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Sex and Gender

by: Jan Torphy

Sex and Gender SOC 216

Jan Torphy
GPA 3.95

Jerry Garcia

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Jerry Garcia
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This 51 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jan Torphy on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 216 at Michigan State University taught by Jerry Garcia in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see /class/207257/soc-216-michigan-state-university in Sociology at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
Sociology 216 The Lenses of Gender o Andocentrism malecentered 0 Male is the neutral norm and universal 0 Women appear to be deviant o Gender Polarization everything is either male or female o Essentialism gender is a fixed trait that does not vary among individuals or over time o All women are nurturingall men are competitive IndividualLevel Theories o Role theory functionalist 0 Individuals are socialized into roles that fulfill societal needs 0 Many believed that complementary sex roles yin and yang 5 through the mid 20th century Those who did not live this way were labeled as deviant o Feminists and folks of color began questioning the system of role theory o Interactionist Theory 0 Gender differences are created socially and historically constructionists 0 We take displays and performance as evidence of underlying biology Clothing body language hairstyle 0 We start at such an early age that our performancesdisplays can feel instinctive and natural 0 Gender is not ascribed innate born with but is an status o Doing Gender 0 Gender is a performance Performances broadcast our gendered natures a Our biological Sex a Our status as either male or female Our sexuality need not coincide l lll People are held accountable for their performances n Sanctions can range from ridicule and ostracism to imprisonment and death a Transgender hate crimes o Angie Zapata used to be a man identified with women and hooked up with a man and was brutally beaten and killed when he found out o 2009 Transgendered people are protected under hate crime prevention Gender is omnirelevent n It is involved in every facet of our lives U l39l No way my boys are going to be like that o Responses to nonconformity o Nonconformity among girls was celebrated and often encouraged 0 Patents of sons expressed at least some negative responses balanced with positive to perceived gender nonconformity Some issued only negative responses o Domestic Skills nurturance and empathy 0 Accepted and often celebrated in sons 0 Mothers tended to be more certain of their acceptance than fathers less enthusiastic and more likely to include limitations o Icons of femininity 0 Negative responses were common for items and activities considered traditionally female pink tightsetc Baby doll v Barbie Gender crossing is balanced but only allowed within limits 0 Excessive emotionality and passivity was a concern for mothers and fathers ls r 5114 Props and Resources for Doing Gender Gendered bathrooms Organized Sports Assortative mating men are bigger stronger etc Doing gender reinforces the illusions that there are essential differences 0 This supports and reinforces broader structural and institutional level No Ways My Boys are going to be like that o Gender awareness begins by age 2 o Parents are not simply agents of gender socialization 0 They participate in the accomplishment of gender with and for their children o 42 semi structured interviews with parents of at least one child age 35 o Current activities toys clothes behaviors and gender awareness of the focal child ic ril to children s behavior regarding gender 0 Found that parents are far more relaxed about daughters and more strict with sonsand fathers were more concerned than mothers were 0 Parents of sons drew spontaneous connections between gender nonconformity and sexual orientation Parents of daughters did not make such connections 0 Feminine behavior might be an indicator of or shape the eventual sexual orientation of sons o Masculinity is defined by what it is not feminine homosexuality rather than what it is o Homophobia is central to the rejection of femininity Gender Structures o Structure the constraints built into social institutions and relationships 0 Rules expactations and norms differ along the lines of gender raceclass etc o Numbers matter 0 Tokenism the social relations that grow from belonging to a tiny minority Highly visible scrutinized treated as symbols of the population 0 Institutions major components of the social structure that help maintain the status quo Family education work religion and media Every institution is gendered Some scholars identify gender as an institution itself 0 The more power prestige and wealth are at stake the more pronounced gender becomes Gender inequality increases among the wealthy Top 26 companies have male CEOs Only 12 women in the top 500 n 26 women in the fortune 1000 Structuration o Structuration the relationship between human agency and structure 0 Gender is created and recreated 0 We can resist discard and alter these institutional practices and relationships The Girl Hunt o 243 firsthand narratives o heterosexual male college students Philadelphia s downtown nightlife o Hunting strategies in direct sexual marketplaces o Reinforce the myth of the pickup o Bolster self esteem and group identity 0 Performed collectively done in groups o Symbolizes a celebrated form of hegemonic masculinity 0 Competitive spirit emotional detachment insatiable heterosexual desire Barney Stinson o Is ritualistic and performative o Is collectively reinforced The myth of the pickup o 167 of men and 55 of women report engaging in sexual activity with a member of the opposite sex within 2 days of meeting them 0 90 of women aged 1844 find having sex with a stranger unappeaHng Preparing for the hunt 0 Presentation of masculinity clothes hair other cues o Collective rituals of confidence building Joking storytelling pregaming Pop culture builds in group cohesion and provides a script for the hunt Bro Bible Collective performance of Masculinity 0 Making rounds together as a pack 0 Each male is held accountable to himself and the group 0 Wingman Hegemonic masculinity is not only expressed by competitiveness but also through camaraderieloyalty The girl hunt reproduces structures of inequality within and across genders o Prestige varies among men 0 Unrealistic expectations can be defeating Sexual Attitudes Around the Globe o International polls find four categories of sexual attitudes o The United States falls into th most sexually conservative group High proportions believe sex outside of marriage teen sex and homosexual sex are always or almost always wrong 0 Americans have sex at the same age or earlier than Europeans Americans also have more sexual partners Higher rates of teen pregnancy abortion and STDs including HIV 0 Sexual satisfaction is higher for both men and women when gender equality is greater o Changing US attitudes 0 Americans are less sexually conservative today than 4050 years ago Playboy Oral Contraception o Sexual Politics 0 Compulsory heterosexuality 9 social institutions and popular culture assume heterosexuality Chapter 4Readings Sex and Sexuality 1242011 75100 PM Fantasy Island o Spend their time in resorts and barrios were where touristrelated prostitution is widespread o Naturalness of prostitiution in 3rd world countries reassures western male sex tourists of their racial for whites or cultural white or black superiority o Other men are fantasized as inferior moral beings o Sexualized Racism LBFMs little brown fucking machines o Exoticizing Racism blackness as a marker of cool or hot o The Other prostitute does it for pleasure as much as for money o Sex tourists believe gender attributes are determined by biological sexewhite women appear unsexed 0 Dirty raunchy sex is not done with white women o Western women view Other men as not selling sex but doing what comes naturally o Western women exoticize Other men to legitimate the relationship and obtain a sense of power 0 Puts the power in the women because she is superior o Racist v liberal white women Sexual Attitudes Around the Globe o International polls find four categories of sexual attitudes o The United States falls into the most sexually conservative group 