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Race and Ethnicity

by: Jan Torphy

Race and Ethnicity SOC 215

Jan Torphy
GPA 3.95

Clifford Broman

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Clifford Broman
Class Notes
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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jan Torphy on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 215 at Michigan State University taught by Clifford Broman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/207260/soc-215-michigan-state-university in Sociology at Michigan State University.

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Date Created: 09/19/15
February 15 2012 Soc 215 Professor Broman 39339 Red Summer 1919 gt Series of race riots in 3 dozen cities throughout the US I Book Sun Down Towns o 1880 s1930 s was the biggest racist period O During the summer and Autumn of 1919 gt Returning soldiers 39339 How it affects today gt All across America the grandparents had thriving businesses and farms I They were stripped of everything I They left with nothing only the clothes on their backs I They were left with no money I Since they are black they can t get a job Stereotypes the Myth of Black Inferiority 39339 Historical background gt From classical and medieval geographers amp Arab contacts ideas about black Africans were circulating in Europe long before the Atlantic slave trade began eg Othello I The idea of black inferiority was not really an issue until the mid to late 1700 s 0 This was indirect res onse to antislaver a itation amp ro a anda O Antislavery movement began in Europe Why gt They don t need slaves I They don t have plantations 39339 The defense of slavery came primarily from the West Indies amp the US South why gt If you attack a big company they use propaganda to defend themselves I Global warming 0 Companies did not want to change they wanted to make money O They paid scientist to do the research studies on global warming to show that it was real and this was a big deal February 27 2012 Soc 215 Professor Broman Lecture 9 Asian 8 Pacific Islander Americans ChineseAmericans 3 First Chinese came to California in 1847 initially welcomed but by 1882 anti Chinese agitation had become so fierce congress was thinking of excluding them Why 39339 Chinese came to escape turmoil in China and where no strangers to hard work 39339 AntiChinese movement gained strength among working classes of California and spread throughout country Why gt 1876 popular sentiment against Chinese forced both Democrats amp Republicans to include antiChinese planks in party platform gt In 1879 Californians voted 154638 to 883 in favor of exclusion measure to keep Chinese s and out of US gt 1882Chinese excluded from America followed by laws in 1888 1902 1904 until 1924 when 105 persons per year could enter US Images of the Chinese 39339 Chinese thought of as quotHeathen Chinee gt Examples 0 o I Poems songs told of Chinese barbarism uncleanliness opium smoking etc I Violence against Chinese was widespread in California in latter 1800 s I 1854exculed from testifying against Whites I 1927US Supreme court held that Chinese s had to attend colored segregated schools Rice vs Gon Lum in Mississippi Japanese Americans 39339 Japanese faced similar discrimination as the Chinese Between 18651924 275000 Japanese entered Western part of US opposed to 30 million European immigrants 39 By 1940 135000Japanese Americans counted on census AntiJapanese feeling had different roots Japanese were too successful things this frightened whites Jack London Columnist for New York American in June 1905 expressed dismay at seeing whites held prisoner in a Japanese POW camp 1913 California passed alien land act to restrict Japanese from owing land 0 0 0 0 0 00 o 00 o 00 Soc 215 January 11 2012 Professor Broman Fbigov Lecture 1 Introduction to racialethnic in equality Social arrangements which confer privileges upon one group the expense of another Privileged group is ma39oritydominant group Other group is Minority or subordinate these groups get few privileges Basic Terms Power refers to ability of one group or person to have any way they choose even in the face of resistance Minority A group whose members suffer oppression and various disabilities the hands of another group not necessary a numerical minority Maiority The dominant groupthey come up with ways to Racism A group ideology used to justify racially organized social order Discrimination behaviors and actions which arbitrarily deny power privileges and status to members of a group whose qualifications are equal to those of the dominant group has not changed much over the years VS prejudice Ethnicity similarity of cultural traits and behavior Preiudice ideology an attitude of a version of hostility toward members of a group a lot less today in the US then there use to be Characteristics of a Minority Generally have physical or cultural