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Urban Sociology

by: Jan Torphy

Urban Sociology SOC 375

Jan Torphy
GPA 3.95

Alesia Montgomery

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Alesia Montgomery
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This 37 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jan Torphy on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 375 at Michigan State University taught by Alesia Montgomery in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see /class/207267/soc-375-michigan-state-university in Sociology at Michigan State University.

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Date Created: 09/19/15
SOC375 September 30th Racial Segregation in Detroit o Restrictive covenants 0 def private restrictions limiting the use and sale of property neighbors agree not to sell homes to black families 0 when the Supreme Court banned the legal enforcement of restrictive covenants in 1948 relatively affluent blacks began to move into white areas o blockbusting 0 real estate brokers scare whites into selling their homes for less than they re worth and then they sell the homes to blacks demanding high down payments and interest rates the real estate brokers made huge profits hard for some blacks to make payments sot hey defer property maintenance 0 ghetto crept outward block by block o White Resisistance and Violence 0 Creation of white homeowners associations 0 The associations used various tactics to scare away black families verbal harassment vandalism physical attacks o 1967 Riot and the Fate of Postindustrial US 0 July 1967 brutal race riot o Accelerated white flight GM DetroitHamtramck Poletown Plant o Built in 1985 during Mayo Coleman Young s administration o Controversial City seized land through eminent domain arguing that the new high tech palnt would general jobs and tax revenues After protests and court battles hundreds of Poletown homes and businesses were bulldozed to clear land for the plant Strategies for Urban Planning o Liberal Planning Create Economy in Cities 0 Richard Florida s 3 T s technology talent and tolerance o Radical Urbanism Right to the City 0 David Harvey change the way ppl live and work together Libertarian Ayn Rand objectivist philosophy Anarchist guy from the urban ag movement 0 O O 11102010 62700 AM Social amp Spatial Distances in Cities October 14th We are fortunate to live where we do for goods and services c Lots of stores within the city o Communication and transportation technologies increase your access to things that you want reducing the time and burden of shopping o Internet access allows us to not even have to leave home to shop Your income and status influence the space of your every day life o Income and status shape 0 Where you reside near or far from resources 0 Types of technology you can use to reduce the time and burden of getting resources o African Americans are concentrated in the city of Detroit and some nearly suburbs Southfield African Americans are the most segregated large racialethnic group in metro Detroit Differences in Segregation by RaceEthnicity Detroit Metropolitan Area 2000 US Census This chart shows the extent to which various racialethnic groups in metro Detroit live in different areas than whites using the dissimilarity index Dissimiinnw Indlces for Race 5 4 Ethnic Graups Simply stated this index measures what quotn of a group would have to move in order forparticulargroups to e evenly distributed in an area A amp rad In whim African Americans are the nisriimmiwiner W M M U most segregated large racial ethnic group in metro Detroit Snume William H Most immigrants from Europe Asia and the Middle East in metro Detroit live outside the city of Detroit Metro Detroit has one of the highest concentrations of Arab Americans immigrants and nonimmigrants in the US There is religious diversity among groups with Middle Eastern origins some are Muslims others Chaldeans tend to be Christian There is a notable Latino immigrant population in southwest Detroit and nearby suburbs Keep in mind that many but not all Latinos in Detroit are immigrants some have long roots in the US Much income inequality in metro Detroit richest areas are the suburbs the actual city tends to be poor Mistake in thinking everyone in the city of Detroit is impoverished There are upperscale black neighborhoods directly across Woodward Avenue from lowincome black areas and vacant homes Why does there tend to be racialethnic segregation in metro Detroit o Income alone does not explain racial distances Some blacks in the city of Detroit have higher incomes than whites in the suburbs o Racial mistrust and hostility persist in metro Detroit Also some groups prefer to reside in areas with a high of people who share their ethnic culture According to Census 2000 the typical white American lives in a neighborhood that is white o A 20 o B 55 o C 69 o D 80 Answer D In 2000 the typical white American in a metro area lived in a neighborhood that was about 80 percent white 7 percent black 8 percent Hispanic and 4 percent Asian The average Native American today lives on a rural reservation o A True o B False Answer False From the 19505 to the 19705 the US government relocated thousands of Native Americans from rural reservations