Intro To Human Nutrition
Intro To Human Nutrition HNF 150
Popular in Course
Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
This 64 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jace Gleason on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HNF 150 at Michigan State University taught by Katherine Alaimo in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 685 views. For similar materials see /class/207272/hnf-150-michigan-state-university in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Michigan State University.
Reviews for Intro To Human Nutrition
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/19/15
1 Which of the following are functions of water A Acts as a lubricant around joints B Aids in maintaining body temperature C Cleanses tissues and blood D Carries nutrients throughout the body E All of the above Answer E All of the above 2 Hard water contains high concentrations of A Sodium B Calcium C Magnesium D A and B E B and C Answer E B and C 3 What is soft water A Water generated in the tissue during the chemical breakdown of the energyyielding nutrients in food B Water that causes increased urinary excretion C Water in high calcium and magnesium concentrations D Water with high sodium concentration E Water with little or no minerals Answer D Water with high sodium concentration 4 Which food is an excellent source of calcium A Wheat bread B Olive oil C Sardines D Sirloin steak E Apples Answer C Sardines 5 TF Tofu can be a good source of calcium Answer True Nutrition Basics Nutrition The study of how food nourishes the body 0 The biochemical interaction between food beverages genetics and health Eating behaviors Government public and corporate private regulation and influences on human eating behavior 0 Ethics of food production distribution and consumption Why is Nutrition Important 0 Prevents disease Vitamin C o Protects against cell damage 0 Important for healthy gums o RedOrange foods and green plants Nutrients Components of food that are indispensable to the body s functioning 0 Provide Energy Serve as building material Maintain or repair body parts Support growth 0 Essential Nutrients body cannot make itself Water Carbohydrates Fats Lipids Protein Vitamins Minerals Calories Energy 0 Amount of energy need to raise 1 liter of water to 1 degrees Celsius Final Exam Study Guide 512011 32600 AM Learning Objectives List the six nutrients and identify the energy yield for each o Energyyielding ie the body can use the energy they contain nutrients o Carbohydrates 4 calories per gram 0 Proteins 4 calories per gram 0 Lipids fats 9 calories per gram o Water o Minerals o Vitamins Recognize the 5 characteristics of a healthy diet o Adequacy o Balance o Calorie control o Moderation o Variety Explain how RDA AI DV and EAR serve different functions in describing nutrient values and discuss how each is used Be able to identify the term if given information about the definition who sets how why andor for whom o A committee of nutrition experts from the Food and Nutrition Board the National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine working in association with Health Canada develops and publishes the DRI o Setting Recommended Intake Values 0 Recommended Dietary Allowances RDA nutrient intake goals for individuals the average daily nutrient intake level that meets the needs of nearly all 9798 of healthy people in a particular life stage and gender group Derived from the Estimated Average Requirements 0 Adequate Intakes AI nutrient intake goals for individuals the recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on intakes of healthy people observed or experimentally derived in a particular life stage and gender group and assumed to be adequate Set whenever scientific data are insufficient to allow establishment of an RDA value c Facilitation Nutrition Research and Policy 0 Estimated Average Requirements EAR the average daily nutrient intake estimated to meet the requirements of half of the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group used in nutrition research and policymaking and is the basis upon which RDA values are set o Enabling Consumers to Compare the Nutrient Values Among Foods 0 Daily Values DV nutrient standards used on food labels in grocery stores and on some restaurant menus The DV allow comparisons among foods with regard to their nutrient contents Calculate the percent of kilocalories in a given food from carbohydrate protein and fat o Carbohydrate 0 Multiple kilocalories of carbs by 4 0 Divide that by total kilocalories 0 Multiply by 100 o Protein 0 Multiple kilocalories of protein by 4 0 Divide that by total kilocalories 0 Multiply by 100 0 Fat 0 Multiple kilocalories of fat by 9 0 Divide that by total kilocalories 0 Multiply by 100 Illustrate the digestion and absorption of the macronutrients fat protein carbohydrate from the mouth to the colon o Begins in the mouth where foods are chewed and swallowed without choking Chewing adds water in the form of saliva to soften rough food to prevent them from tearing the esophagus o The stomach and intestines then take up take of liquefying foods through various mashing and squeezing actions known as peristalsis Then the pyloric valve at bottom of stomach takes chyme and controls exit allowing a little at a time to enter small intestine Then moves to colon or large intestine at which time most digestion and absorption has already occurred Colon reabsorbs water and causes it to turn into a paste of fiber and undigested materials called feces o You then release feces and it usually takes anywhere from 13 days Explain how nutrients are transported and stored in the body o Transport pathways 0 Bloodstream watersoluble nutrients and smaller products of fat digestion are transported to the liver 0 Lymphatic system larger fats and fatsoluble vitamins and chylomicrons bypass liver at first and the nutrients go to the heart o Storage 0 Blood cells deliver nutrients and oxygen to cells and remove carbon dioxide and wastes from cells 0 Nutrients ie fats fat soluble vitamins can be stored in lymphatic vessels Describe the major types of carbohydrates and identify their food sources o Complex carbohydrates starch and fiber o Simple carbohydrates sugars Recognize the various roles of carbohydrates in the body o The body tissues use carbohydrates for energy and other functions the brain and nerve tissues prefer carbohydrate as fuel o Nutrition authorities recommend a diet based on foods rich in complex carbohydrates and fiber because fiberrich diets benefit the body by helping to normalize blood cholesterol and blood glucose and by maintaining healthy bowel function They are also associated with healthy body weight 0 Foods rich in soluble viscous fibers help control blood cholesterol 0 Foods rich in viscous fibers help to modulate blood glucose concentration Outline how complex carbohydrates are broken down in the digestive tract and absorbed into the body o The mouth releases salivary amylase o The stomach produces hydrochloric acid and proteindigesting enzymes The small intestine is where most carbohydrate digestion occurs Pancreatic amylase