0 High proportions believe sex outside of marriage teen sex and homosexual sex are always or almost always wrong o Americans have sex at the same age or earlier than Europeans 0 Americans also have more sexual partners 0 Higher rates of teen pregnancy abortion and STDs including HIV 0 Sexual satisfaction is higher for both men and women when gender equality is greater Changing US attitudes o Americans are less sexually conservative today than 4050 years ago 0 Playboy 0 Oral Contraception o Sexual Politics 0 Compulsory heterosexuality 9 social institutions and popular culture assume heterosexuality o The politics of sexuality was a central aspect of women s struggles for equality in the 1970 s Sexual liberation included a Access to birth control and safe legal abortions a Free sexuality including the right to pleasure n The right to say no to sex o Spousal rape was not a crime a The sexual option of lesbianism o Talking About Sex 0 Double standard in how we talk about sex and how much we talk about sex for men and women Men s sexuality is more visible and more active 0 Masturbation is expected and encouraged for men Shameful and unfeminine for women a Women s sexual agency and autonomy threatens the status quo o Racial Subtext 0 Black men and women have historically been portrayed as either sexually agrees and powerful Brute and Jezebel 0 Or as harmless desexed subordinates Uncle Tom and Aunt Jemima o No Southern White man was convicted of raping a black woman until well into the 20th century Children born to slave women were considered slaves About 14th of lynchings were prompted by rape accusations n Emmett Till was brutally murdered for talking to familiarly with a white woman 0 1967 Loving v Virginia US Supreme Court declared that interracial marriages must be considered legally valid in all states Prior to this ruling interracial marriages were prohibited in 16 states mostly southern states 0 Racialized images of Women s Sexuality Aunt Jemimah v Jezebels Madonnas v Whores Pocahontas v Squaw Dragon Ladies v Geishas What is your sexuality o Sexual identity orientation 9 how people Identify or classify themselves sexually 0 Sexual behavior does not necessarily correspond with sexual identity People who consider themselves heterosexual but engage in homosexual activity o Lesbian or Bisexual Chic 0 Culturally progressive o Biphobia 9 bisexuals are ostracized from both gay and straight communities o Claims of a gay gene are suspect Sexual Scripts o Sexual Scripts9 shared cultural instructions for normal sexual behaviors based on gender role expectations 0 Western Culture Sex means love and intimacy for women Orgasm and pleasure for men n Everything else becomes deviant Queer Theory o Queer 9 unifying label of all sexual minorities o Criticizes sexual norms and traditional categories of sexual orientation Sexuality is socially constructed and exists on a continuum Not boxes 0 Expectations of gender and sexuality create and maintain structures of power and inequality Homophobia o Homophobia 9 the hatred of gay men and lesbians O o Intimater connected to sexism The devaluation of femininity Failure to uphold hegemonic masculinity a No homo Fear of contagiousness catching it Heterosexism o Heterosexism 9 homophobia at the institutional level Results in heterosexual privilege c Any boy can become a fag o It is as much about failing at masculinity as it is about sexual identity o Boys police one another through fag talk and fag imitations o River High Observational research formal and informal interviews over a year and a half period Where was the neutral sites o Senior Government Classroom Where were the three fag sites o Gay Straight Alliance o 2 Drama Classes What were the two masculine sites o Auto Shop Weight Lifting Who was Mr J o The School security guard with a golf cart Joking cements relationships between boys and helps to manage anxiety and discomfort The boy who invokes or imitates the fag is NOT a fag o Fag becomes a hot potato 0 Few boys are ever permanently labeled Fag is racialized 0 cool pose of African American boys Both guys and girls agreed that fag was the worst name one guy could direct at another It is not just homophobia it is gendered homophobia 0 Girls did not use the word regularly and there was nothing comparable that girls called other girls o Gay v Fag o The Eminem Exception Sex for Sale o Sex work is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in the world 0 Men comprise the majority of consumers 0 Women are the majority of workers Pornography o US Sales 133 Billion a year 0 More than NBA NFL MLB profits combined o Global Sales 60 Billionyear o 12 of all websites are pornographic Gendered Porn o Heterosexual men are the primary target audience 0 Porn for heterosexual women and gayslesbian has increased READ 3 MAIN THEMES OF HETEROSEXUAL PORN o All women want sex from men o Women like all the sexual acts that men perform or demand c Any woman who does not at first realize her desire for sex can be easily persuaded with a little force 0 Force is rarely necessary because women are nymphos Censorship Debate Feminists 1 side porn is bad eliminate it porn is bad but it is free speech o porn is good it helps women Intersectionality all our things are intertwined None of the wave gave women of color their duequot Berdaches and hiijras illustrate the social construction of gender LBFM is any female other not seen as white or African PROSTITUTION o 672 of people arrested in the US for prostitution are women 0 Clients are almost exclusively men 16 of adult US men have paid for sex o Prostitution is illegal across the US except in Nye County Nevada 0 Tested for STDs weekly HIV monthly and must use condoms o Prostitution is legal in many other countries and often heavily regulated Prostitution Debate o Victims or Agents 0 Often times they are both 0 Violence marks the lives of the majority of prostitutes around the world 0 92 of prostitutes want to leave Sex Trafficking o About 4 million women and girls are trafficked every year 0 25 are forced to work in the sex industry many are trafficked for domestic work adoption purposes 0 712 billion dollars make sex trafficking the third most profitable illegal industry after drugs and arms smuggling o Most women and girls are from Thailand Bangladesh former Soviet Union and Brazil 0 Kidnapped or sold to brokers 0 Highest prices are paid for girls 1012 years old Virginless likely to have diseasesome cultures believe that having sex with a virgin cures AIDS 0 The most sexually conservative countries have disproportionately large numbers of forced prostitutes India Pakistan Iran o Sex trafficking operates on the same business model worldwide 0 Humiliation threats physical assaults drugs rape are all used to break down resistance 0 Police officers regularly visit the brothels and are serviced free o Sex trafficking is increasing and worsening O In former USSR caused by the fall of communism economic distress and widespread criminal gangs Globalization it is much easier to bring a shipment of girls Increase in AIDS customers prefer younger girls Less likely to be infected virgins believed to cure AIDS o Stigma drug dependence and threats from pimps often leads girls to return to the redlight district 0 Many prostitutes are neither acting freely nor enslaved m went back to the brothel after being saved 0 O l iuenil i was rescued and went on to get married and have children o Grassroots movements Prajwala o Founded by Sunitha Krishnan was gangraped by 8 men 3200 girlswomen rescued 340 years old 13 are HIV positive 2 small children died from AIDS 85 success rate 15 go back to prostitution Educational Inequality 1242011 75100 PM Educational Inequality o Educators rely on stereotypes about gender differences o Schools provide teaching materials that promote stereotypical views of girls and boys o Families and states favor the education of boys over girls o Standard beliefs are that students should train for appropriately gendered occupations o Hidden curriculum 9 standards of behavior deemed proper by society and that teachers subtly communicate to students 0 what boys are allowed to get away with o socialize students to submit to authority figures k12 classroom o children are automatically segregated by gender o Teachers respond to boys more frequently positive or negative 0 Boys get more of teacher s timeattention 0 