to cities Between 1900 and 2000 the fastest growing group of Muslim immigrants in the US came from the Middle East o A True o B False Answer False Middle Eastern place of birth and ancestry is still the largest origin group but the South Asian Muslimorigin population experienced the largest percent increase since 1990 The social and economic characteristics of Muslim immigrants tends to be comparable to nonHispanic whites According to US Census 2000 Detroit is the most racially segregated metro area in the country A True B False True In 2000 of the top 50 metropolitan reas Detroit was the most racially segregated Blackwhite segregation tends to be higher in the Midwest and Northeast than in the South and West How do 0 residential patterns influence access to resources African Americans are the most segregated racialethnic group Compared to poor white children poor black children tend to reside in areas with higher levels of poverty Compared to lowincome black families lowincome white families tend NOT to be as distance from high quality family resources good jobs stores schools Even black middle class families face neighborhood challenges Although there has been notable black middle class flight from the urban core much of the black middle class still resides in or near high poverty areas Sociologist Lance Freeman 2008 African Americans ability to translate their individual endowments into proximity to Whites or higher socioeconomic status neighborhoods has changed little if at all in the postcivil rights era The black middle class DOES tend to live in areas that have richer resources than the areas of the black poor but various studies indicate that they tend not to live in areas that are as resourcerich as the areas of the white middle class 0 Gallagher Research Inadequate access to healthy food 92 of retailers in black communities are fringe retailers Over half of the population in the city of Detroit Must travel twice as far or farther to reach the closest mainstream grocer than they do the closest fringe location Beyond concerns about healthy food access for specific social groups there are also concerns about the degree to which our food system including growing practices and food transport furthers sustainability environmental social economic for the general population 10262010 92300 PM SOC375 November 4th Urban Sprawl o Sitcom suburbs 0 often bedroom communities 0 people commute to work from their suburban homes a Racial segregation o Uneven development resource disparities between central cities and suburbs a Gender disparities isolation o Edge nodes 0 Suburbs that have more jobs than bedrooms Some suburbs are bedroom communities people live there because these suburbs have nice homes but people have to go elsewhere to work Edge nodes are not bedroom communities people who live elsewhere sometimes come to edge nodes to work o Since the 19805 new development has expanded on the rural fringes 0 Why rejection of both the industrial city and the crowded suburb a desire to have o country homes and lifestyles o walkable neighborhoods a desire to escape from industrial cities that have o people of color and immigrants o declining infrastructure o pollution o poor schools a desire to flee edge notes that have o ugly crowded automobilized spatial design 0 How What has enabled people to move out to rural fringes Transportation expanded freeway systems Communication New digital technologies that enabled telecommuting o Housing Construction McMansions 0 During the 20th century houses bigger families smaller 0 In the US today Americans now have the largest amount of private housing space per person in the history of urban civilization 0 WHY One factor is storage demad driven by consumerism people need a place to store all their digital gadgets exercise equipment clothes shoes lawn accessories children s toys o Effects on Natural Environment Resources 0 Suburban sprawl contributes to Energy resource depletion n The increased distances between home work shopping and entertainment and the expanded size of homes contributes to fuel depletion Global warming a Car exhaust pollution heats the atmosphere Motor vehicles are responsible for almost a quarter of annual US emissions of carbon dioxide the primary globalwarming gas o Government Policies 0 Highways Interstate Highway Act of 1956 n Overpasses not big enough to allow airplanes under them can t be for defense Housing Loans amp Tax Credits Tax WriteOffs for New Income Producing Structures a McDonalds c We are not in the food business We are in the real estate business The only reason we sell 15 cent hamburgers is because they are the greatest producer of revenue from which our tenants can pay us rent Logical Fallacies o Ad Populum something s correct because its popular o Red Herring a diversionary tactic that avoids the key issues often by avoiding opposing arguments rather than addressing them 1182010 65900 PM SOC375 October let Why are cities greening o Economic Reasons 0 City leaders want to lure affluent potential residents who prefer green spaces 0 Lucrative demand for locally grown organic food 0 Rising costs of transportation systems and urban sprawl not energy efficient o Social Concerns 0 Lack of community 0 Inequality o Disempowerment o House and