does this relate to the second shift Do we nd differences along racial and or class lines The amount of a person earns establishes that person39s relative power win the marriage and greater marital power is also exercised by the partner w the highest educational 8L occupational level Women do far more work in the home than men who have about 11 more hours of leisure time per week than women Women almost take on a 2m1 shift working outside of the home then coming home and working I There is little difference across social class but African American men do more housework than white men and it varies with latino men Chapter 8 I What is the quothidden curriculumquot Standards of behavior that are deemed proper by society 81 are taught subtly in schools Prepares students to submit to authority I What is the correspondence principlequot Correspondence Principle The tendency of schools to promote the values expected of individuals in each social class amp to prepare students for the types of jobs typically held by members of their class I Understand the process of school funding How does it relate to educational inequality Schools in welloff areas have the funding to offer programstaxpayers amp facilities that poor districts cannot match This leads to unequal schooling and an unfair advantage in the richer areas I Whatis Federal Title IX How has it changed our school systems I Associated with equal opportunity for women It has eliminated sexsegregated classes and prevented sex discrimination for admission I Understand the different levels of religion from ecclesia through New Religious Movements Be familiar with examples of each Ecclesiae A religious organization that claims to include most or all members of a society amp is recognized as the national of cial religion I Denomination A large organized religion that is not of cially linked to the state or government I Sect A relatively small religious group that has broken away from some other religious organization to renew what it considers the original version of the faith I Cult New religious movement A small alternative faith community that represents either a new religion or a major innovation in an existing faith I Be familiar with the 5 major religions of the world and their prevalence ChristianityLargestmono Islam2nd Largestmono Judaismmono HinduismBirth in reincarnation xxx Page 4 of 10 BuddhismReach enlightenment through meditation I Compare and contrast the sociological perspectives on religion Give particular attention to Weber and Marx I Marx Religion is opiate to the masses Chapter 10 I Be familiar with the de nitions of social inequality and strati cation Social inequality Describes a condition in which members of society have different amounts of wealth prestige 8L power I Strati cation A structured ranking of entire groups of ppl that perpetuates unequal economic rewards amp power in a society I Compare and contrast the systems of strati cation slavery caste estate class Slavery A system of enforced servitude in which some ppl are owned by others as property Caste A hereditary rank usually religiously dictated that tends to be xed amp immobile Estate A system of strati cation under which peasants were required to work land leased to them by nobles in exchange for military protection 8L other services I Class A social ranking based primarily on economic position in which achieved characteristics can in uence social mobility I Understand the various types of social mobility Be familiar with examples of each Horizontal Mobility The movement of an individual from one social position to another of the same rank No change in income Vertical Mobility The movement of an individual from one social position to another of a different rank Change in income Intergenerational mobility Changes in the social position of children relative to their parents Dif Social class than parents I Intragenerational mobility Changes in social position win a person39s adult life Go to one social class based on own achievements I Understand the sociological perspectives on social class and the key concepts associated with each Marx Weber Bourdieu Marx believed class consciousness would lead to the overthrow of capitalism Weber Class doesn39t totally de ne a person39s position win the strati cation system I Bourdieu B c culture is hierarchically valued it39s a form of power I How do sociologists measure socioeconomic status A measure of class that is based on income education occupation 8L related variables I Why is the middle class shrinking I What is the feminization of poverty How do we see this play out in the US 2006 female householders accounted for 53 of the nations poor Chapter 1 1 I Compare and contrast the sociological perspectives on global inequality modernization dependency and world systems theory Understand the key concepts of each and be familiar with examples Modernization The farreaching process by which nations pass from traditional forms of social organization toward those characteristic of postindustrial revolution societies Assumes the present is superior to the past amp future will unite us Dependency Theory An approach contending that industrialized nations continue to exploit developing countries for their own gain I World Systems Analysis A view of the global economic system as one divided bn certain industrialized nations that control wealth 81 developing countries that are controlled and exploited I Review the distribution of wealth and poverty around the world Page 5 of 10 I What are human rights What is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights Be familiar with what human rights39 advocates support and condemn I Universal moral rights possessed by all people because they are human I Review your notes from LeighAnne39s lecture on sex traf cking in Eastern Europe How are girls lured in Why are they trapped Chapter 12 I Review the functionalist perspective on gender in the family Compare and contrast