Allow them longer to answermore likely to help them work through problems o Order of attention white boys 9 minority boys 9white girls 9 minority girls o Math and science classes show the most bias 0 Not consciously discriminating o Girls selfconfidence diminishes over time 0 Especially among Latinas and then white girls then black o Girls play often reflects nurturing usually quiet roles o Easily accommodated in the classroom o Behavioral expectations can be more challenging for boys 0 Warrior Narratives 9 playacting centered around fighting destroying and identify good guys and bad guys 0 Sometimes this behavior is diagnosed as ADHD o Medicating Boys diagnosis for ADHD increased 700 in 1990 s 0 90 of Ritalin prescriptions are written for Americans 0 boys are 3 to 10 times more likely to be identified with ADHD o 35 of school age children actually have ADHD but 810 are diagnosed Medicating Kids o 23 kids on behavior modifying medication per classroom o 4x more psychiatric medication than the rest of the world combined o 6million school children have been diagnosed with ADHD Teaching Materials o Men and boy characters are still more visible 0 Portrayed as more adventurous o Wider range of occupations o Rescuing Girls and women o Preponderance of male authors o Problems persist into higher education High School o 1960 high school dropout rates of 272 o 2005 9 o boys are more likely to drop out than girls 0 11 boys 8 girls o Hispanics have the highest dropout rates 0 Followed by African Americans African American Males in Urban areas rates gt50 0 Whites have highest rate of high school completion 0 Asian Americans have the highest rates of completion beyond high school Math amp Science o Girls now outnumber boys in college preparatory classes geometry algebra II Bio Chem 0 Girls are only slightly behind boys in Calculus and Physics o Women are catching up in college too 0 Only in engineering are women significantly underrepresented 20 women o Ideas about gender still identify these fields as masculine o Girls have lower selfconfidence than boys with similar scores and grades in math 0 Feelings about our competence may have a powerful effect on our future choices SameSex Classrooms o Supporters 0 Girls are more likely to participate 0 Higher levels of cooperation and achievement 0 Lower levels of gender stereotyping Similar results are found in coed classes that are smaller in size with better trained teachers o Opponents o Perpetuates and reproduces masculine dominance 0 Girls need special schools and boys will never change SAT Scores o 55 of SATs are taken by women o Average scores for men are higher but also greater in range 0 Scores nearly identical on reading 0 Girls are slightly higher on writing 0 Boys score significantly higher on math o Boys tend to do better on multiplechoice tests 0 Girls do better at short answers and essays o Girls take longer 0 When time constraints are removed girls do much better boys stay the same o The courses boys take in high school better prepare them for the SATs o SATs are meant to predict college successbut fail to do so 0 Women get better grades in college courses than men 0 Women are more likely to graduate than men Higher Education o The US has the highest proportion of women attending college in the world c 18005 Education diverted energy from the uterus o 1833 Oberlin college goes coed to enhance the education of men 0 provides men with well rounded education o Women have surpassed men in Bachelor s and Master s degrees 0 Men outnumber women in Doctorate s but this gap is shrinking 0 Men s graduation rates have remained constant as women s have risen Engineering and IT remain maledominated o Gender Gaps in enrollment and graduation are most pronounced in Historically Black Colleges 0 Women comprise 70 of student body Women outnumber men from poorer backgrounds Nontraditional students over 25 years old are more likely to be women Especially black and Native American women o Learning styles of women may fit better in college setting o Men are more eager to join the job market o Women take education more seriously What about the boys o Not all men are falling behind o Lower income men are rapidly dropping out 0 Especially African American and Hispanic Men African American boys drop out at nearly twice the rate of White boys with no measureable change since 1990 Global Illiteracy o Girls are less likely to be in school 0 23 of children not attending school are girls 0 Discrimination 0 Lack of water and sanitation boys can use bathroom outside and periods prevent them from going to school o Low education levels associated with 0 High fertility lower paying jobs greater poverty high mortality Correspondence Principle Correspondence Principle 9 what we learn in school and how is related to what is expected of us as adults 0 Hidden curriculum Follow the rules of the institution a Warrior narrative is not tolerated Accept the hierarchy of authority a Authority of the school system is gendered Working for external rewards n Focus on the paycheck 179 quot filEf ltl All lava L n39l 39 l o They call themselves girls and not womenbecause they are not fully adult and gals sounds old and matronly L r r ll They call themselves guys not boys or men Because they are not fully adult but older than boys Nearly all jokes have an aggressive content Sexual jokes tend to be a normal part of the erotic joking relationship between men and women 0 Used to negotiate the tension between sexual interest in the girls and the fear of commitment to them 0 Used to create bonds between men Much intimacy on college campuses is friendship To be a successful joke a cue must be sent to establish a frame This is a joke 0 The everyday rules of social order are suspended and the rule this is fun is imposed on the expression of hostility When the cue is ambiguous or rejected the aggressive content is revealed and generally responded to with anger Many forms of male bonding play are rule governed aggression 0 Sports games and jokes Sexist jokes transform women into Sexual objects 0 Enhance intimate relationships with men and withdrawal from women To ignore a joke shows strength and coolness 0 To react in anger is uncool because you ve lost control of your emotions o Aggression must be calculated and rulegoverned Yale 2010 No means Yes Yes means Anal 0 Chapter 6 Work 1242011 75100 PM Globalization o 128 developing nations across Africa Latin America and Asia 0 the least developed are located in the southern hemisphere and face extreme poverty lt1 a day 0 women are more likely to live in absolute poverty do a lot of unpaid labor c When work is globalized jobs are transferred to countries where labor is cheapest 0 Race to the bottom companies get rid of all regulations so companies will come This effects workers wages and rights around the world and within the US Assembly Workers Most global assembly workers are young migrant women either internal or transnational 19852000 more than half of the electronics production workforce was female 0 79 in Hong Kong Nearly all of the workers in Free Trade Zones are migrant women from other poor regions of the country 0 Maquiladoras in Mexico Women workers are preferred especially in Asia 0 Nimble fingers patient and meticulous Women s jobs are labeled as unskilled Young women are preferred 0 Youth are inexperienced don t know what is appropriate work conditions 0 Have modest expectations 0 In better physical health sharper eyesight and quicker reflexes Married and pregnant women are pressured to resign voluntarily or fired 0 Results in unsafe abortions Increase use of contract laborers 12 years at a time who are not considered direct employees of the companies for whom they work 0 Numerical flexibility labor loopholes o Young migrant women face a number of labor rights violations 0 Compulsory overtime without pay 0 Lower wages than men Women can afford to work for less Occupational segregation o Subcontractors pay the absolute minimum 0 Exposure to hazardous chemicals 0 Medical treatment is rare Cost prohibitive no sick leave transportation fear of being fireddeported Resistance o Electronics industry largely unorganized o Women who attempt to mobilize are frequently fired demoted assigned to night shifts or transferred to factories with worse conditions 0 Reports of physical assaults o Efforts of indirect resistance take place 0 Hunger