Environmental Concerns 0 Impact of global warming on cities unnatural disasters 0 Urban environment pollution contribute to health problems asthma cancer obesity 0 Concern about genetically modified GM food Major Federal Environment Laws that Affect Cities 1970 0 Creation of Environmental Protection Agency 0 National Environment Policy Act NEPA Requires environmental impact evaluation before any fed project can begin 0 Clean Air Act 1963amended in 1970 and 1990 Federal law controlling water pollution 1980 o Superfund Law Establishes liability for cleaning up large hazardous waste sites o Recent Federal Environment Approach 0 Interagency Collaboration Partnership for Sustainable Communities united HUD the US Department of Transportation and US Environmental Protection Agency to collaborate on affordable housing transportation and environmental protection projects On October 14 2010 the US Department of Housing and Urban Development award 285 million to the Southeast Michigan Council of Governments as part of Partnership for Sustainable Communities o Grants were awarded nationwide to 45 regions o SEMCOG Projects 0 Woodward Avenue Light Rail 20112016 0 Ann ArborDetroit Commuter Rail Project Rev Jesse Jackson critic of urban planning o But said he was with the green movement because of his support for public transportation REMINDER Neoliberalism o Neoliberals support free market amp free trade across the globe o Tend to be against government intervention in the economy 1132010 103500 PM SOC375 10132010 113900 PM Thursday October 7m 2010 Urban migration From the 19th century to the mid20th century most urban growth in the world was in Europe and the US their industrial cities expanded o Two types of Migration increased US cities 0 International Migration 0 Internal Migration people migrating from rural areas and small towns o Waves of US immigration 0 First Wave before 1820 British Isles fit right in with the Protestants already here Involuntary immigrants enslaved Africans 0 Second Wave 18201880 Irish and Germans Feeling a potato famine Irish were quite poor and they were regarded with suspicion because they were Catholics The Germans tended to be Protestant so they fit in better 0 Third Wave 18801920 South and Eastern Europe Often Jews and Catholics illiterate and impoverished As they moved to cites widespread panic that they were naturally violent and stupid Newspapers books and politicians suggested that they wouldn t be able to assimilate 0 Fourth Wave 1960s to Today Latin America mostly Mexico and Asia Similar to earlier waves of migration concern that they won t be able to assimilate particularly if they are poor Each immigration wave has impacted the size economy and culture of the US cities 0 Although these are the four largest waves there have been others Example Chinese immigrants were recruited to work on the railroads and perform menial labor during the 19th century 0 Why did immigrants come to the US despite the hardships Poverty war ethnic conflicts and political oppression drove many people fro their homelands America was seen as a land of opportunity letters books etc depicted America as a place where anyone could be successful and everyone was equal o Immigration institutions 0 Many immigrants strove to preserve their traditional culture in their neighborhoods by establishing stores churches newspapers and social clubs 0 In the absence of support from the larger society political machines helped immigrants to obtain jobs and services What are political machines a A party organization headed by a single boss or small autocratic group that commands enough votes to main political control of a city a Example Tammany Hall William Magear Tweed able to build a loyal voter following especially among immigrant groups o Why were immigrants feared and hated in the 19th and early 20th centuries 0 Newspapers were filled with stories about immigrant violence immorality and corruption 0 Popular culture advertising books movies often stereotyped immigrants and stirred up ethnic hostilities with vicious antiimmigrant images 0 Immigrants were depicted as a threat to US workers it was said that they would drive down wages and take the jobs of USborn workers 0 Eugenicists Argued that certain immigrant groups were genetically inferior they point to the fact that at the time immigrants from southern and eastern Europe scored lower on IQ tests than US born whites with British ancestors n Probably really because of language barriers Eugenics coined by Sir Francis Galton n Galton advocated improving the human species through selective breeding Successfully pushed for a range of social practices and government policies including restrictions and immigration in the early 20th century a From the 1920s to the 19605 the immigrant population in US cities declined 0 NOT SO MUCH Linda Chavez immigrants have always had problems in US society however the descendants of immigrants have eventually matched and in some cases surpassed the economic and education success of US born groups with British roots Some researchers attribute problems among immigrant groups low test scores crime to language barriers poverty and discrimination o Internal Migration 0 An example of internal migration within the US is the Great Migration of African