expressive and instrumental roles Instrumental Leader The person in the family who bears responsibility for the completion of tasks focuses on distant goals amp manages the external relationship bn one39s family 8L other social institutions Expressive Leader The person in the family who bears responsibility for the maintenance of harmony amp internal emotional affairs According to theory women39s interest in expressive goals frees men for instrumental tasks 8L vice versa Women become naturally anchored as wives mothers amp household managers men become anchored to the occupational world outside their home I How does the experience for men and women differ in the labor force Compare and contrast the glass ceiling and the glass escalator Women earn about 76 cents to every 1 that men earn even in the same occupations This gap increases with age occupational segregation Glass Ceiling An invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of a quali ed individual in a work environment bc of the individual39s gender race or ethnicity Glass escalator Hidden advantages for men over women I What is the experience of women on a global scale What is their relationship with the paid labor unpaid labor and property rights PaidWomen earn about 76 cents to every 1 that men earn even in the same occupations Unpaid Wives do avg of 28 hours of housework while husbands do 16 2nd shift PropertyWomen Global grow half of the world39s food but rarely own any land are 13 of the world39s paid labor force but are generally in the lowestpaying jobs feminization of poverty is a global phenomenon I What is heteronormativity How does it in uence our perspective on sexuality A term used to describe the cultural presupposition that heterosexuality is the appropriate standard for sexual identity 81 practice amp that alternative sexualities are deviant abnormal or wrong Chapter 13 I Be familiar with the racial ethnic composition of the United States today Largest group NonHispanic white 651 Largest minority and fastest growing pop in US Hispanics Surpassed Af Americans in 2000 2nd fastest growing Asian pop 80 of immigrants come form Asia I Review lecture notes on education disparities and life expectancy along racialethnic lines Educational Whited have highest rate of HS completion Asians have highest education level in the country Hispanics are least likely to complete HS Health Most likely to have life insurance White Least likely Hispanic White men live approx 6 yrs longer than black men White women live approx 5 yrs longer than Black women and 11amp12 yrs longer than black menshortest I What is a minority group Page 6 of 10 A subordinate group whose members even if they represent a numeric minority have signi cantly less control or power over their own lives than the members of a dominant or majority group have over theirs I What is racial formation A sociohistorical process in which racial categories are created inhibited transformed 8L destroyed I Compare and contrast the following concepts prejudice discrimination both individual and institutional ethnocentrism and pluralism Be familiar with examples of each Prejudice A negative attitude toward an entire category of ppl often an ethnic or racial minority Discrimination The denial of opportunities 8L equal rights to individuals 8L groups bc of prejudice or other arbitrary reasons Institutional discrimination the denial of opportunities to entire groups health care housing Ethnocentrism the tendency to believe that one39s racial or ethnic group is centrally important and that all other groups are measured in comparison to it Pluralism Mutual respect for one another39s cultures among the various groups in a society which allows minorities to express their own cultures wo experiencing prejudice I Compare and contrast the theoretical explanations for race relations What is the exploitation theory What is the contact hypothesis Be familiar with each of its components and which is most important Exploitation theory A belief that views racial subordination in the US as a manifestation of the class system inherent to capitalism Contact Hypothesis The theory that in cooperative circumstances interracial contact bn ppl of equal status will reduce prejudice 1 Equal Status win the situation Eliminates power imbalance 2 Common Goal 3 Intergroup Cooperation 4 Support of authorities laws amp or customs 5 Opportunity to become friends most important I Compare and contrast all seven patterns of intergroup relations Be familiar with examples of each Genocide The deliberate systematic killing of an entire ppl or nation Expulsion The systematic removal of a group of pp from society Amalgamation The process through which a majority group and a minority group combine to form a new group Assimilation The process through which a person forsakes hisher own cultural tradition to become part ofa dif Culture Segregation They physical separation of 2 groups of ppl in terms of residence workplace 8L social events often imposed on a minority group by a dominant group Apartheid A former policy of the South African Gov designed to maintain the separation of Blacks 8L other nonwhites from the dominant Whites Pluralism Mutual respect for one another39s cultures among the various groups in a society which allows minorities to express their own cultures wo experiencing prejudice I Review the history of African Americans and key legislations covered in your text SlaverygtEmancipationgtSharecroppingjim CrowgtGreat MigrationgtCivil Rights Movement I Who are the largest ethnic populations within the Asian American and Latino communities Asian 1 Chinese 2 Asian Indian 3Filipino Latino 1 Mexican I What constitutes a hate crime Be familiar with examples A criminal offense committed bc of the offender39s bias against an individual based on race religion ethnicity national origin or sexual orientation LeighAnne39s Lecture on Race and Media I What role does the media play in perpetuating