is released The large intestine digests fibers Starch and sugars the main task of the various body systems is to convert them to glucose to fuel the cells work Fermentable fibers release gas as bacteria in the intestine break them down Explain how hormones control blood glucose concentrations during both fasting and feasting Glycogen is the body s storage form of glucose The liver stores glycogen for use by the whole body The hormone glucagon acts to liberate stored glucose from liver glycogen Blood glucose regulation depends mainly on the hormones insulin and glucagon Most people have no problem regulating their blood glucose when they consume mixed meals at regular intervals Compare and contrast the physical properties and the sources of saturated polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats Saturated filled with hydrogens comes from animal fats Polyunsaturated with more than one point of unsaturation comes from vegetable and fish oils Monounsaturated with one point of unsaturation comes from some vegetable oils olive oil and canola oil Illustrate how and where dietary lipids are broken down and absorbed during digestion and how they are transported throughout the body In the mouth and stomach little fat digestion takes place In the small intestine digestive enzymes accomplish most fat digestion here 0 Bile emulsifies fat making it available for enzyme action 0 The enzymes cleave triglycerides into free fatty acids glycerol and monoglycerides At the intestinal lining the parts are absorbed by intestinal villi 0 Small lipid particles such as glycerol and shortchain fatty acids are small enough to enter directly into the blood stream 0 The cells of the intestinal lining convert large lipid fragments ie monoglycerides and longchain fatty acids back into triglycerides and combine them with protein forming chylomicrons a type of lipoprotein that travel in the lymph vessels to the bloodstream o In the large intestine a small amount of cholesterol trapped in fiber exits with the feces Describe the relationships between 10 common risk factors and CVD saturated fats trans fatty acids poly and monounsaturated fatty acids dietary cholesterol excess calories fish oil omega3 fatty acids fruits and vegetables soluble fiber alcohol intake physical activity and smoking 0 Describe the general structure of proteins and the three components of amino acids o General structure of proteins 0 Protein contains Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen and Nitrogen 0 Made up of 20 different amino acids 9 of which are essential o Three components of amino acids 0 9 exist 0 Can only be replenished from foods 0 Adequate amounts of all the essential amino acids are required for protein synthesis because without them the body cannot make the proteins it needs to do its work Compare the digestion of protein and transport of amino acids with digestion and transport of lipids in the body o The cells of the small intestine complete digestion absorb amino acids and some larger peptides and release them into the bloodstream for use by the body s cells o Small lipids travel in the bloodstream unassisted Large lipids are incorporated into chlymicrons for transport in the lymph and blood Blood and other body fluids are watery so fats need special transport vehicles the lipoproteins to carry them in these fluids List the symptomsfeatures and causes of two types of proteincalorie malnutrition and discuss reasons why consuming too much protein is not recommended o Marasmus 0 Chronic PEM 0 Severe deprivation or impaired absorption of protein energy vitamins and minerals 0 Children 6 to 18 months develops slowly o Impaired growth wasting of muscles impaired brain development lower body temperature 0 Anxiety and apathy 0 Hair and skin problems o Kwashiorkor 0 Acute PEM 0 Children 18 months to 2 years develops rapidly 0 Some muscle wasting some fat retention 0 Edema fatty liver inflammation infections skin and hair changes apathy misery irritability 0 Loss of appetite o Too much protein 0 Not recommended because health risks may follow the over consumption of proteinrich foods 0 Heart Disease Foods rich in animal protein tend to be rich in saturated fats Homocysteine and heart disease link a High blood level of homocysteine often accompanies heart disease in stroke a Elevated blood homocysteine reduces chances of surviving a heart attack 0 Kidney Disease Highprotein diet increases the kidneys workload but this alone doesn t appear to damage healthy kidneys or cause kidney disease Kidney stones or other kidney diseases highprotein diet may speed the kidneys decline 0 Adult Bone Loss Purified protein causes calcium to be spilled from the u ne Too little dietary protein may weaken bones 0 Cancer Correlation between high intakes of fatty and well cooked red meats and processed meats and some types of cancers particularly those of the digestive tract breast and prostate Identify the most heavily subsidized crop in the US which food group is subsidized the least and the most commonly used sweetener in the US food supply based on the film How to Get Fat Without Really Trying o Most heavily corn o Least subsidized fruits o Most commonly used sweetener high fructose corn syrup Identify at least 3 of the messages for consumers in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans o Balance calories enjoy food but eat less o Foods to increase make half your plate fruits and veggies o Foods to reduce drink water instead of sugarydrinks Be able to state the definitions and characteristics of watersoluble and fat soluble vitamins o Watersoluble vitamins C and B vitamins Thiamin riboflavin niacin folate vitamin B12 vitamin B6 biotin pantothenic acid 0 Dissolve in water 0 Cooking and even washing cut foods with water can leach these vitamins out of the foods o Fatsoluble vitamins A D E and K 0 Found in the fats and oils of foods and require bile for absorption Describe how solubility affects the absorption transport storage and excretion of each type c Watersoluble o Absorbed directly into the blood 0 Travel freely in watery fluids most are not stored in the body 0 Readily excreted in the urine o Fatsoluble o Absorbed like fats first into the lymph then the blood 0 Must travel with protein carriers in watery body fluids stored in the liver or fatty tissues 0 Not readily excreted tend to build up in the tissues For each of the following vitamins be able to state the DRI Recommended Intakes main functions of the vitamin in the body symptoms of deficiency and toxicity D K A E C Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Folate B12 and B6 Biotin Pantothenic acid o Vitamin D O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O 0 Recommended Intake based on age Functions In Body mineralization of bones and teeth Deficiency Symptoms abnormal bone growth Rickets Toxicity Symptoms sunlight seafood enriched cereals fortified milk Vitamin K Recommended Intake based on gender Functions In Body synthesis of blood clotting and bone proteins Deficiency Symptoms hemorrhage Toxicity Symptoms opposes effects of anticlotting medicaiton Vitamin A Recommended Intake based