strikes and slowdowns of production o Lawsuits o Advocacy groups legal advice housing Saipan o The commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands 1986 0 Former Spanish colony o Population 48317 o Selfgoverning with locally elected governor lieutenant governor and legislature Saipan Economy o Benefit substantially from financial assistance from the US o Tourism industry employs about 50 of the work force 0 Roughly 25 of GDP 0 Japanese tourists predominate o Agriculture sector cattle ranches and small fruit farms o Garment Industry is by far the most important industry 0 Quota exemptions and taxfree make it very attractive for industry 0 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GA39I39I39 placed quotas on textile exports to the US from 19742005 Immigration policies determined locally 50000 workers at its heightmostly Chinese amp Filipino Calvin Klein Tommy Hilfiger GAP Inc J Crew Ann Taylor Polo Ralph Lauren American Eagle Abercrombie amp Fitch o Since GA39I39I39 expired most factories have shut down and moved to China Vietnam Bangladesh Pakistan Cambodia where the minimum wage is cheaper than CNMI s 405hour 0 Today the garment industry employs 17500 workers Chinese 0 Many workers returned home but many stayed and are in saigpan O O PAID WORK o 1900 20 of women in US were in the labor force at some time in their life by the end of the 20th Century 0 women comprise 12 of the labor force o Hispanic Men are most likely to be employed 0 Hispanic women are least likely to be employed 0 Women in Northern Africa the middle east and west Asia are least likely to work Equal Pay o Witem men are significantly beter paid than men of other races and all women 0 Men in eac racial group make more money than the women of that group o Women and men are very close in median earnings from 1630 years old 0 Mens wages continue to climb until their 505 and women plateau o 1070 s women earn 59 on the dollar compared to men 0 today women earn 75 on the dollar Contributing Factors o Men s falling wages o Occupational segregation o Type and length of employment significantly increases the salary gap to 38 The glass ceiling o Artificial barriers that prevent advancement 0 Among high level employees 372155 are minorities 0 Among executives 66 are women26 are minorities The glass escalator o Men in women dominated professions are expected and encouraged to advance out of low paying jobslow prestige jobs 0 Openly gay men do not necessarily experience this Emotional Labor o Face to face or voice to voice contact between women and customers 0 Attentive caring instersted patient o This is womens work 0 Flight attendants wait staff medical car 0 14 of ments jobs require emotional labor while 12 of womens do 0 expectations for womens emotional work differ from mens Discrimination o 1963 equal pay act made it illegal to hirepromote workers differently based on gender 0 over explicit discrimination does occur 0 subtle discrimination is more common Human Capital o Women are not as commited to paid work 0 Women have similar levels o men invest more in themselves than women do 0 Women may have fewer opportunities o Men obtain more educationtraining 0 Even with similar levels of education women are paid less Social Structural Organization o Homosocial environment we gravitate to people most like ourselves 0 Men hire people like themselves 0 Power is concentrated in the inner circle and women are excluded o Occupational Segregation o 75 or more of a people in a field are one gender 0 most people work in a segregated field 0 9 out of 10 most popularjobs for women are dominated by women o Womens jobs are structured differently o Shorter ladders or no ladders at all o Womens jobs are usually less visible Politics o Men are more likely to be in positions of power 0 They make the rules 0 They allocate the resources 0 They determine the values of work Reducing the Gap o Comparable worth policy systematically evaluates jobs to base salary decisions on o Skill effort responsibility working conditions When work disappears o Paid work is closely related to masculinity around the world 0 Some men cope with unemployment by restructuring their idea of what it is to be a man 0 Other hypermasculine traits around the home to compensate for job loss Feminization of Poverty o Women of all races are more likely to be poor than the men in those categories 0 Folks of color are more likely to be poor than whites o Full time minimum wage employment is not enough to get a family of 2 or more out of poverty o 70 of the worlds poor are women and children Unpaid Work o Women do twice as much housework as men 0 351 vs 174 hours a week o Unemployed women do more housework than employed women o This is also true for men Employed women do more housework than unemployed men The value of unpaid work is around 138095 for stayathome moms 0 85876 for employed women Sociability work is also invisible 0 Volunteer work and organizing in the community Division of Labor Socialization how we were brought up to think cuz our parents did it Rational Choice it is what makes the most sense for our schedules Gender Inequality masculine things are done by men feminine things are done by women 1242011 75100 PM Family Marriage trends in the US Before Early 180s o Doctrine of coverture 9 marriage is a unity of husband and wife as one as the husband 0 A woman s life becomes that of her husbands life o Married Women 0 Could not own property 0 Handed over wages to husband o Typically marriage was for economic reasons 0 Expand farmlandwealth and social class o Religious doctrine had powerful influence on sexual behavior 0 In marriages can have sex only With spouse To have children In moderation o Mid 1700smore choices in terms of employment and also in marriage partner and when to marry o Influence of parents on child s marriage choices began to decrease 0 Young people tended to choose partner based on affection and mutual respect o Increasingly acceptable to have sex for pleasure in marriage 0 Medical experts influence sexual activity Not in excess otherwise it can be harmful 1830 s to 1920s o Union between two separate different but equal individuals 0 Separate spheres women s private and men s public o Married Women s property laws 0 First laws in Mississippi in 1839 0 1st case concerned whether a woman could own a slave as property women were granted property rights because they were white upper class o A Woman should 0 Provided love and care to husband care for him when sick labor faithfully and afford him her person sex whenever he wants o A woman s control over her body 19791993making marital rape illegal o A man should 0 Provide economic needs of his family 1920 s1960 s o Less Concern over meeting basic needs and fewer children 0 Can focus more on quality of their intimate lives o Marriage for 0 Self fulfillment romantic love sexual gratification Spouses are companions seeing to each others needs In a span of 20 years the average of children went from 4 to 3 o Reason to restrict sex were undermined 0 New medical advice and discussion for sex Important because it was from medical Freud 0 We need less restraint and more passion o Gender Differences in Love 0 Women Looking for romantic love AND have practical criteria Hochschild preferences exist due to women being more financially dependant and manage their feelings of love 0 Men Rely more on romantic criteria like physical attractiveness and love 1960 s Today o Marriage is a shared partnership with equal and overlapping responsibilities o Equal according to laws but not necessarily in practice 0 Employment child care and housework o Redefining marriage 0 Living arrangements live in different states cohabitation 0 Sexual Behavior 0 Who can marry o Sexual behaviors 0 Sex isn t restrained or only for having a child o More intimacy and emotional satisfaction 0 Nonmarital sex and extramarital sex is more common but not rampant 98 of women and 95 of men are not cheating over 90 of women and 75 of men have never cheated o Marriage is no longer necessary to have a child 0 Promises I Can KeepEdin amp Kefalas 0 Poor young girls having children before marriage 0 Young girls few acceptable men to marry or revere the idea of marriage Who canshould marry o Concerns issues of love o Marriage promotion policies 0 Low income people 0 Affects TANF Temporary Aid to Needy Families o Marriage is only for a