features that distinguish them from the dominant group Not necessarily a numerical minorityeg women blacks in South Africa Ascribed membership born into group generally Characteristic in a Majority 0 They generally go to great lengths to distinguish themselves from the minority 0 They generally attempt to justify their superiority on grounds other than the superior power Attitude vs behavior Prejudice vs Discrimination Other words Prejudice is the attitude you give others amp Behavior is a way you can discriminate against others Biological Definition Race A genetically isolated group characterized by a high degree of in breeding that leads to distinctive gene frequencies This is indicated by the presence of hereditary physical characteristics that differentiate group members 0 Does not exist because of race mixture Social Definition Race only the social significance of race is of importance 0 Society defines a race when it perceives that certain physical characteristics are of importance 0 Eg Chinese and manchus black amp white Skin color Walter White Professor39s favorite singer is Mariah Carey 0 Institutional racism amp sexism those social arrangements and enduring patterns by which people of one racial or sexual group oppress and exploit the members of another racial or sex group 0 Behaviors amp normal ways of operating in our businesses universities and in society as a whole which result in disadvantages for a particular group Institutional discrimination worse today Michigan is the most segregated state in the US Soc 215 January 18 2012 Professor Broman Patterns of RaceEthnic Relations Simpson amp Yinger identified 6 patters of race relations They are from one extreme to another Exterminationgenocide this is an attempt by the dominant group to remove entirely the minority His is an extreme pattern which is actually dysfunctional in many cases for the dominant group o All 6 patterns are used in the US 0 Every pattern is generally used where there is white people 0 Native Americans were tried to be exterminated When processes of oppression get out of hand this solution is attempted 0 Generally dysfunctional because the dominant group loses its source of scape goating and cheap labor This is why this pattern generally only occurs 1 During an early period of intergroup contact 2 When there are other subordinate groups available when there is another group that will do the labor for cheap 3 When the group to be exterminated can serve no social or economic purpose forthe majority Examples 0 South Africa Boer extermination of Hottentots o US White Americansattempted to wipe out Native Americans Above the minority sened no purpose forthe dominant group and exterminations was the best way of obtaining majority group goals eg getting the land The Native American example also the case where another group available which did serve a purpose 0 Black slaves A dysfunctional pattern Germans amp Jews 19331945 Nazi Extermination attempts was actually dysfunctional o 1865 Slavery ended not really though 0 White people have a thing for gold 0 They wanted the land for framing 0 American natives wanted it for hunting 0 Americans killed the natives 2 Continued Subjugation the majority is intent on maintaining its privilege over the subordinate group forever gt The minority is generally treated in either a paternalistic way or despised 0 Example Extermination is avoided never considered because the minority fulfills valuable economic and social functions for the majority 0 Share cropping went into the 1960 s gt Examples South Africa amp the Blacks economic 0 19th amp20th century VS whites economic slaves were cheap labor And social socialpoor white up eriority over blacks kept them from protesting their own conditions 0 O 3 Population transfer the minority group is not liked and the majorwould simply like to remove them 0 Killing is abundant or expensive or time consuming or not longer necessary 0 Example the Trial of tears when whites forcibly removed Natives from Southeast to Indian Territory Oklahoma in the 1830s 00 4 Legal practions of Minaority the majority will make laws to protect the minorities from the hostile sedmints amp action of a segment ofthe majority population gt Examples 0 US upper class lawmakers make laws to protect minorities from the employment amp housing discrimination from middleworking class whites 9 Great Britain 1965 race relations ACT 00 5 Pluralism The dominant group is willing or permit or encouraging cultural variations within the border confines of nationalunity V This is done when this is useful to promote stability and is not incompatible with the role that the minority has in the society Cheap labor force for who you wanted 00 6 Labor in the society the minority was to be subjugated and told that labor is their place gt Capitalintensive technological society the minority can play any role in society since certain groups are not needed to do disliked jobs 7 