on gender Functions In Body vision bone and tooth growth immunity Deficiency Symptoms night blindness impaired bone growth impaired immunity Toxicity Symptoms reduced bone density amp pain harmless yellowing of skin Vitamin E Recommended Intake 15 mgday Functions In Body antioxidant Deficiency Symptoms red blood cell breakage nerve damage Toxicity Symptoms augments the effect of anticlotting medication Vitamin C Recommended Intake based on gender 35 mgday for smokers Functions In Body collagen synthesis antioxidant supports immune system boosts iron absorption Deficiency Symptoms Scurvy poor wound healing infections Toxicity Symptoms aggravation of gout or kidney stones Thiamin O O 0 Recommended Intake based on gender Functions In Body part of coenzyme activity in energy metabolism Deficiency Symptoms Beriberi Toxicity Symptoms none Riboflavin O O O 0 Recommended Intake based on gender Functions In Body part of coenzyme active in energy metabolism Deficiency Symptoms cracked and red skin rashes Toxicity Symptoms none Niacin O O O 0 Recommended Intake based on gender Functions In Body part of coenzymes needed in energy metabolism Deficiency SymptomsPellegra flaky rough skin Toxicity Symptoms Niacin flush Folate O O O 0 Recommended Intake 400 mcgday Functions In Body part of coenzyme needed for new cell synthesis Deficiency Symptoms Anemia depression neural tube birth defects Toxicity Symptoms masks vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms Vitamin B12 0 O O 0 Recommended Intake 24 mcgday Functions In Body part of coenzymes needed for new cell synthesis Deficiency Symptoms Pernicious anemia Toxicity Symptoms none Vitamin B6 0 O O 0 Recommended Intake 13 mgday Functions In Body part of coenzyme needed for amino acid and fatty acid metabolism Deficiency Symptoms Anemia scaly dermatitis Toxicity Symptoms depression impaired memory Biotin 0 Recommended Intake30 mcgday Functions In Body cofactor for several enzymes needed in energy metabolism fat synthesis amino acid metabolism amp glycogen synthesis Deficiency Symptoms abnormal heart action loss of appetite nausea depression muscle pain weakness fatigue numbness of extremities dry around eyes nose and mouth Toxicity Symptoms none Pantothenic acid Recommended Intake 5 mgday Functions In Body part of a coenzyme needed in energy metabolism Deficiency Symptoms vomiting intestinal distress insomnia fatigue hypoglycemia increased sensitivity to insulin Toxicity Symptoms water retention infrequent O O O O O O 0 Be able to state primary food sources of above vitamins Vitamin D sunlight seafood enriched cereals fortified milk Vitamin K green vegetables soybeans Vitamin A dark orange fruits amp vegetables apricots carrots sweet potatoes etc fortified milk Vitamin E vegetables oils and products made from them Vitamin C redgreen peppers broccoli citrus fruits Thiamin enriched wheat products black beans sunflower seeds Riboflavin milk amp products spinach pork Niacin high protein foods baked potato Folate fortified and enriched products asparagus lentils Vitamin B12 foods of animal origin only Vitamin B6 banana sweet potato chicken Biotinwidespread in foods Pantothenic acid widespread in foods Describe the major roles of water Constitutes majority of body weight Carries nutrients and waste products Maintains structure of large molecules Participates in metabolic reactions Serves as a solvent Acts as a lubricant and cushion Aids in regulation of body temperature Maintains blood volume Know the following for iodine zinc fluoride calcium magnesium Main functions of each mineral in the body deficiency diseases andor symptoms of each mineral if mentioned in class notes best ways to obtain each mineral from foodmain food sources o Iodine 0 Recommended Intake 150 mcgday 0 Functions In Body component of the thyroid hormone thyroxine which helps to regulate growth development amp metabolic rate 0 Deficiency Symptoms Goiter cretinism o Toxicity Symptoms depressed thyroid activity goiterlike thyroid enlargement 0 Good Food Sources iodized salt seafood bread plants grown in most parts of the country amp animals fed those plants o Zinc 0 Recommended Intake based on gender 0 Functions In Body activates many enzymes 0 Deficiency Symptoms growth retardation hair loss loss of appetite o Toxicity Symptoms loss of appetite impaired immunity low HDL cholesterol 0 Good Food Sources meats shellfish poultry milk amp products o Fluoride 0 Recommended Intake based on gender 0 Functions In Body helps form bones and teeth confers decay resistance on teeth 0 Deficiency Symptoms susceptibility to tooth decay o Toxicity Symptoms fluorosis discoloration of teeth nausea vomiting diarrhea chest pain itching 0 Good Food Sources drinking water if fluoridecontaining of fluoridated tea seafood o Calcium Recommended Intake based on age Functions In Body mineralization of bones and teeth Deficiency Symptoms stunted growth and weak bones Toxicity Symptoms constipation increased risk of kidney stone formation 0 Good Food Sources milk amp products broccoli and turnip greens o Magnesium 0 Recommended Intake based on gender 0 Functions In Body factor involved in bone mineralization the building of protein enzyme action normal muscular function transmission of nerve impulses proper immune function maintenance of teeth 0 Deficiency Symptoms weakness muscle twitches appetite loss confusion if extreme convulsions bizarre movements hallucinations and difficulty swallowing in children growth failure 0 Toxicity Symptoms excess magnesium from abuse of laxatives causes diarrhea with fluid amp electrolyte amp pH imbalances 0 Good Food Sources nuts legumes whole grains dark green vegetables seafood chocolate cocoa Discuss the potential impact of outside the body factors on weightcontrol efforts Atmosphere pleasant and comfortable more food Accessibility less effort needed to obtain food more food eaten Socializing duration of meal visual cues distraction Distractions initiating eating interfering with internal controls extending duration of eating Presence sight smell or thought of food can prompt eating Multiple choice large assortments of foods increase consumption Package and portion sizes Serving containers Identify how many calories equal a pound of body fat and be able to calculate weight gain given excess calories o 3500 calories o Weight gain consume more calories than you burn Compare and contrast the progression and the symptoms of heart disease in men and in women o In men and women chest discomfort upper body discomfort shortness of breath cold sweat nausea or lightheadedness o In women breathlessness cold sweat dizziness nausea neck shoulder or abdominal pain unusual fatigue vomiting weakness Identify a healthy eating plan that reduces the intake of trans fats and saturated fats but maintains sufficient intakes of essential nutrients o Replacing red meats with fish eating almonds and other foods high in the essential fatty acids Explain why a nutritionally adequate diet is important long before a pregnancy is established and identify important nutritional considerations o A mother must be well nourished at the outset because early in