man and a woman in a heterosexual partnership 0 An interesting case for transgendered people o Marriage is a contract less flexible and few choices o Lack of legal rights for gay men and lesbians 0 Issues with shared resources health and life insurance and making health decisions o 3 states recognize samesex marriages that have occurred somewhere else 5 states that homosexuals can get married 41 states that have laws that explicitly prohibit same sex marriages Parenting o Mother spend 11 hoursweek taking care of their children compared to 3 hours a week for fathers 0 African American fathers are much more likely to participate in child care than white fathers o 124 of all households are single women and their children 0 43 are single fathers with their children Motherhood Mystique o 1Women achieve their ultimate fulfillment by becoming mothers o 2 Mother must be involved in every aspect of their childrens lives o 3Mothers are the best providers for all emotional social and intellectual needs of their children o 4Mothers should provide a buffer for their children from the worst of the outside world o 5 Intense exclusive devotion of women to their children is good for children o Upper and middle class women have been constrained by the myth o African American women have been excluded from the myth o Caring for white children 0 Mothering is most likely to be shared with men and other mothers 0 The work of Latinas is viewed as a way of fulfilling their role as mothers Motherhood Penalty o Women s income declines 7 for each child 0 Some employers discriminate o Mothers may leave for more flexible jobs 0 Mothers may temporarily leave the labor force 0 Mothers are less productive on the job Mommy Wars o The motherhood mystique and social expectations that adults work often conflict o Welfare serves 5 of the US population 0 1 of federal budget 3 of state budgets 0 23 of recipients are children under 18 o the majority of adults are single moms o Welfare reform requires mothers to work 0 Poor mothers cannot be good mothers Fathering o Fathers who become the primary parent learn to be capable of caring for their children and begin to behave similar to mothers 0 Housework and emotional intimacy o Ideal vs Expressed norms o Fathers typically fall into one of 3 categories A stalled revolution a Goal is to be the primary breadwinner and invest themselves fully into their work and stuck in this idea The rebels a Are not going to let a child cramp their styles and put themselves first The involved fathers n Integrate their commitment to work and their families o More men are moving this direction Fatherhood responsibility o Two perspectives on masculinity and fatherhood o Similarities Children are the focus Fathers are essential to children s well being the family is the foundation of society 0 ProMarriage Group National Fatherhood Initiative Stress the importance of natural differences between fathers and mothers Fathers are needed to provide masculine models to children Emphasizes the need for heterosexual marriages in raising strong families 0 Fragile Families Group Partners for Fragile Families Emphasizes the similarities between men and women Fathers and mothers need to work as a team Economic opportunities especially for fathers are critical to improving long term relationships a Target young fathers 1625 yo a Help them to secure and retain employment n Encourage payment of child support Elder Care o Care Work 9 taking care of parents grandparents spouses extended family neighbors etc without pay 0 Care outside the immediate family is more common among African Americans and Native Americans o The need for elder care is increasing o Most elder care is provided by family members 0 65 of informal care is done exclusively by family and friends 0 30 is done by family and friends with some paid help 0 5 is done completely by paid help o Elder Caregivers commit an average of 20 hoursweek 0 Health andor personal crises leads to an increase in time o Nearly all caregiving done in households is done by women 0 75 of informal unpaid care 0 Asian Americans show no gender difference o 60 of those who care for older people are the wives caring for older disabled husbands c When spouse is not available 0 Adult daughters and then daughterinlaws and sisters Gendered Care Work o Women who participate in care work are more likely than men to report anxiety depression physical strain health problems and lower life satisfaction 0 Men s style of caregiving is more managerial 0 Men receive more recognition for their work 0 Men receive more help and are often financially better off Balancing Work and Family o Men and women both want egalitarian equal marriages c When this is not an option 0 Women prefer individual autonomy seperation over dependence on a husband 0 Men prefer the breadwinning role Gendered Economics of Divorce o 1950 s1980 s divorce rates rose significantly 0 divorce rates have fallen and leveled of since then 0 About half of all marriages end in divorce c 23 to 3 of divorces are initiated by wives o women and men are stigmatized differently for divorce 0 Men who cheat 0 Women with young children are viewed as bad stay together for the kids o Women face a 30 decline in income after divorce 0 Men see a 15 increase o Divorce laws are gender neutral but the labor market is not 0 Married couples tend to make decisions that diminish wives earning capacity and enhance the husbands o Alimony spousal support is supposed to equalize such inequities Only about 14 of women are awarded Black women are even less likely to receive it o Property is to be divided equally between spouses o Pension and education are not considered assets to be divided o Mothers are much more likely to retain custody of minor children 83 o Divided assets are split between the husband and the wife and children 0 Less than 23 of divorced mothers are awarded child support The mean amount 3600year amounts to less than half the cost for child care alone Challenges of Divorce for Men o Men experience anger toward their exwives and a desire to maintain relationships with children 0 Traditionalists really upset cannot get past their anger to have a relationship with their children and are no longer a meaningful part of their lives 0 Neotraditionalists feel the need to provide the strong masculine role for their fathers especially for young boys 0 Innovators put their feelings aside can separate the feelings for the exwives with their relationship with the children 0 Read the fathering article as well as the crap from the book Chapter 8 Violence 1242011 75100 PM Continuum of Violence o Eisler s Cultural Transformation Theory 0 Dominator model 9 hierarchy depends on threat and violence Most societies today fit this model 0 Partnership modele more egalitarian and less authoritarian STATS ON VIOLENCE o Every 90 seconds a person over 12 is sexually assaulted o 90 of victims are girls and women 0 99 of the perpetrators are men and boys 0 84 of men victimized by partner violence are victimized by women 0 99 of women victimized by partners are victimized by men o More than 5 million cases of domestic violence every year 0 More likely to occur in lowincome households Higher income people may just be better at hiding it Women are at greater risk than men across class 0 As education increases domestic violence decreases 0 Domestic violence and rape are primarily intraracial same race o Lesbians report less partner violence 11 than heterosexual 21 or gays 23 o Intimate partner violence against women is related to power over others 0 Violence is overwhelmingly committed by men Domestic Violence in the US o Young women ages 1624 are most vulnerable to domestic violence o In heterosexual relationships 95 of all victims are female and 95 of all perpetrators are male o 5070 of men who abuse women also abuse children 0 not uncommon to abuse animals as well Rape o Women of all races experience rape o 34 of Native Americans have reported being victims of rape so high because women are not protected well on reservations and high levels of alcohol amp unemployment 244 of mixed race 188 of Blacks 177 of Whites o 68 of AsianPacific Islander o 44 of rape victims are under age 18 o 80 are under age 30 Rape and Stalking o 59 of college women experience a completed or attempted rape in each calendar year c Only 37 of all rapes are reported to the police o