Assimilation this is the other extreme A minority group is completely eliminated through inter breeding Two types 0 Genetic distinctive genes amp biological traits lost through sexual interbreeding 0 Cultural distinctive cultural elements lost when minority groups abandons its cultural traits amp adopts those of the dominant group 00 The people from Europe that come to South America racially mixed folks Caribbean s came from Spain gt The people in the US came from England 00 2 key points to make about the above patterns of racialethnic relations gt People do reify their ideas and institution That is they come to believe that his idea or situation believe that his idea or situation is God given or truth bc it has been that way for awhile gt Socioeconomic conditions in and of a society play a major role in the pattern of racialethnic relations used Lecture 3 Racism in Global perspective Crops Cattle Germs amp Racism 4 Early form of racism was based on Religion A When Europeans left Europe and set out to conquer the world they brought many things with them a Seeds cattle germs amp racism b They brought pigs and horses to North America Rabbits to Australia germs everywhere and the early form of modern racism i They need to bring stuff to survive Lecture Notes Ja n ua ry 1 1 h Introduction to Racial Ethnic Inequality Racial Problems 0 Yes they do still exist 0 FBI Hate Crime Statistics Website V Hatecrimes are mostly caused by race 48 are over a person s race Highest of all 14 are over ethnicity V 4000 victims of race hate crimes 20 antiblack 17 antiwhite 5 antiAsian Pacific Lecture 1 Introduction to RacialEthnic lnegualiy o What is racialethnic inequality V RacialEthnic Inequality social arrangements which confer privileges upon one group at the expense of another The privileged group is the majoritydominant group The other group is the minoritysubordinate group 0 Basic Terms V Power ability of one group or person to behave any way they choose even in the face of resistance ability to control the behavior of others even in the absence of their consent The majority has the power and uses it to get more privileges V Minority a group whose members suffer oppression and various disabilities at the hands of another group Characteristics of a Minority Generally have physical or cultural features that distinguish them from the dominant group If there aren t characteristics already the dominant group will find a way to make them distinct in some way O Nazi Germans forced Jews to wear stars to differentiate them Not necessarily the numerical minority Women are numerically a majority but are socially a minority White people in South Africa were a numerical minority but were the social majority that held all of the power Generally people hold an ascribed membership into their race They re born into the majorityminority group O Otherwise people could and would get out of the minority group Majority the dominant group Key Characteristic they generally go to great measures to distinguish themselves from the minority Any characteristic that can be used is Another characteristic is that they try to justify their superiority on grounds other than power They don t want to rely simply on military power because that can be overthrown So they find ways to make the minority feel and believe they re inferior Prejudice ideology attitude of aversion or hostility toward members of a group Ideology system of beliefs Prejudice has declined over time in US Racism a M ideology used to justify racial organization in social order Sociologically speaking an individual cannot be racist Discrimination behaviors and actions which arbitrarily deny power privileges and status to members of a group whose qualifications are equal to those of the dominant group Has not changed over time in the US Race Race Biological a genetically isolated group characterized by a high degree of inbreeding that leads to distinctive gene frequencies This is indicated by the presence of hereditary physical characteristics that differentiate group members Does not exist due to race mixing ALL societies have race mixing Makes this definition totally meaningless to the contemporary world Race Sociological society defines a race when it perceives that certain physical characteristics are of importance Society defines this characteristic any way it wants to Skin color being black or white defines race in the US In China there are 2 races the Chinese and the Manchu Europeans visiting could not find physical differences between them but the people of China could pick out certain characteristics Ethnicity similar cultural traits and behaviors define the group Not physical characteristics like race but cultural traits instead Institutional Racism and Sexism those social arrangements and enduring patterns by which people of one racial or sexual group oppress and exploit the members of another racialsexual group Institutions haven t changed