Americans African Americans have been in the US in large numbers longer than many other ethnic groups In the early years there were small numbers of African Americans in the North but African Americans lived primary in the South The Great Migration is a term that historians use to refer to the massive flight of African Americans from small towns and rural areas in the South to Northern cities o Great Migration 0 First Wave 1910 to 1930 As agricultural production declined in the South due to various factors mechanization crop infestations diseases demand decreased for black workers At the same time labor demands in the industrialization North increased Northern industries sent recruiters to the South to lure impoverished black migrants with promise of work Great Migration began Northern cities differed somewhat in terms of the Southern regions from which they drew black migrants O 0 Second Wave 1940 to 1970 During the Great Depression 1930s black migration to cities slowed The demand for labor in defense industries during World War II encouraged a massive migration of African Americans to northern cities As industrial opportunities increased on the West coast after World War II sunbelt shift many black migrants migrated to California Similar to the earlier wave of black migration different regions of the US tended to receive black migrants from Southern regions o Residential Segregation 0 Many black migrants were able to improve their standard of living in Northern industrial cities Since the passage of Civil Rights legislation in the 1960s a large black middle class has developed However African Americans continue to be the most segregated racialethnic group in US cities Even middle class African Americans tend to live in areas with higher neighborhood poverty and fewer resources Hit hard by deindustrialization these areas have limited employment opportunities o Urban Growth 0 0 Today as several old industrial centers in advanced capitalist countries shrink Detroit almost all urban growth is occurring in less developed countries LDCs in the Global South LDC a country whose state of economic development is characterized by a low national income a high rate of population growth and unemploument and dependence on commodity exports a The marjority of nations in Asia Africa and Latin America fit this model The more developed countries continue to be more urbanized but the less developed countries are rapidly catching up 0 Why has urban migration increased in the Global South Slums Before the 19505 governments in many LDCs prevented peasants from moving to the cities In the 19505 and 19605 national independence and civil wars led to many peasants living on the outskirts of cities fleeing rural violence Violent internal conflicts within countries continue to push rural to urban migration The flight of industrial jobs from cities Detroit in advanced capitalist countries to cities in the global South draw migrants eager for work Ambitious business and government promises to house feed and give jobs to city residents draw urban migrants the supply ofjobs and services often do not meet demand Also recurrent business downturns lead to economic crises 0 IT IS ESTIMATED THAT ONE THIRD OF THE GLOBAL URBAN POPULATION LIVES IN SLUMS Often squatter settlements build on edges of cities May be near high rise apartments and offices of the city it is often hidden from view by humanmade structures walls or natural environment trees hills Tourists may never know the slum exists but only see the workers slum residents who clean their hotel rooms and serve their food 0 Slum Ecology Slums are often build in hazardous locations There is poor sanitation health care and other public services Slum residents sometimes grow veggies and raise animals that provide milk eggs and meat Families consume these products or sell them to their neighbors informal economy an economy that is not regulated by the government 0 Why care about the slums in other countris Beyond moral rEsons a Political sustainability US allies may be destabilized by the conditions in theirslums Ten39orism the slums may push people to desperate acts Drug trade and public health slums may harbor drug trading and infectious diseass that can sprEd around the world a A Surplus Humanity o Shrinking citis in the global North and expanding cities in the global South share challenges of social economic and environmental sustainability Instmd of being a focus forgrowth and prosperity citis have become a dumping ground for a surplus population working in unskilled unprotected and lowwage informal service industries and tradequot Mike Davis Planet of Slums What Should Be Done N39EOLIBERALS people who follow in the tradition of th lasslcal liberals argue that these urban conditions will eventually improve if the market is given free reign unionization is limited and national and local governments are prevented from initiating tax and adquot policies T cite example of the failure at big governmentquot and g uni s They concede that economic downtums are part of capitalism but they do not believe that the capitalist ystem is lnhErenlly destructiv Atliey argue that if you give the market free reign in the longterm you will be better ofti 0 Detroit as an that recurrent deepening economic crises