Stalking is the most prevalent form of violence against women 0 1 in 12 women will be stalked Street Harassment o Fear and harassment limit women s participation in the public life 0 Many men don t realize women dislike this behavior 0 View it as entertaining sport and believe women enjoy the attention o Hollabackorg o UNITY Gendered Violence o Men s rate of victimization in public space are higher than those of women 0 Physical assault in a public space is usually be between two men Many boys are taught to take violence and to dish it out o Aggressiveness and the capacity for violence can affirm masculinity in their homes school and sports Aggression and threat become sexualized o Heterosixist and misogynist banter improve boys status among their peers O O O Rape Most sexual assaults and rapes of women are committed by their husbands or boyfriends 28 relatives 7 or friendsacquaintances 38 o The most likely victims of rape are young women and girls 0 Women of color and working class women are most vulnerable 0 Half of all rape victims are in the lowest third of income distribution o Men are estimated to be about 10 of all victims of rape underreported 0 510 of men report a history of childhood sexual abuse 0 Gang rape is more common in cases involving male victims 0 Weapons and serious physical injury is more likely to accompany maleonmale rape o Adolescent girls and college women are at greater risk of acquaintance or date rape o More likely to occur in fraternities 0 Associated with alcohol 0 Underreported Decline in Rape Statistics o The number of rapes in the US has fallen more than 85 since the 1970s 0 National Victimization data is drawn from urban areas and does not include suburbs small towns or rural areas 0 Laws policies and victim advocates may have contributed to significant decline Accounting for Rape o Darwinian Evolution book does not like 0 Men s sexual drive has evolved from their need to procreate 0 To reduce rape women should not entice men 0 Cannot explain variation in the incidence of rape Societies that are rapefree are less male dominated and more egalitarian o Individual Psychology 0 Men who rape are disturbed andor pathological May have a history of sexual abuse May have an emotional need to dominate and feel power over their victims Viewing rape as deviant misses the structured dimensions of O violence Fails to explain why sexual violence is gendered Data is based on convicted rapists o Gender Inequality book favors 0 Power differences between men and women leads to men s sexual entitlement and rape o What counts as rape or as unacceptable violence changes with our changing circumstances and consciousness Ending Rape o Breaking the silence and naming the experience of rape is the first step toward ending sexual violence o Making this a more public issue o Safety and self defense classes for women o Enlisting the support of men arguably the most critical part Discovering Domestic Violence o Domestic violence was invisible until the 1970 s o Feminists raised awareness on this social issue no longer a private problem but a societal one o Questioned the notion of family as a haven 0 Women s movement reduced women s dependence on men 1970 s most police were reluctant to arrest men for domestic battery 0 many judges refused to impose sentences A woman s claim of selfdefense only acceptable during an attack 0 Women who retaliated often faced long prison sentences Some early studies suggested that women and men were equally violent 0 Research ignored the context of violence Self defense severity Studies of Domestic Violence o 1980 s significant increase in legal support and social services for battered women 0 Police and courts came to view domestic violence as a crime rather than a personal trouble 0 O 0 Police attitudes about domestic violence influenced their response to the calls They were less likely to intervene in minority and low income households Even with mandatory arrest policies in place o Women around the world are not protected by the police or the justice system 0 Honor Killings 9 a family kills one of its own girls because she is believed to have behaved immodestly or has fallen in love with a man UNPF estimates 5000 honor killings year but the actual number is probably much higher a Often made to look accidental or like a suicide Almost all honor killings take place in the Muslim world From Univerality to Intersectionality c 19905 domestic violence redefined as a public problem 0 Violence Against Women Act 1994 Federal funding towards investigating and prosecuting domestic violence crimes Reauthorized several times most recently in 2005 Office on Violence Against Women o Reframed to recognize how race class and immigrant status intersect with gender 0 Unintended consequences for women of color Frequently arrested themselves May result in the removal of children Potential for deportation immigrant women Might be labeled a snitch or as contributing to the stereotyping of men of color State Violence Against Men o 2005 more than 2million people in the US prison system 0 22 of the world s prison population the highest in the world the rate of crimes in the US does not explain this discrepancy Funding for social programs and prisons are negatively correlated a As you cut education funding prison goes up and vise versa o And additional 5 million people on probation or parole o Disproportionately men and increasingly women of color Sexual Violence in Men s Prisons o 2033 of male inmates have been raped in prison 0 depends on looks age and size 0 can be brutal and extremely violent An example of doing gender where men are required to act like a woman as part of their degradation and subordination o Regularly ignored by prison staff Gendered Violence and War o Most war victims are invisible o Primarily women children and the elderly 2008 UN declared rape a weapon of war Eastern Congo 0 75 of all women have been raped up to 90 in some villages o 40 womenday 0 War Against Women video w Anderson Cooper 0 CEDAW Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women 0 Adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1979 0 Effective in many places to reduce violence against women 2001 Resolution 1325 gives women the right to participate in conflict resolution and peace building efforts The US has not signed either treaty Women for Women helps women get back on their feet after rape Health and Illness 1242011 75100 PM Exam 2 answers o Hispanics have the highest high school dropout rates o Men s and women s wages diverge at around the age of 30 o Gender inequality in the labor force is explained by Social Structural Explanations the book says Mothers are less productive on the job is primary reason women they experience a decline in pay All of the above in the fraternal bond and why college men drink is a result of these issues Chapter 9 Life Expectancy o Health and illness are not simply biological matters o Where a person is born has a powerful impact on life and death 0 35 years to 81 years depending on where you live 0 Cuba is an exception 77year old o Women live longer than men in most nations 0 US 79 for women men is 72 years c In poor countries men live slightly longer than women 0 HIV is spreading more rapidly among women 0 Women have little if any access to prenatallabor care 0 Malnutrition o In United States White women live 115 years longer than black males 0 5 years longer than Black females o White males live 6 years longer than Black males 0 Approximately the same expectancy as Black females Division of Labor o Mortality rates of men 0 Occupational hazards of maledominated jobs 0 Stress including racism 0 Discouraged from sharing feelings 0 Higher rates of alcoholism and drug abuse o Women s mortality rates 0 Health and safety hazards o Housewives have higher rates of anxiety depression and discontent Employed women enjoy better mental health Employed women have higher rates of men s diseases Poor women stretched thin Often victims of sexism and racism More likely to have chronic health problems especially women of color Developing Countries o Paid work reduces dependency and isolation 0 Long hours of work in poor conditions 0 Exposure to agricultural chemicals and toxic materials o Housework frequently involves heavy labor carrying water for miles Sexual and Reproductive Health o Women s sexual health often depends on the health of