even though attitudes have changed Behaviors and normal ways of operating in our businesses universities and in society as a whole which result in disadvantages for a particular group They change but they don t want to Because it s built into the system we re not necessarily conscious of it Soc 215 February 13 2012 Professor Broman 0 Diamonds are from South Africa and we should not accept them or buy them if we want to see change within our world because people are killed over diamonds in South Africa and are slaved out there Lecture 6 AfricanAmerican 8 the structure of Race in the US Slavery 39339 AfricanAmerican history begins with the study of African Slavery amp slavery in the world gt African slavery existed as did slavery in most of the world amp was a well established institution gt Generally they were captives from wars the losers became slaves I Roman empires had slaves 39339 Slaves in Africa had many rights among them were gt Marry gt Own property gt Rest time gt Even had their own slaves 0 Most of the world traded in slavery o o v Because of the tradition of slavery the Africans did not resist when Europeans wanted to buy slaves from them They themselves bought and sold slaves I Portuguese were first Europeans to engage in slavery trade they traded slaves along with gold ivory and pepper West Africans wanted European goods amp North African Salt I Birth of new America world led to slavery as we know it Slaves labor were very valuable I Americas 1st enslaved Native Americans but they died and they also knew the terrain so they were able to get away easily After that they began importing blacks I Birth of Black slavery first blacks brought to US were probably indentured servants o 00 I Many whites were indentured servants that is people who promised to work a certain numbers of years for another in exchange usually for passage to America 0 Many whites were slaves they left Europe in the 15 1600 s poor whites had it really bad in Europe if they did not have money then their families would starve to death 0 Could work as a slave for 6 years amp then be free In latter 17th century two interrelated developments started The degradation of blacks to inferiors in society Emergence of system of slavery Developed into system of Black Slavery In 1660 a code of slavery was enacted in VA ln 1650 s blacks began to be sold as servants for life By early 1670 s white indentured servants still outnumbered blacks in Virginia in 1671 only 2000 black s slaves but 6000 white indentured servants Development of large plantations in 1690 s in VA correlated wgrowth of black slavery In early half of 18th century slavery of blacks started to be legalized and white servitude outlawed I White slavery is outlawed because they can t control them V VVVVV V V Question Did rich whites simply seize on the physical difference of race as a way of obtaining cheap labor gt Easy to justify enslaving of people if you tell yourself that I They are inferior amp your superior 0 You are civilizing them Q They are just captives of war gt Jefferson said that slavery would haunt America for years to come O He knew it was bad gt But he knew they needed them for the cheap labor February 22 2012 SOC 215 Professor Broman 20t h Century 39339 From 1880 to 1934 federal government put pressure on Indians to assimilate 0 0 0 0 0 The General Allotment Act of 1887Dawes Act permitted the breaking up of reservation land into individual allotments if the President believed the land could be advantageously employed gt Each head of family was eligible for 80 acres of Agricultural land or 160 acres of grazing land gt By 1933 91 million acres 213 of Indians land base had passed into non Indian hands BIA recognizes over 500 tribe in the US gt 197 are Alaska Native villages in Alaska gt There are over 300 federal Indian reservations in the US The largest is Navajo About 50 of Indians live on reservations I Navajogt Is located in the 4 squares area Colorado Utah Arizona and New Mexico I Largest reservation in the US Poverty rates are high on reservations many lack indoor plumbing adequate shelter etc and there are almost no jobs Reservation land is still under siege from developers mining companies and median waste etc Lecture 8 Hispanic Americans New Spain California Arizona New Mexico gt 1842war fare 1848 the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the Mexican war gold is discovered in California gt This leads to the Gold Rush 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase the US acquires 30000 acres in Southern Arizona and New Mexico from Mexico 1861 Congress creates Arizona territory out of New Mexico 1903 Mexican beet workers carry out a successful strike in Ventura California gt 1 Agriculture a lot comes from cali gt 2 The Mexicans are just the same today gt 3 39339 1911 The Mexican Protective Association is funded in Texas and becomes one of the first successful Mexican American agricultural Unions