are inevitable LARK S S under capitalism They cite Detrort as an example of the market destroying a ci II better conomic opportunities emerge in another part of the world capital will abandon a thriving city Thus the argue et cry to overt o v is capitalist system and control the ECOanlL ystem via government What would people with orherpolitlcal frames anarch communal relorm liberal etc argue What do you believe based on logic evidence and your values SOC375 September 23rd 1950s Golden Age of Capitalism o Decline in Manufacturing Employment in Detroit 19471977 0 Auto manufacturers and their suppliers began to move out of Detroit in the late 1940s1950s Union membership has declined 0 Capital Mobility Enabled by new technologies coordinated by new management strategies Why was capital leaving Detroit Why were the remaining firms employing fewer workers a Land n Labor n Automation n Overtime 0 Federal Policy and Decentralization 1940s amp 1950s US government began to encourage decentralization n Why o Precaution against air attacks o Increased influence of Sun Belt politicians a Results Suburban shift amp Regional shift of defense spending from North amp Midwest to West amp South California was the main beneficiary of defense spending c As a consequence Detroit did not attract new high tech firms eg aircraft electronics related to defense industry it relied on the auto industry Frankfurt School and the Culture Industry o In the 1940s a group of famous German scholars the Frankfurt School argued that Western society was becoming increasingly less free 0 Science and technology including urban desing should be used to liberate humanity but these methods and tools were being used to generate a culture industry including the build environment shopping practices media use that enslaves us o Walter Benjamin suggested that cities were places of illusory freedomchoices that masked the realities of the capitalist system and the interests of capitalists O O Suggests that urban planners and architects design ciites through the use of reason but this reason is not put in the service of creating a free just and enduring social order The capitalist city in Benjamin s eyes is unsustainable MARXIST VIEW OF CAPITALISM o Four ways capitalism alienates workers 0 From the act of working Don t have a say in production From the products of work No ownership of product that you make From other workers Work has become competitive not cooperative From species being collective creative self Stranger to your self o Insecurity recurrent deepening economic crises leading to major economic disaster o Solution Marxists push for a revolution to overthrow the capitalist state historically Centralized Government CONSERVATIVES THE VIRTUES OF THE MARKET o Freemarket with minimal government regulation o Downturns are temporary o Personal responsibility LIBERALS THE NEED FOR GOVERNMENT o Freemarket with government regulation and assistance to safeguard all interests individual o Note not the same thing as classical liberalism RADICALS THE NEED FOR FUNDAMENTAL CHANGE o The freemarket is the cause of economic and worker problems o Socialism or other collective approach is the answer to economic and worker problems Marxism vs Liberal Approaches o Examples New Deal Great Society Franklin Roosevelt Lyndon B Johnson 0 Champion free entire system but seek increased economic security for individuals through social programs job programs social security Marxism vs Communal Approaches o CommunalCooperative Economics 0 Often focused on identities race religion other than class 0 Usually does not seek to overthrow the existing system seeks to protect community members by selfhelp measures within the system 0 Ex Detroit Housewives League HLD encouraged black housewives to use their buying power to help blackowned businesses survive the Great Depression 11102010 62700 AM SOC375 September 9th 97 of human history hunting and gathering First large settlements o Emerged around 10000 BC o Enabled by 0 Agricultural innovationgt food surplus 0 Division of labor increased kings priests artisans merchants o What is a city 0 What distinguishes the city from other types of human settlements Demographic urban city contrasts with rural country on a continuum of increasing a Population size a Population density n Diversity Urban vs Rural o Types of Social Relations 0 Urban gesellschaft based on complex labor division and impersonal interests economic political 0 Rural gemeinschaft based on simple labor division close community bonds family and kinship ties Critique difficult to measure and may not always differentiate urban and rural areas o Types of Economic Activity 0 Proportion of people engaged in agriculture Urban gt nonagricultural activity 0 Critique there is agricultural activity in some cities does that makes these people less urban O Urbanization o def increase in numbers and density as people migrate to a place o change in social organization and technological development that occur because of population concentration eg increased complexity of labor division increased use of advanced technology Urbanism o def sociocultural consequences of living in urban places 0 societal patterns and behaviors associated with living in cities 0 changes in values mores customs