their partners o Lack of access to medical care increases health problems 0 Unequal access to preventative care in the US o Malnourishment increases the potential for highrisk pregnancy Men s Health o Men s mortality is linked to masculinity 0 Men are more likely to die of heart disease homicide suicide HIV drug and alcohol abuse o Masculinityrelated traits puts men in danger of heart disease 0 Competitiveness selfcontrol inexpressiveness impatience and achievement orientation Type A Behaviors Lack of a social support network Poor health maintenance 0 O 0 Gender and AIDS 19812005 25M died of AIDS 0 estimated 40M worldwide living with HIV or AIDS itself o AIDS population is skewed towards marginalized populations poorer 0 IN US 65 times greater among Blacks and 4 times greater among Hispanics than Whites o The poorest areas of the word have the highest infection and death rates 0 60 of new infections are women 0 Children at risk of acquiring the disease at birth o Marginalized populations are least likely to have access toor receive treatment HIV and AIDS o Women are twice as likely to contract HIV during heterosexual sex than as men anatomy reasons 0 Condoms are extraordinarily costeffective but distribution is limited 0 For every 1M spent on condoms saves 466M in AIDS related costs US is the largest donor of condoms to AIDS stricken countries 0 US emphasis on abstinenceonly programs o Marriage Increases the chance of women contracting AIDS from husbands o Husbands have sex with prostitutes and then have sex with wives PEPFAR o GW Bush presidential initiative to fight AIDS 2004 President s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief PEPFAR Largest effort ever by any nation to combat a single disease 2008 48B over 5 years to combat global HIVAIDS TB and malaria O 0 ABC solution o Many AIDS programs focus on individual behavior and education o ABC Abstain Be faithful use Condoms Abstinence ignores the prevalence of sex trafficking and the use of sexual violence against women Be faithful only works when both partners are faithful Most women are already faithful it is the men who need to change Condoms assumes women have a say in their sexual relationships many men refuse to wear condoms O O O o In order for ABC to succeed women s access to power and resources must increase 0 Property rights education paid labor o Risk is the result of structural violence 0 Forms of extreme suffering that are visited on the poor and powerless of the world The Global Gag Rule o Started by Nixon reinstated in 1983 by R Reagan o UNFPA is primary target Promotes family planning and counseling about abortions o Does not prohibit Abortion after rape Abortion when the mother s life is in danger 0 Post abortion care o Self gagging is the worst effect 0 They go above and beyond the rules to ensure they don t lose federal funding 0 Rescinded in 2009 by B Obama Women s Health Movements o Women s reproductive health is a human rights issue o Reproductive and sexual health are linked to housing education employment property rights and gender violence 0 If women start mattering in other realms they will matter in the bedroom KIM TA GENDER SEXUALITY amp DISABILITY Ideal Bodies Ideas about ideal bodies are socially and culturally constructed Having a young healthy body is the ideal A person should be in control of hisher body Ideal forms include not disabled fit healthy bodies Sight of oppression for a number of minority groups sexism racism ableism o Salient Characteristics 9 that which is prominentnoticeable a cane a wheelchair a missingprosthetic limb O O Unrealistic Standards o Cosmetics plastic surgery exercise 0 Factors preventing use or access money time travel ability or help from others o In general there is a lack of leisure time to spend working on meeting body ideals o A higher rate of unemployment about 24 among disabled people and poverty results in limited funds and often the result of discrimination A Representation of Disabled People o Britain s Missing Next Top Model 0 Shows Disabled women as sexual beautiful capable o Inappropriate comments ofjudges Lack of sensitivity of disabilities n her walk was awkward had a prosthetic leg 0 People question disabled women as able to fit ideal image of beauty 0 Upholds norms and ideals of beauty does it redefine them Feminism and Disability o Mainstream Feminism is problematic o Asserts women need to overcome stereotypes of being objects of sexual desire as sexual beings and as mothers o Disabled Women often aspire to be recognized as capable and fit for these roles 0 Their right to sexuality desirability and motherhood are often denied Disregard for Sexuality o Shaped by family members medical professionals and others teachers assisted living o Inhibit formation of a sexual identity and prevent reproduction o Historically segregation by sex in schools Hinders heterosexual relationships among disables but promotes homosexual activity o Lack of privacy 0 Exdirect care worker experience policies can only talk on the phone in the living room wants to have phone sex but is not able to Family members protect them more form sexual ideas Women with Disabilities o A woman s appearance is her key asset helps to indicate her success or failure as a woman 0 Women as sexual object is important o Judged not to be fit mothers 0 Many have experienced coerced abortions encouraged to have hysterectomies at a young age and in general pressured to not have children 0 Little information about reproduction or parenthood Experiences of Women with Disabilities o Female Forms by Carol Thomas 0 A qualitative study using personal narratives o Emphasizes how all our lives are shaped by social constructions of gender o Role of medical professionals is important 0 Devaluation verbally and sexually harassed by doctors and was asked sex questions but went there for pain 0 Motherhood one nurse was appalled a quadrapalegic got pregnant without Consulting someone Men with Disabilities Male Norms o Supposed to Dominate women physically 0 Lack of physical strength shorter in height missing a limb o Body should be a sign of being tough competitive and able o Competition is violent male sports are valued among men with disabilities wheel chair basketball and rugby 0 Male sports that are more violent allow for reproduction of masculine hegemony or the idea of the naturalness of gender difference o Experiences of men 0 Independence really hates asking for help even if he needs it it makes him feel like less of a man Maintaining Control directs people helping him and still feels like he is in control 0 Coping with Disabilities o Many disabled Men attempt to be viewed as nondisabled men o Some coping strategies 0 Reliance relying on ideals and whether he meets them or not he still relies on them a great deal 0 Reformulation redefining ideals for each gender based on new circumstances Rejection reject established ideals and develop one s own ideology about gender 0 Murderball o Paralympic rugby teams are all male 0 Shows a lot about reliance on masculine ideals 0 Most violent aggressive sport 0 Reason why women might not be on teams o Few women on other traditionally male sports teams in the Paralympics Sports and Media 1242011 75100 PM Mass Media o A society with high levels of inequality must develop ways to legitimate itself 0 Legitimation involves creating and transmitting ideology c We spend more time watching TV than any other besides sleep and work 0 Children spend 412 hours a day in front of the TV Gender on TV o TV is a primary source of images of gender 0 Hegemonic masculinity o Emphasized Femininity o Since the 1970 s through today 0 Symbolic annihilation If it isn t represented then it isn t real or it isn t important a Men are numerically over represented 21 o Most are in their 305 405 and 505 o Women are overrepresented in their 30 s o Women s value diminishes after this age 0 The roles women play are more diverse 0 Violence against women still prevalent o Lesbians and people with disabilities are nearly nonexistent Gender Stereotypes o In both TV and Film 0 Men are more likely to be shown at work 0 Few women are shown in the paid labor force o Working class white men are emasculated o Seen as lazy fat rude stupid their wives and children are smarter than them Gender in Advertising o Commercial media give us images of what real men and real women are supposed to be like