gt Like Native Americans Mexican Americans are among the poorest in the US gt A lot of Minorities are the bottom amp are poor because white folks took everything from them Hispanics 8 Race 39339 The obvious quotinbetween feature of Hispanic Americans is the racial status All three major Latino groups include a range of physical types gt Latinos are of any race v Mexico is racially amalgamated to a greater degree than perhaps any modern society 0 Physical type combing European African amp Indian traits v Although there are many who are either basically European or the other extreme purely Indian the vast majority of Mexicans today are racial hybrids 39339 So ambiguous is the racial status of Mexican Americans that 39339 Whereas Mexican are most Mestizo Puerto Ricans inherit a racial background that is a combination primarily of European and African but also some Indian elements 0 The large African population originally brought to the Island as slaves intermarried with whites over several generations and today although they cover the entire color spectrum many Puerto Ricans are racially Intermediate 39 Cubans are the least racially heterogeneous most falling into the American category of White gt Skin tone is big in the 0 Cuban 8 Puerto Rican Immigration 39339 Puerto Ricans are a relatively recent immigrant group Even though they had maintained a presence on the main land for most of the twentieth century their numbers were quite small until after WWII 39339 The greatest influx occurred during the 1950 s when nearly 20 percent of the Islands population moved to the main land Soc 215 January 30 2012 Professor Broman The Structural Approach 39339 Emphasized the political amp economic benefits derived from racial prejudice amp discrimination It s been official for the dominant group to be racists and it benefits certain people gt Accordingly racism arises between unequal relationships between the dominant group and subordinate groups I Racism is irrespective of the intentions ofthe individuals involved amp sexism o Dorms MSU are very segregate 39339 The structural approach interprets racism as historically linked to forms of capitalist explorations notably slavery in North American amp Colonial expansion in Africa gt In these forms of racial contacts racism facilitates discrimination against racial or ethnic minorities through the application of exclusionary laws amp policies I The use of racialized groups as a source of cheap labor in the accumulation of capital under capitalism is a central premise for understanding racism 0 According to Bonacich 1972 1976 1979 the source of racial antagonism is not race but the economic arrangement which maintains the differential price of labor between 2 racial groups O Structural or institutional racism is most is most evident under a system as slavery as well it is explicity manifested when discriminatory laws amp policies prevent racial minorities from equal participation in society gt Dutch are from Holland in Europe I If Latinos were not exploited or are not because they still are then all of our food would cost more Critique of the Structural Approach Soc 215 January 23 2012 Professor Broman Cattle continued 5 Therefore while shakesphere clearly saw Othello as different and dangerous to some extent the prime targets in the middle ages were Jews The rise of Modern Racism A The modern concept of races as basic human types of differing l 00 A biological characteristics was invented in the 18th century Even though Columbus sawthe Native s of America as different the basis of the difference was religious amp lifestyle a As Europeans roamed and encountered other peoples in the 16th amp 17th centuries they quite naturally came upon people they considered heathenpeople with no knowledge of Christianity or Jesus Modern Racism In addition since the people also lacked knowledge of European ways the people were considered savage and inferior The notion that there was a single panEuropean or white race was slow to develop and was not fully crystallized in the world until the late 19th century Early ethnologist such as Carl Linneaus began the drive to differentiate humans he argued a The father of modern racism i Europeans are acute incentive governed by laws blacks were described as crafty indolent religent governed by caprice eze race amp enlightenment By the late 18th century several writers had sharply ventured into the realm of racism known here after as scientific racism Scientific Racism the use of scientific methods always designed to prove that Europeans were inherently superiorto all other people in the world Focus was on biology physiology ethnology Example 9 Several studies of cranium size Such studies were designed to show that the cranium of Europeans amp whites were larger because of bigger brains These bigger brains were the reason why whites were of superior intellect from blacks amp Native Americans Civilization amp Savagery 00 