pregnancy the embryo undergoes rapid and significant developmental changes that depend on good nutrition What are critical periods during pregnancy and why is nutrition particularly important during those times o 1 A newly fertilized ovum is about the size of the period at the end of this sentence This zygote at less than 1 week after fertilization is not much bigger and is ready for implantation o 2 After implantation the placenta develops and begins to provide nourishment to the developing embryo An embryo 5 weeks after fertilization is about 12 inch long 3 A fetus after 11 weeks of development is just over an inch long Notice the umbilical cord and blood vessels connecting the fetus with the placenta 4 A newborn infant after nine months of development measures close to 20 inches in length The average birthweight is about 712 pounds From 8 weeks to term this infant grew 20 times longer and 50 times heavier Whatever nutrients and other environmental conditions are necessary during these critical periods must be supplied on time if the organ is to reach its full potential If the development of an organ is limited during a critical period recovery is impossible Describe Low birth weight definition causes and prevention o Low birth weight a birthweight of less than 52 pounds used as a predictor of probable health problems in the newborn and as a probable indicator of poor nutrition status of the mother before andor during pregnancy Low birthweight infants are of two different types 0 Premature born early and are the right size for their gestational age 0 Other low birth weight infants have suffered growth failure in the uterus they are small for gestational age small for date and may or may not be premature Discuss the economic nutritional and health benefits of breastfeeding to both the mother and the child o Economic 0 Cost savings from not needing medical treatment for childhood illnesses or time off work to care for sick children Cost savings from not needing to purchase formula Environmental savings to society from not needing to manufacture package and ship formula or dispose packaging o Nutritional 0 Mother Conserves iron 0 Child Provides appropriate composition and balance of nutrients with high bioavailability Provides hormones that promote physiological development c Health Benefits 0 Mother Contracts the uterus Suppresses ovulation thus lengthening birth intervals May protect against breast and ovarian cancer 0 Child Improves cognitive development Protects against infections 0 O Protects against some chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension later in life Protects against food allergies Identify the special nutritional needs of a breastfeeding woman Be able to identify the requirements in terms of energy fluids calcium and overall diet o Energy 330400 calday o Fluids 38 Lday o Calcium 1000 mgday o Overall diet 0 Advised to eat whatever nutritious foods they choose If a particular food seems to cause an infant discomfort the mother can eliminate that food from their diet for a few days to see if the problem diminishes o Producing milk costs a woman almost 500 calday above regular need during first 6 months of lactation o Nutritional deprivation of the mother reduces the quantity not the quality of her milk Dr Robison State the psychological and physiological harms associated with dieting o Psychological harms 0 Eating disorders Disordered eating Body hatred Exercise addiction Exercise resistance 0 Shame amp isolation o Physiological harms 0 Weight cycling 0 Wasted resources 0 Diet medications show no evidence of weight loss sustainability o Malnutrition Dr Robison Explain intuitive eating normal eating and eating behavior continuum O O O O O o Intuitive eating becoming more attuned to the body s natural hunger signals is a more effective way to attain a healthy weight rather than keeping track of the amounts of energy and fats in food 0 Creates a healthy relationship with food mind and body o Normal eating eating when you are hungry and continue eating until satisfied 0 Choosing foods you like eating it and truly getting enough not just stopping because you think you should 0 Overeating at times and underrating at times 0 Flexible varies in response to your emotions schedule hunger and proximity to food o Eating behavior continuum 0 State the role of the caregiver and the role of the child during feeding Explain the division of responsibility o The caregiver s responsibility to offer a variety of healthy foods o Up to child how much or what to eat o Children should listen to internal eating cues 0 External cues can lead to obesity Explain ways in which a teenager s choice of soda over milk or soy milk may jeopardize nutritional health Describe the changing nutritional needs from teen to adult in terms of energy protein carbohydrates fiber fats essential fatty acids vitamins minerals and snacks Choosing snacks too high in saturated fat and sodium and too low in fiber fail to support the future health of arteries o Calcium needs are high to support the development of peak bone mass o Teens 0 Energy 22793067 calday Protein 5256 gday Carbohydrates 130 gday Fiber 3138 gday Fats none Essential fatty acids Linoleic acid 1217 gday Linolenic acid 1216 gday O O O O O o Adults 0 Energy 3067 calday O O O O 0 Protein 56 gday Carbohydrates 130 gday Fiber 38 gday Fats none Essential fatty acids Linoleic acid 17 gday Linoenic acid 16 gday o Vitamins teens need a little less of each vitamin than adults o Minerals teens need about the same amount of each mineral as adults 39239 Outline foodrelated factors that can predict malnutrition in older adults including water physical activity total energy consumption social impacts chronic diseases medications and the interactions of multiple factors o Water 0 Drink 68 glasses of water every day 0 Total body water decreases with age 0 Risks associated with dehydration o UTIs pneumonia pressure ulcers confusion disorientation o Physical Activity 0 Be physically active 0 Walk run dance swim bike or row for aerobic activity 0 Lift weights do calisthenics or pursue some other activity to tone firm and strengthen muscles 0 Practice balancing on one foot or doing single movements with your eyes closed 0 Modify activities to suit changing abilities and preferences c Total energy consumption 0 Energy needs decline 5 per decade 0 Nutrient needs remain high Modified food guide pyramid n n n Calorie needs decrease Vitamin and mineral needs stay the same Less selection Much more nutrient dense choices than before Protein 0 Especially important protect LBM loss optimize immunity and bone mass 0 Low calorie sources 0 Liquid nutritional formulas Carbohydrate and fiber 0 Add water to reduce constipation Fat 0 Moderate intake to enhance flavors o Decrease risk of malnutrition Social impacts 0 Hospital and nursing home malnutrition 0 Community malnutrition Chronic diseases 0 Medications Interactions Identify and describe federal food assistance programs available to improve nutritional status of low income Americans Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program aka food stamp program provides