o Portrayal of masculinity has shifted from the 19305 to today 0 Men are younger and more sexualized 0 Increased emphasis on body size and muscle development 0 2 stereotypes prevail Sturdy Oak 9 hardworking good providers Big Wheel socially and economically successful o Unilever Debate 0 Dove vs Axe o Old Spice The man your man could smell like Men and Beer o Beer commercials outline how men can accomplish masculinity 0 When at the end of a hard day real men work hard and play hard 0 Why Beer helps boys grow up 0 With Whom with other men o Also teach men how to relate to women 0 Men should be attractive but detached cool and confident Miller Light Man up commercials Gender in Advertising o Content analysis finds four consistent images 0 Powerful white men giving ordersexercising authority 0 White Women as Objects twice as likely as black women to be portrayed as sex objects Aggressive Black Men 3x more likely than any other group Inconsequential Black Women unimportant O 0 Films o 73 of top grossing films have a man or a boy as the main character 0 Average age of men 30540s 0 Average age of women 20530s o All older people are dramatically underrepresented G Movies o Men and boy characters are dominant disconnected and dangerous 0 75 of all characters are men and boys 0 Characters of color are significantly underrepresented Sexualization of Girls and Women o Sexualization occurs when 0 A person s value comes only from hisher sex appeal or behavior o A person is held to a standard that equates physical attractive with being sexy A person is sexually objectified Sexuality is inappropriately imposed upon a person Sexuality is prevalent on TV 0 Sexist comments 0 Insults to women s bodies 0 Music videos frequently display sexual imagery and objectify women Magazines targeting teens and preteens typically encourage girls to gain the attention of men by presenting themselves as sexually desirable Magazine ads frequently feature women as decorative sexual objects 0 Especially in magazines that target men Media Theory o Hegemony Theorists 0 Media legitimates the status quo 0 They provide us with images of gender inequality and it perpetuates that status quo o Reception Theorists 0 We are not passive receivers we choose to accept resist and interpret media messages Resisting media o Criticize characters images and values in the presentation o Transform images into something more consistent with our own values activities and interests Music Videos The hip hop movement is split over the antiwoman and antiblack messages that contradict the essence of hip hop which was initially a vehicle for social change Three stereotypical images in hip hop videos 0 Emphasis on black women s bodies 0 Black women are resented as onedimensional serve 1 purpose 0 Men are shown as sponsors and are calling the shots o Four signs of resistance 0 Women project a strong sense of black pride black is beautiful 0 Women assertively express themselves 0 Women collaborate and rely on each other 0 Women and men can have nonsexual relationships SPORTS The spectacle of sport o Athletics is increasingly both a mass media and commercial media spectacle o Sport is also a major aspect of gender and gender ideologies o A central site for the production of masculinity 0 Girls and women are largely excluded o The events that boys are most likely to watch on TV 0 Professional Football 0 Men s Professional basketball 0 Professional baseball 0 Professional Wrestling WWE 0 Men s college basketball 0 College football 0 Extreme sports o Recurrent gender themes from the most watched sports and the accompanying commercials White males are the voice of authority coaching quarterbacksetc Sports are a man s world Women are sexy props and prizes at the end of a racecheerleaders Aggression and violence win Violence is natural and manly Wreckless bravery is necessary to win and be a man Sports and Masculinity Becoming a man includes demonstrating physical competence All boys to some extent are judged by their ability or lack of it in competitive sports Reflecting on the role of sports in their childhood 0 O O O O Histor Initiat 0 Men report that sports seemed like something natural just what you did Fathers played a key role in bringing sons into the sports world 0 Conditional self worth boys learn that they must compete and win to be worthy of attention Black and poorer boys were brought into sports because of pressures often negative within the community Black and white middleclass boys practiced sports as one activity among many 0 Low income boys saw limited opportunities for themselves and sports offered immediate reward prestige respect White men are twice as likely to become a professional athlete as black men 4100000 White men 2100000 black men 31million for Hispanic men 0 The identification of manliness with sport appeared as a strong theme in the 19th century in the US and Britain 0 Sports took the place of the frontier in constructing American manhood Defined as unstoppable physical power and authority In the early years sports and sex were seen as opposite poles in men s lives 0 Men who did not persist in sports would lose control of their sexual desires and succumb to sexual exhaustion Sports keeps sexual desire active Today Athleticism and sexual prowess are both important features of masculinity 0 ion Rites and Football American Football resembles men s initiation rites in male dominated societies in other cultures Initiation rites mark the transition from boy to man 0 Manboy relationships 0 Conformity and control 0 Social isolation team is your life isolated from everything else 0 Deference to men s authorities not allowed to challenge directions 0 Pain surviving through pain proves masculinity Dangers of Masculinity o The physical destructiveness of sports can have longterm consequences 0 Among high school athletes football is the most common source of serious injury injury resulting in disability and direct fatality 0 Men and boys are much more likely to be hurt seriously while participating in sports than women and girls 85 if those injured in sports accidents with long term disability or death are men Time for a change o Boys involved in high school athletics are more likely to have stunted identity development 0 Celebrity status of top high school athletes prevents them from developing other aspects of themselves and growing up o Athletics and athletes are an important source of values 0 Excessive competitiveness o Disregard of human bodies 0 Win at all costs steroid use 0 Misogyny and homophobia Tiger Woods and Kobe Bryant Reconstructing Masculinity o Masculinity is socially constructed and changes 0 Varies from one culture to another Within any culture over time Over the course of any individual man s life Between and among different groups of men depending on raceethnicity and sexuality Sportswomen O O O o Women s athleticism represents a genuine quest by women for o Equality Title IX Sportswomen O 0 Control of their own bodies Selfdefinition Benefits of sports for girls 0 O O O O 0 More positive attitudes about school Higher academic achievement especially in the sciences Less likely to drop out of school Strong self esteem Lower rates of depression Greater leadership capacity 19th Century women could not be spectators at football games about 92 of all sports coverage is about men 0 0 All sports news leads with men s sports Media images of men athletes emphasize strength power and violence Images of sportswomen emphasize feminine beauty and grace or their thin small bodies 1971 prohibits discrimination in education including within athletic programs like scholarships and access to sports resources spending remains much greater for men s programs Controversy at what cost 0 Some universities have been forced to eliminate men s programs Revenue poured into football and basketball programs when 23 of these programs cost more than they generate not true at MSU because these sports make money 80 of colleges are out of compliance 1971 1 out of 27 girls were in HS sports 1994 1 in 3 1972 21000 women participated in college sports 0 O 2000 120000 women College teams now offer an average of 834 women s sports As women s sports have gained support and participants coaching and administration positions are increasingly held by men Barriers to Bringing women into sports


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