At first skin color had to cohere with savagery to negatively impugn a particular racial group gtTh us Hottentots of Southern Africa Aborigines of Australia and the Natives of America were thought by some writers to actually be 390 I wer on the evolutionary scale then some Africans For Example the Moors were regarded as civilized see Othello But by the 1830 s Africans and especially blacks in the Western Hemisphere were being described as ape like savage culturally and morally inferior Ajustification for slavery pseudo science of racism rewrote history to show the inferiority of blacks 0 Thus in the 19th century as a context forjustifying domination and exploitation of nonwhite people throughout the world Europeans then whites created amp refined a racist ideology that lingers worldwide today This ideology was largely created by slave apologist in the southern US and the Caribbean The Contemporary Consequences 00 Lingering are the consequences of centuries of ruthless exploitation that significantly under developed places like the Caribbean Africa and the black gt W communities in the US Canada Western Europe amp Australia hites did not leave the resources taken Caribbean piracy fueled by the thirst for silver huge silver deposits were mined amp used for European benefits South Africa Huge mineral resources including diamonds and gold led to a first world affluent society for whites and virtual wage slavery for blacks Australia dumpy ground for British criminals Eventually the additional land made for a thriving trade motion and wool but the Native population slaughtered and pushed off the land In many cases whites did not leave behind the people In the Caribbean the Arawak became extinct In South Africa the Khakhoino lone existed In North America the indigenous Nations of Mexico are largely gone Various Native American tribes in the US no longer exist Conclusion 00 The quest for white supremacy has been a global phenomenon from which Native populations have yes recover gt Many have died some have ceased to exist Those that remain are usually the worst off socioeconomically face the most impoverished lifestyle amp struggle to maintain their culture Lecture 4 00 Americans who are we all date used here are from the American Ethnicity book gt All new statistics from the US Census Bureau 00 12 of Americans in America are African American gt 2x as likely for unemployment then whites Whites nonhispanic 68 Latino 15 ethnic 13 5 AsianAmerican 09 NativeAmerican Native HawaiianPacific Island 00 According to the US Government these are the 5 racial groups 1 White Black Native American Native Hawaiian 00 2 ethnic groups 1 Latino 2 Not Latino 2 3 Asian American 4 5 Rican amp Cuban American 0 Asian Americans include Philippians 0 Native Americans 9 Indians 0 Native Hawaiians 9 Hawaii Where we live Latinos can be of any race but are primarily Mexican Puerto N Est Mid West South West All White Black Native Am Asian Am La no 20 21 19 6 18 17 24 26 19 17 11 8 35 33 53 29 15 3O 21 20 49 57 45 Minority Population 0 Percent ofthe minority population which is 00 Hisganic Mexican American 657 Puerto Rican 89 Cuban American 35 Central American 87 South American 91 o 00 Chinese 224 181 Korean 10 White Ancestry German 152 Irish 109 113 English 87 Italian 56 French 39 44 Polish 32 0 Scottish Dutch Swedish Norwegian Russian less than 2 Soc 215 January 25 2012 Professor Broman Social Economic Status Racial ethnic groups 20072008 grads Household The Last 50 years 0 of black to white Income what does this table mean exactz Segregation indexes US as a whole 0 segregated whiteblack members only 1960 56 0 Detroit Flint amp SaginawBay City are s 1970 59 2 7 amp 10 in terms of most segregated Metro 1980 53 Areas in the US 1990 58 0 Michigan is the most segregated place in 2001 59 the US 2008 59 Conclusion 0 Education High Family Income High Poverty Lowest Jewish Japanese Am Fiipino Am AsianIndian AsianIndian Whites Chinese Am Whites AsianIndian Filipino Fiipino Am Viet Am o Bottom 4 o The poorest Hmong Am Cambodian Am Laotian Am Mexican Am Puerto Rican Lecture 5 Theories of Race amp Ethnicity 39 The psychological approach Racism as Individual attitude s gt The study of Racism as individual attitudes was common until 1860 s I Prejudice a combination of hostility towards amp faulty generalizations about racial groups 0 An emotional rigid attitude towards a group of people involving prejudgment O Racismprejudice antipathy or hostility based on rigid and faulty generalization about racial groups gt Also involved in negative stereotypes 0 0 Psychological Approach 39339 Also implicated were the consequences of socialization and individual personality gt Scholars suggested that early socialization may generate prejudice I Other scholars have developed the concept of the authoritarian personality as a source of racism 0 Authoritarian individuals are likely to be prejudiced amp to have a rigid personality with