a basic safety net to millions of people by providing monthly benefits to eligible lowincome families that can be used to purchase food WIC program that serves to safeguard the health of lowincome women infants amp children up to age 5 who are at nutritional risk by providing nutritious foods to supplement diets information on healthy eating and referrals to health care School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs provide nutritionally balanced lowcost or free lunches and breakfasts to children each school day Elderly Nutrition Program locate food and nutrition programs such as congregate meals and homedelivered meals for older Americans Describe several specific drugnutrient interactions and name some herbs that may interfere with medication o Nutrients can increase or decrease drug actionmetabolismexcretion o Drugs can increase or decrease nutrient action or excretion o Drugs modify appetite and taste of foods nutrients herbs o Herbs modify the actions of drugs List food poisoning prevention practices including safe time out safe cooking temperatures for meats safe temperatures for refrigerator and freezer o Safe time out 0 Do not keep foods between 40 F and 140 F for more than 2 hours or for more than 1 hour when the air temperature is greater than 90 F o Safe cooking temperatures for meats 0 Well done meats 170 F o Stuffing poultry reheat leftovers 165 F o Medium done meats raw eggs egg dishes pork ground meats 160 F o Mediumrare beef steaks roasts veal lamb 145 F o Safe temperatures 0 Refrigerator 40 F 0 Freezer 0 F List proper storage and cooking techniques to preserve nutrient content for a variety of foods o Cooking steam or microwave o Storing keep fruits and vegetables refrigerated o Preparing keep cut produce in airtight containers Mrs Bradd State the difference in performance and glycogen levels between high fat diets normal diets and high carbohydrate diets o High fats diets performance time is three times less than that of a high carbohydrate diet o Normal diets performance time is normal o High carbohydrate diets endurance time is three times that on a highfat lowcarbohydrate diet Mrs Bradd List the negative effects from consuming inadequate carbohydrates Endurance athletes Glycogen depletion leads to increase 02 consumption to maintain same speed fatigue Strength Power Events 0 Increased muscle protein breakdown and use for energy Decreased hydration of muscle and poor thermoregulation Increased onset of fatigue and cramps Reduces ability to optimize training Uses more skeletal muscle for energy 0 O O 0 Dr Alaimo Recognize the health psychosocial and academic consequences of food insecurity and hunger for US children and adults Health lack of access to healthy food and opportunities for physical activity Psychosocial being food insecure is stressful Academic nutrient rich food are better for brain functioning so energydense nutrientpoor foods have no nutritional value for supporting intellectual activity Dr Alaimo Discuss the double health threat from food insecurity and overweight and suggest reasons why these threats could coexist Food insecure women but not men or children are more likely to be overweight due to 0 Lack of access to healthy food and opportunities for physical activity 0 Energydense nutrient poor foods are cheaper o Cycles of food deprivation and overeating 0 Being food insecure is stressful Internationally which groups are most susceptible to hunger Most susceptible are the poorest poor poverty no access to food developing countries can t afford to get food forced to grow food on their own over populated area and areas with environmental degradation Over population leads to environmental degradation food shortages and diminishing food supply These could be solved if it wasn t for political or social conflict This is in mostly developing areas What is the most common cause of death among malnourished children Dehydration from infections that cause diarrhea Explain how the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans can be incorporated into anyone s lifestyle Suggest simple ways to increase activity levels throughout the day o Minimum amount of aerobic physical activity 0 Intensity of activity 0 Extensive health benefits o Develop and maintain fitness 0 Cardiorespiratory endurance Aerobic activity that uses large muscle groups and can be maintained continuously 57 days per week Moderate intensity At least 30 minutes in duration Examples running cycling swimming inline skating rowing power walking crosscountry skiing kickboxing jumping rope sports activities such as basketball soccer racquetball tennis volleyball 0 Strength Resistance activities that is performed at a controlled speed and through a full range of motion 2 or more nonconsecutive days per week Enough intensity to enhance muscle strength and improve body composition 8 to 12 repetitions of 8 to 10 different exercises Examples pullups pushups weight lifting pilates o Flexibility Stretching activity that uses the major muscle groups 27 days per week Enough intensity to develop and maintain a full range of motion 24 repetitions of 1530 seconds per muscle group Examples yoga 0 Body composition List the components of fitness o Cardiorespiratory endurance body composition strength and flexibility 512011 32600 AM Which fatty acids does the body need but cannot make in amounts sufficient to meet physiological needs A Nonessential fatty acids Essential fatty acids Saturated fatty acids Trans fatty acids FPO Monounsaturated fatty acids Answer B Essential fatty acids If a product contains 180 calories total with 5 grams of fat what percent of calories are from fat A 10 B 15 C 20 D 25 E 30 Answer D 25 Which rich source of monounsaturated fatty acids has been found to provide some protection against heart disease A Palm oil B Flaxseed oil C Safflower oil D Olive oil E Walnut oil Answer D Olive oil Which is true regarding the digestion of small chain fatty acids A They are not absorbed in our bodies B They are mostly absorbed in the mouth and stomach C They form chylomicrons in the large intestine D They travel into the bloodstream unassisted E They are converted to triglycerides in the stomach Answer D They travel into the bloodstream unassisted TF Some ground turkey and chicken products in which the skin is ground in are much hiher in fats than lean beef Answer True The disease that is characterized by accumulation of deposits within the arteries resulting in inflexibility of the vessel and potential blockage is named A Myocardial Infarction Embolus Atherosclerosis POEquot Plaque Answer C Atherosclerosis Which fatty acids elevate LDL cholesterol and thus elevate the risk of heart disease and heart attack A Essential fatty acids Monounsaturated fatty acids Trans fatty acids Omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids FPO Omega6 polyunsaturated fatty acids Answer C Trans fatty acids TF A beneficial change in blood lipids occurs when monounsaturated fatty acids are added to a diet rich in saturated fatty acids Answer False The DASH diet contains more minerals that are thought to improve vascular function and improve