lifestyles epistemology study of the nature sources and limits of knowledge Rene Descartes a French philosopher scientist and mathematician noted that he could doubt many things that appeared to be real but he said that there is one thing he could know with certainty o Foundation of Science individuals using their REASON Maybe Descartes did not grasp the restrictions on thought maybe our senses and our reason are limited o The way that a human sees AND thinks about a table is not the same way that a rat sees AND thinks about a table We understand things in space and time differently than do other animals There is the worldasitappearstohumans and the worldasitappearsto rats o The sensory and cognitive structures of rats AND humans bound perceptions neither rats nor humans may be able to see and know ultimate reality In the 18th century Immanuel Kent a German philosopher argued that we cannot be sure about ultimate reality noumena but we can use our senses and our reason to know the world as it appears to humans phenomena Thus we can achieve universal knowledge Logical fallacies erorr in reasoning o Hasty Generalization someone rushes to a conclusion without enough evidence a conclusion can be true and still stated illogically Slippery Slope someone claims that an action A will lead to a chain of events AgtBgtC that will eventually have a big impact Z 11102010 45800 AM soc375 October 28th Chicago School of Urban Sociology o Early scholars from the University of Chicago in the 1St half of the 20th century beginning of urban soc as an academic research endeavor 0 Human Ecology Robert Park 18641944 a US Sociologist studied in Germany Georg Simmel was one of his professors Similar to Simmel concerns with relation between urban space size density etc and urban culture Ernest Burgess 18861966 a Born in Canada received graduate degree from University of Chicago Collaborated with Park Urban ecology or human ecology developed out of a concern with the form and development of the modern US city Ecology relation between organisms amp their environment Chicago school used ecology as a metaphor of the urban environment The internal structure of the city evolved not as a consequence of direct planning but through competition Competitiongt process of invasion and succession resulting in segregation of new groups and land uses a This process is not bad viable communities are always in a process of changing dynamic Burgess Theory of Urban Growth n Occupancy of land is a result of competition Users willing to pay the highest costs either economic eg rents or noneconomic congestion noise or pollution occupy the land Political Economy Approacn in uenced by the Marxist perspective Disagree with the Chicago scnooi a Argue tnat the city is snabeo more by deliberate boimcai and corgorate strategies than by natural cornpetmon between urban groups To explain urban dev eloprnent one rnust smoy urban policies ll ig ordinances tax breaks to lure business to a city or n zon neighbor 00d Urban Ecology Political Economy u Frames the city as an interdependent natural system similar to natural ecologies such as forests 4 Search for universal patterns of urban structure 4 Focus on internal dynamics within the city Focus on business and government ecisions urban processes are deliberate not natural Concerned Witn now political and economic forces shape different cities in different ways Emphasizes political and economic links between cities Theory of Growth Machine Argue that elite coalitions real estate business government elites in a city make decisions about land use eg zoning laws that favor the interests of place entrepreneurs neglecting the interests of local residents Place entrepreneurs landowners speculators buy sell land Exchange Values vs Use Values for Land 0 Monetary return for property vs Material and nonmaterial uses of a place food shelter community memories Urban growth machine ideology influences local governments to view cities not as places where people live and work but solely as places where it is necessary to expand the economy Local residents influences by MEDIA accept growth machine ideology because they want JOBS and CITY PRESTIGE unites neoliberals and reform liberals big corporations and labor unions Logan and Moltoch argue that promised jobs tend not to materialize in part because outsiders migrate to city and get jobs and externalities are not addressed 0 EXTERNALITIES a situation in which the private costs or benefits to the producers or purchasers of a good or service differs from the total social costs or benefits entailed in its production and consumption Building Suburbia Suburb noncentral city parts of metropolitan areas Central city the largest city of a metropolitan area or a core city that meets other criteria Metropolitan area central city surrounding places Most people in the US live in suburbs Why did people begin to move out to the suburbs in the 19th century Get away from factory noise and pollution and undesirables class and race conflicts To obtain a healthy morally and physically environment for family life Sense that city was a place of ruin before deindstrlztin O O O o Family and Community Life in the Suburbs O O O Borderlands imagined as a palce at the edge of the city where prosperous families