which to perceive the world in categories of black amp white superior amp inferior and us to them O From this approach it became logical to argue that racism can be reduced through education amp appropriate intergroup contracts February 20 2012 Soc 215 Professor Broman 5 elements of the Myth of Black lnferiority Lack of written language amp higher education Lazy gold mines a They were interested in proving a point b Said blacks had gold mines and did not develop them But there has been no gold found their Heathen do not believe in God Jesus as Christ Depraved Sexually a Thinks they are to sexual Cannibalism NH UJ U39l Sexual De ravit 1820 s Europeans thought blacks to have an insatiable sexual appetite gt Black men thought to possess giant penises I Black women thought to be naturally quothot blooded she s gatta have it 0 Jordan quotThe White Man s Burden pg 19 I In 1566 Jean Bodin sifted the writings of ancient authorities amp concluded that heat amp lust went hand in hand amp that o quot in Ethiopia the race of men is very keen amp lustfu gt Evidence for this came from the fact that black Africans engaged in I A quotbeasty copulation or conjecture o A union between black women tapes I Apes had attacked black women because of their hot bloodedness and further some of the black people in Africa were descended from apes In 5 cannibalism 8 human sacrifice This was an alleged part of West African life spurred by the tendency of people white who disappeared never to return Several whites claimed to be witnesses of this gt No evidence shows that blacks were cannibals Conclusion 39339 Europeans could not amp did not want to use reason to assess the validity of the beliefs gt They were not simply ethnocentric but their goals were to construct an irrefutable justification for I Forced sex with native women amp I The slavery of Blacks 0 Thomas Jefferson couldn t say that he loved this black woman so he could not marry her Lecture 7 Native Americans 1492 Columbus came to the Dominican Republic New World 0 00 0 0 Before Columbus Approximately 30000 BCE is when people are thought to have crossed the Bering Strait into North America As people moved inland they came to build a great diversity of cultures Basic economic structure varied climate conditions gt The Aztecs Central America were the most advanced society They had managed to tame environment and had an extensive civilization The Image of the Natives 39 Colonist in America came with a dual image of Indians On one hand there were many accounts stating that lndians would welcome whites Indians were described as gentle and peaceful gt The reason for this view I One was to encourage whites to sail for America and engage in trade with the Indians 0 The counter image was of Indian as savage hostile and beast like O Both of these images swirled in the late 16th century 0 The SpanishI EnglishI and the French 0 By 1669 in Virginia only 11 of 28 tribes described byJohn Smith in 1608 and 2000 of 30000 Indians were still left in Virginia English had no need of Indians gt Only on frontier as fur traders but this was small 0 On contrast in south Spaniards had quickly decimated the Indians then went about the task of assimilating them primarily through marriage 39339 The French had a different pattern of interacting with Indians 0 0 0 gt They were unsuccessful in planting settlementsdidn t want to live in the cold so they soon discovered trade was very profitable V In early 1600 s a few successful settlements were wiped out by the English Settlers France amp England are not war but there was competition v Indians were vital to the French gt Survival gt Sex gt Tradegt every French man was either a tradertrapper or priest o 0 When the Indians are valued they survive gt Valued in Canada and not in the United States 139 This illustrates that the utility of the Indians to whites was the key to their survival in the presence of whites gt Indian slave trade There was a small slave trade of Indians Most were shipped out of colonies so they would not know the terrain and thus could be prevented from escaping gt This trade went on in the early 1700 s Interest in lndians slave trade began to l by the mid 1700 s because of problems of Indians These major problems were 0 Disease 8 Death 39339 Some tribes were wiped out gt Westos Appalachian Timuca Guale Apalachee Wanpanoag Yamasee 39339 The Iroquois destroyed the Hurons in 1649 but shcholars think that onehalf to 23 of the huron populations had already died due to disease between 1634 amp 1641 39339 Early contact wwhites killed the Pawtucket by an unknown disease in 1612 1613 about Probable epidemics 39339 Small pox measles typhus bubonic plague anthrax malaria chicken pox and influenza etc 39339 Small pox was rampant in Americas among lndians Small pox can survive in a dried state Thus in the West army would send contaminated blankets to the Indians


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