chronic hypertension than the typical American diet What are they A Potassium Magnesium and Calcium Iron Phosphorus and Zinc Selenium Fluoride and Iodine POEquot Sodium Chloride and Copper Answer A Potassium Magnesium and Calcium A person with hypertension can benefit from all of the following dietary and lifestyle modifications EXCEPT A Reducing sodium intake B Adding a supplement of protein shakes C Eating less red meat while consuming more fish legumes nuts seeds skimlow fat milk fruits and vegetables D Adding an exercise program as approved by a physician Answer B Adding a supplement of protein shakes l Iquot S P 5quot What is the best definition of a phospholipid A A lipid similar to a triglyceride but has a phosphoruscontaining acid in place of one of the fatty acids B A fatty acid containing one point of unsaturation C A fat that contains any number of unusual fatty acids D A lipoprotein that transports lipids from the liver to other tissues Answer A A lipid similar to a triglyceride but has a phosphoruscontaining acid in place of one of the fatty acids Which fatty acids does the body need but cannot make in amounts sufficient to meet physiological needs A Nonessential fatty acids Essential fatty acids Saturated fatty acids Trans fatty acids FPO Monounsaturated fatty acids Answer B Essential fatty acids Which of the following isare characteristics of spreadable soft tub type margarines made from polyunsaturated oils A Hydrogen is forced into the oil and some of the unsaturated fatty acids accept it B The oil becomes harder after the hydrogen is added C The margarine becomes less saturated than the original oil D A and B E B and C AnswerD A and B Which type of fatty acids can be formed as a result of food processing A Monounsaturated fatty acids Polyunsaturated fatty acids Unsaturated fatty acids Trans fatty acids FPO Saturated fatty acids AnswerE Saturated fatty acids The most heart healthy margarines are those which A List liquid oil as he first ingredient B Are the most resistant to rancidity C Have received the most hydrogenation D Are the most expensive products Lecture Notes Ja n ua ry 10 h Introduction to Human Nutrition Syllabus 0 1st problem set due on Monday parts A and B 0 Print learning objectives and lecture outlines every week 0 Problem sets are open book and can be taken twice V If you get a 10 the 1st time close your book and take it again Get To Know You 0 What kind of eater are you V V V V A Super healthy Man I love those greens B Somewhat healthy but I like ice cream C Sometimes leat healthy mostly not D Whatevei s fast and tasty E Junk food o rama o What is your major V V V V V A NutritionDieteticsFood Science B MedicalNursing C Liberal Artsish D Businessish E Agricultureish o What do you want to know about nutrition V V V V V V V V V How do you calculate calories in food How do different foods affect your mood How to eat healthy and still feel full How to balance your diet What are the best vitaminssupplements and are they worth it What advertising tricks do companies use What nutrients can help speed metabolism How to balance portions of proteins carbohydrates etc Which foods are best for working out Guest lecture by sports nutritionist Nutrition Basics 0 Nutrition the scientific study of how food nourishes the body V It s a science Many sxumesare duneun numtmnthruLghthesmenu cmethud v Many aspeas n Essenuz numems can enner prumute neaun m nut etc Human Eztmg Behzvmrs Weeanurmanymamanuuuafurnmnents Bm ugmz zsweHasermrunmenm chhubgmz fzcturs hzv m Marketmgandzdmnsz edthefuudsham amassdepruduamnmanmmnandmnmmmmn H wwe acqweumuud and what we eat effedsre ztmngmpsznd enwunment as wen Whywsnumtmmmpurtzm umtmn and mseasea Numtmn Effedsdwsezae auae puur reswstzncetu msease mpunznt m cuuureswnn ma numtmn x Scurvy Purenmrwtmnz dwsezse Puur nutmer can 9 Happenswhentherewsz breakduwnufcqugen CollzgzncunnedweussuethztHe psuurbudweshez wuunds Causessuresunskmzndgums CanbefztzL Whmhwtzmmzretheymwsarg P g E mzmmE tzmmczscurbmzmd PrutedsceHszgzmsldamage Good for gums and skin Helps absorb iron Prevents scurvy Which red foodbeverage is highest in Vitamin C O A Red Peppers O B Apple 9 C Red Meat O D Twizzlers O E Red Wine Red and orange fruits and vegetables and dark green plants are good sources Chronic diseases like heart disease cancer and diabetes can be prevented by diet Clinical trials have been done and show that diet can reverse heart disease Heart Disease when the blood vessels become narrower and narrower due to the buildup of plaque O Eventually the buildup can cut off the flow and cause heart attack in the heart or stroke in the brain Dr Dean Ornish did a trial for 5 years to see if we can reverse heart disease with diet O Lowfat whole food diet with exercise and stress management 1 Reduced their stenosis Stenosis how much the blood flow is blocked the greater the stenosis the worse off you are Control group actually got worse Nutrients o Nutrients components of food indispensible to the body s functioning V They provide Energy Serve as building materials Maintain or repair body parts Support growth V If you don t eat nutrients you ll die V Examples of nutrients Proteins Amino Acids Lipids Fats Carbohydrates VitaminsMinerals Water V Essential Nutrients nutrients the body can t make for itself Must be taken in through diet to prevent deficiencies HNF150 Spring 2011 Dr Golzvnski Lecture Notes WHAT IS NUTRITION Nutrition is the study of Food Choices I Choices are highly personal I Personal preference I Habit I Ethnic heritage or tradition I Social interactions I Availability convenience and economy I Positive and negative associations I Emotions I Values I Body weight and image Nutrition and health bene ts I Functional foods Nutrition and Diseases HNF150 Spring 2011 Dr Golzynski Lecture Notes How important is nutrition in promoting health LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH UNITED STATES 199 39 NM gamm Lizurde mu r 211 ml fun mu mLmJ In warmm u unu mm glow Jun mt ulmliui rm uzd N54 C39rIltrrvt chquot Dist plays a pan Exccgswn ditryi m cmlsummnn a pan in mr Causes 013m rm Manon oarnun rm The Nutrients Water Mineralssimplest inorganic micro Vitaminsorganic micro Carbohydratesorganic macro Proteinsorganic macro contain nitrogen Lipids fats organic Nutrient Composition of the Body EnergyYielding Nutrients Provide kcalories Carbohydrate 4 kcalg Protein 4 kcalg Fat 9 kcalg HNF150 Spring 2011 Dr Golzynski Lecture Notes Alcohol Yields energy 7 kcalg Macronutrients vs micronutrients Amount of energy in fooddepends on macronutrient composition Using nutrients for energybreaking bonds storing excess energy Metabolismmaterials of building body tissues regulation of body activities What are CALORIES Calories Energy 1 calorie The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 L water by 1 degree Celsius Nutrient Density Foods rich in nutrients relative to their energy content calories Usually Whole Foods Conducting Research Use of scientific method Research studies Controls Sample size Placebos Doubleblind experiments Epidemiological studies Crosssectional studies Casecontrol studies l Iquot S P 5quot Which food