stereotypes and ideology Page 7 of 10 Media representations construct identities of groups ppl places objects etc They make them believable and give us a false sense of reality I Be familiar with the representation of Blacks in the media as criminals and police of cers compared to their statistical reality Overrepresentation of Black men as criminals amp convicts Underrepresentation of Black men as doctorslawyers Underrepresentation of Whites as criminals Overrepresentation of Whites as doctors Lecture Notes on Arab Americans and PreKatiina Demographics I Compare and contrast the Arab Arab American Muslim and Christian populations Arab Americans 35 mil live in US Arabic language is single most unifying force most middleeasterners are Arab 95 of Arabs are Muslim and other 5 are Christian Muslims Most Muslims in world are NOT Arab 25 in the US are African American I Be familiar with the largest Arab American immigrant groups Where are they most heavily concentrated Largest 1 Lebanese 2 quptian 3 Syrian They are most heavily concentrated in 1 CA 2 FL 3 MI 4 N 5 NY with the largest pop in NYC The largest concentration of Arabs in the world outside of Middle East is in MI dearborn I What is Islamaphobia How has hate crimes toward Arab Americans changed since 2001 What recent changes ofwe seen in these crimes 1600 increase in antiMuslim hate crime incidents nearly 15 of all antiMuslim hate crime incidents since 2001 have occurred in the last 10 months I What is the Patriot Act How does it affect US citizens How does it affect immigrants Gives gov39t access to any records educational medical nancial sales library edt w out probable cause It prohibits anyone contacted for this info from disclosing that this info has been sought or obtained It allows searched 81 seizures wout prior notice or hearing if the individual is believed to be engaging in or planning quotdomestic terrorismquot Allows the detention of anyone suspected of terrorist connections for a reasonable amount of timequot permits inde nite incarceration of immigrants 81 other noncitizens w out probable cause Citizens In June 2002 all male nationals over the age of 15 from 25 countries were ordered to report to the US gov to register be ngerprinted photographed 8L questioned w exception of N Korea all targeted countries were Arab 8L Muslim Immigrants b Nov 2001 8L March 2002 over 8000 men bn ages 18 8L 33 who have entered US legally since 1999 have been investigated amp interviewed by the federal gov I Be familiar with preKatrina demographics of New Orleans reviewed in class 68 Black 28 White 36 of households were single adults 62 of children lived with a single parent Unemployment rate 7 Median family income 36465 38 children in poverty Black poverty at 35 White poverty at 11 Almost 12 of all households lived in poverty concentrated neighborhoods with poverty rates above 30 and median income of 20000 4 out of 5 children raised by a single parent 2 in 5 adults unemployed Home ownership rates in some of the poorest neighborhoods were as high as 60 1 in 5 residents did not own a car 8 didn39t have phone service Page 8 of 10 Highest incarceration rates in country I Review the discussion following Trouble the Waterquot on New Orleans postKatrina Dr Ten Eyck39s Lecture on New Orleans I How frequently does a hurricane hit the Gulf area How frequently does a hurricane hit New Orleans directly 4050 times a year New Orleans Brushedhit every 4 yrs or so I Compare and contrast the terms Cajun and Creole Cajuns linked to Acadiansfrom France 8L often to a simple way of life The meaning of Creole changed over time used to be if one parent was born here and the other born in Europe became way of talking about lower class whites then became a way of talking about anyone who is mixed blood now 2 notion of mixture and food w African in uencetalked about Upper class whites use it to refer to themselvesnot talked about I Be familiar with the religious composition of New Orleans 3 main religion39s 1 CatholicsFrench Spanish 2 Baptists mainly southern 3 Voodoo African religion that39s polytheistic what the slaves practiced now mainly tourist attraction commodity Abdullah AlRehb39s Lecture on Islam and Syria I How often are Muslim39s expected to pray In what direction do they face 5x a day in the direction of the Mecca I Compare and contrast wuduu and tayammum Wuduu The procedure of cleansing their bodies before prayer Tayammum Cleansing with dust dirt if there is no water available I In what ways are Iudaism Christianity and Islam similar to one another All believe in one God angels 81 demons Believe that human beings are highest creatures on Earth we are the children of Abraham I How does the treatment of women vary across the Middle East I Who is President Nasir What role does he play in the lives of the Zeitoun family I Where does the Syrian economy t in the World Systems model Lecture Notes on Zeitoun I How does the logo for Zeitoun39s painting company lead to his highreaching connections in the New Orleans communi I Why does Kathy convert to Islam I Be familiar with the circumstances of the arrest and detainment of Zeitoun Todd Nasser and Ronnie I What is the actual death toll direct and indirect from Hurricane Katrina Still unknown The state of cially recognizes 1464 victims and other estimates are approx 3500 I What is the Red Cell committee How does their report relate to the detainment of Zeitoun and his friends FEMA folded into Dept of Homeland Security following 911 2003 The Red Cell Committee including representatives from the Dept of Homeland Security the CIA the Marines corporate security rms amp Sandia Nat39l labs issued a 4 pg document to local authorities amp Nat39l guard units in the GulfArea speculating on possible terrorist exploitation of a high category hurricane I How has this experience in uenced Zeitoun and his family Metaphors Matter pdf on Angel Page 9 of 10
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