could build houses amid the scenic beauty of farmer s field and woods emphasis on ideal domestic setting not much emphasis on community Picturesque enclaves communities designed to provide ideal shared spaces they combined natural beauty and social perfection inspired by various communitarian collectivist movements Streetcar buildouts suburbs connected to the urban core by streetcars upwardly mobile working class families often lived there Enabled families to get away from harsh urban conditions 1182010 62400 PM SOC375 September 16th Food insecurity social inequality ethnic conflict and health problems are not new urban challenges ancient Roman cities amp medieval towns faced similar problems o Medieval towns suffered from rodents spoiled food poor sanitation and infectious diseases The bubonic plague made economically thriving places into ghost towns Urban Crime c From the Middle Ages to today murder rates appear to have decreased in Western cities o The homicide rate in Detroit is ushaped high in 19205early 19305 and then high again beginning in 19605 Rise of Industrial Cities Shift from Domestic Systems to Factory System 18th and 19th centuries o Domestic system 0 Production done by families and skilled craftsmen o Factory system 0 Goods made by workers and machines separation between work and family decline in need for skilled craftsmen Factors that contributed to European Industrialization o Better farming methods better agricultural techniques and tools increased agricultural productivity less demand for workers o Enclosure movement fencing off pasture land formerly shared by peasants surplus population driven to seek factory work o New machines enlightenment thinkers promoted progress in science and technology steam engine and other machines increased productivity o Raw materials Asia Africa and the Americas supplied raw material for factories and cheap agricultural labor colonies slaves Urban Conditions o Huge migration from farms to cities crowded surroundings o Pleasant areas for wealthy o Slums for poor housing w little light and no sanitation disease Working Conditions o 12 to 16 hour workdays o dangerous monotonous lowwage work o women had to work long hours and care for families o child labor needed for families to survive Classical Liberal Perspective o Adam Smith author of The Wealth of Nations o Argument 0 Law of Competition Competition will increase quality decrease price 0 Free Enterprise Laissez Faire Unregulated exchangegt good for everyone not just the rich general standard of living will rise Marxist Perspective o Friedrich Engles 18201895 collaborated Karl Marx o Eldest son of a wealthy factory ownder o Argument the great towns industrial cities of capitalism concentrate workers and machines in ways that increase productivity yet also 0 1 intensify poverty degradation and crime breakdown of traditional bonds as capitalists exploited workers 0 2 segregate rich areas from poor areas invisibility of poor families makes it easier for affluent families to be indifferent Detroit s Boom Years Detroit 19001950 c In the early 20th century Detroit became a major center of manufacturing increasingly dependent on ONE industy the auto industry o Massive migration of people in search ofjobs 0 European Immigrants Polish Italians Germans 0 Mexican Immigrants 0 Black migrants from the South o Great Depression hurt Detroit but the city came back strong between 1940 and 1947 manufacturing employment in Detroit increased by 40 Good conditions for Detroit residents o Wages high prices low because of o Fordism 0 Strong Unions o What is Fordism 0 Henry Ford 0 Characteristics of Fordism Kept Costs Low By a Shifting from craft production to mass production a Assembly lines and rigid routines n Standardized products 0 How was Ford able to attract workers Paying high wages 5day Workers could afford to buy the cars they made United Auto Workers o Founding in 1935 Detroit o Through strikes and negotiations UAW increased wages and job security and enhanced working conditions Philanthropy amp Tax Base o Homes and Streets 0 Tax base enabled the maintenance of urban infrastructure 0 Relatively high wages enabled high rate of home ownership 0 It s a pretty city Almost every street had trees all up and down auto worker recalls Detroit during its boom years Recurrent Economic and Social Crises o Great Depression o Crime Purple Gang Environmental Impact o Urban Infrastructure 0 Hard to meet demand for housing education and transportation o Natural Ecology o Decrease in natural spaces animals plants 0 Increase in air water and soil pollution Racial Divisions o Racial Discrimination o Workplace amp housing o 1943 Race Riot o Response to Discrimination o CommunalCooperative Economics Detroit Housewives League a Founded in 1930 by Fannie Peck the HLD encouraged black housewives to use their buying power to help blackowned businesses survive the Great Depression Threats to Urban Sustainability o Social racial conflict o Economic incentives or industrial flight o Environmental strains on natural and built environment Logical Fallacies o Genetic Fallacy broadest context genetic means origins assume that a person or thing is bad simply because of its origins 11102010 53100 AM


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