would be considered the LEAST nutrientdense A Potatoes au gratin B Blueberry Pancakes C Beef Burrito D Gummy Bears E Snickers bar Answer D Gummy Bea rs Which of the following contains more calories per gram than alcohol A Lipids B Protein C Carbohydrates D Vitamins E Water Answer A Lipids The Dietary Reference Intakes DRI s are set by the A US Department of Health and Human Services DHHS Food amp Nutrition Board FNB US Department of Agriculture USDA Food and Drug Administration FDA American Diabetics Association ADA FPO Answer B Food and Nutrition Board FNB The Food and Drug Administration defines quothealth claim as a claim made by food manufactures that describe the relationships between A Food products and diseases or conditions Food products and nutrient contents Nutrient contents and individuals DRI s POEquot Individuals DRI s and diseases or conditions Answer A Food products and diseases or conditions Calculate the amount of calories in a bag of chips that contain 23 grams of carbohydrates 2 grams of protein and 7 grams of fat A 149 B 163 C 217 D 232 E 166 Answer B 163 9 N 9 5 The credential RD displayed by a dietitian s name indicated registration with A The American Diabetic Association B The International Academy of Nutritional Consultants C The American Association of Nutrition and Dietary Consultants D The National Board of Licensed Dietitians Answer A The American Diabetic Association The lymphatic system is responsible for transporting to the blood system A Calcium B Protein C Carbohydrates D Fat E Water Answer D Fat TF Plasma is the fluid in blood and lymph that is contained within cells Answer False As food moves through the digestive tract it spends the most time in the A Esophagus because of the slow movement of peristalsis on chewed food Small intestine because of the time it takes to absorb through the villi Stomach because of the extensive breakdown of carbohydrates and fats POEquot Large intestine because of the need to partially digest fiber and absorb water Answer D Large intestine because of the need to partially digest fiber and absorb water 10 In advanced liver diseases due to alcoholism what occurs before fibrosis and cirrhosis A Fatty accumulation in the liver Fat depletion in the liver Sugar accumulation in the liver Sugar depletion in the liver FPO Shrinkage of liver cells Answer A fatty accumulation in the liver 1 Which of the following nutrients does NOT supply energycalories in an individual s diet A B C D Protein Lipids Vitamins Carbohydrates Answer C Vitamins 2 Foods such as milk meats vegetables fruits and grains are known as A B C D E Fortified foods Enriched foods Whole foods Antioxidants Phytochemicals Answer C Whole Foods 3 According to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines which of the following is recommended for an adult who prefers moderate intensity exercise A POEquot At least 30 minutes of physical activity on most daysweek At least 60 minutes of physical activity 23 daysweek At least 150 minutes of physical activity 1 dayweek Any duration of physical activity is good whenever you have the time Answer A at least 30 minutes of physical activity on most daysweek 4 The ingredients on food labels are listed in A B C D E Descending order by weight Descending order by nutritional value Alphabetical order Ascending order by weight Ascending order by nutritional value Answer A Descending order by weight 5 Harry just ate a candy bar that had 10g of fat 10g of carbohydrates and 5g of protein How many calories did his candy bar have A B C D E Answer B 150 110 150 200 350 220 HNF150 SPRING 2013 Week 11 Water and Minerals Water 1 Describe the major roles of water The major functions of water are that it carries nutrients cleanses tissues and blood acts as a solvent is in chemical reactions serves as a lubricant around joints works as a shock absorber and regulates body temperature 2 Identify the causes signs and symptoms of dehydration Dehydration is caused when too much water is lost from the body and is not replaced The first sign is thirst and then when about 5 of body uid is lost symptoms like headache fatigue confusion forgetfulness and increased hea1t rate appear Symptoms of mild dehydration are thirst sudden weight loss rough dry skin dry mouth rapid pulse and lack of energy low blood pressure and reduced urine The symptoms of severe dehydration are pale skin bluish lips and ngertips confusion rapid shallow breathing weak pulse shock seizures coma and death 3 Recall how water is regulated in the body Water is regulated in the body by your senses dry mouth The hypothalamus which senses concentrated blood low blood volume or low blood pressure and signals the pituitary gland to release hormone to the kidneys to conserve water Lastly by kidneys which monitor sodium concentration 4 Recognize the sources of water input and output The sources of water input are foods water created by metabolism and liquids Water output occurs from the evaporation of sweat in the moisture of exhaled breath a in the urine and in the feces 5 Recognize the differences between soft and hard water Soft water contains more sodium and hard water contains more magnesium and calcium 6 Compare the safety regulations of tap and bottled water The safety regulations for bottled water are that disinfection is required for tap water while not for bottled EColi is confirmed to be banned from tap water and not from bottle There is testing hundreds of times per month for tap and once a week for bottled Tap water is filtered for pathogens and bottled water is not Tap water tests for organic chemical once a quarter and bottled water tests once a year Terms 1 Solvent a substance that dissolves another and holds it in solution 2 Water balance the balance between water intake and water excretion which keeps the body s water content constant 3 Dehydration 7 loss of water 4 Diuretic 7 a compound usually a medication causes increased urinary water excretion a water pill 5 Electrolytes 7 compounds that partly dissociate in water to form ions such as the potassium ion K and the chloride ion Cl39 6 Tons 7 electrically charged particles such as sodium or chloride HNF150 SPRING 2013 Week 11 Minerals 1 Recognize the roles of minerals in maintaining uid electrolyte and acidbase balance Minerals form salts that dissolve in the body and direct where water goes because water follows salt They separate into electrically charged particles called electrolytes To control the ow of water the body moves these electrolytes from one body compartment to another to keep a proper balance Mineral salts also serve as a buffer to help control pH level allowing all life processes to take place 2 Identify the main functions of each mineral in the body de ciency diseases andor symptoms of each mineral best ways to obtain each mineral from foodmain food sources Food Source Energy metabolism Affects metabolism of potassium calcium and vitamin D Protein formation Mineral Function Deficiency symptoms Iodine Thyroxin hormone made by Goiter enlargement of Iodized salt seafood the thyroid gland and thyroid gland seaweed foods grown responsible for regulating in iodizedrich soil BMR Zinc Activates many enzymes Growth retardation Oysters Beef steak associated with hormones delayed sexual yogurt shrimp synthesis of genetic material maturation impaired enriched cereal pork and proteins transport of immune function hair chop Vitamin A taste perception loss eye and skin wound healing and lesions loss of appetite reproduction Fluoride Not an essential nutrient Susceptibility to tooth Fluoridated water and inhibits dental caries by decay toothpaste tea seafood promoting remineralization of tooth enamel Calcium Nerve transmission blood Stunted growth in Milk and milk products pressure blood clothing children and oysters small sh with muscle contraction and osteoporosis in adults bones broccoli and heartbeat legumes Stored in bones and teeth Magnesium Assists in enzyme function Weakness muscle Nuts legumes whole twitches appetite loss confusion In extreme convulsions hallucinations grains dark green vegetables seafoods chocolate cocoa HNF150 SPRING 2013 Week 11 Muscular relaxation dif culty swallowing Provides resistance to tooth In children growth decay failure Iron Helps many enzymes use Iron De ciency Heme Iron meat sh oxygen needed to make new Anemia and poultry cells amino acids hormones and neurotransmitters oxygen Non heme Iron plants carrying cells hemoglobin red blood cells and myglobin muscle cells Potassium Facilitates reactions including Causes muscular All whole foods meats making proteins the weakness paralysis milk fruits vegetables maintenance of uid and and confusion grains legumes electrolyte balance support of cell integrity the transmission of nerve impulses and contraction of muscles like the heart Sodium Acts as an electrolyte maintain Hypertension Salt soy sauce normal uid balance and acid seasoning mixes base balance critical to nerve processed foods impulse transmission condiments fast food 3 Identify how one can prevent osteoporosis One can prevent osteoporosis by having adequate calcium intake adequate vitamin D and vitamin K and adequate protein They must maintain a healthy weight limit alcohol eat less saltsodium not smoke and limit caffeine cola and other soft drinks and increase physical activity 4 Describe the calcium paradox US has the highest consumption of calcium in the world and the highest rate of osteoporosis while Africa has the lowest calcium consumption in the world and the lowest rate of osteoporosis in the world because the more protein you eat the more you lose calcium in urine and weight bearing exercise maintains our bones 5 Recognize factorsfoods that enhance or impair iron absorption Vitamin C and MFP factor enhance iron absporption while phytates grain polyphenols tea and dark chocolates calcium and lead impair absorption 6 Identify major food sources of sodium in US diet and the Dietary Guideline for sodium The major Source is processedpackaged foods and the guideline is to consume less than 2300mg of salt per day l Iquot S P Equot 9 Where are water soluble vitamins stored in the body A Fatty Tissues B Liver C Kidneys D Pancreas E They are not generally stored in the body Answer E They are not generally stored in the body Which deficiency disease symptoms include the four D s diarrhea dermatis dementia and death A Beriberi B Pellagra C Pernicious anemia D Vitamin C deficiency E Vitamin A deficiency Answer B Pellagra TF Water soluble vitamins are not stored in the body and are therefore readily excreted into the urine Answer True TF BetaCarotene can be found in dark green vegetables such as spinach and broccoli Answer True TF Smokers have a higher need for vitamin K than the average nonsmoking adult Answer False Which B vitamin is involved in the body s use of fuels that occupies a special site on nerve cell membranes A Vitamin B6 B Vitamin B12 C Niacin D Folate E Thiamin Answer E Thiamin Iquot S P Equot 9 Which regulates basal metabolic rate P Selenium B Sulfate C Thyroxine D ron E Sodium Answer C Thyroxine What is Basal Metabloic Rate BM R A The rate at which the body breaks down amino acids B The rate at which the body uses energy to support basal metabolism C The rate at which blood glucose levels increase after a meal D The rate at which the body digests a meal E The rate at which the body secretes insulin Answer B The rate at which the body uses energy to support basal metabolism One pound of body fat is equal to calories A 3000 B 4000 C 2500 D 3500 Answer D 3500 TF Genetics play a role in obesity Answer True Among the listed activities which is the best way to increase the speed of your metabolism A Reduce the amount of foods you eat B Reduce the amount of water you drink C Replace walking with jogging for daily exercise D Eat and drink slowly E Take extra amount of sleep Answer C Replace walking with jogging for daily exercise Which person has the highest basal metabolic rate A A person that is relaxed B A person that is underweight C A senior citizen that practices a vegetarian diet D A growing youth that is overweight E A person that has been fasting Answer D 1 What is colostum A A premilk substance containing antibodies and white blood cells A substance that emulsifies fats to aid the baby s digestion A component of breast milk containing antibodies POEquot A product of digestion found in the baby s GI tract after breastfeeding Answer A A premilk substance containing antibodies and white blood cells 2 What is the placenta A The sac where the fetus quotfloatsquot The womb in which the fetus develops before birth B C The tissue that provides nutrients and removes wastes for the fetus D The stage of human gestation from the 3rd to 8 h week after conception E The tube attached to the fetus belly button providing nutrients and removing wastes Answer C The tissue that provides nutrients and removes wastes for the fetus 3 Which pregnancyrelated symptom is relieved by consuming fiberrich foods A Constipation B Nausea C Back aches D Edema E Fever Answer A Constipation 4 By ceasing menstruation during pregnancy the body conserves which nutrient A ron B Protein C Thiamin D Carbohydrate E Calcium Answer A Iron 5 TF Current research suggests initial breastfeeding protects against obesity in later life Answer True 6 TF Breastfeeding protects against a variety of infections and food allergies Answer True N S P Equot 9 Which of the following items may denote sugar on food labels A Corn syrup B Aspartame C Xylitol D Cellulose Answer A Corn syrup The chief energy source of the body is A Sucrose B Starch C Glucose D Fructose Answer C glucose TrueFalse Blood glucose regulation depends on the hormones insulin and glucagon Answer True Polysaccharides are made up of long strand of A Glucose units Galactose units Fructose units POEquot Lactose units Answer A glucose units What is the name of the human storage form of glucose A Granules Glycogen Complex carbohydrates POEquot Simple carbohydrates Answer B glycogen What is Ketosis A High levels of ketone bodies in the blood or urine B An inability to convert body fat into glucose C The body s mechanism of defense for sparing protein D The breaking down of ketones to yield energy and CO Answer A High levels of ketone bodies in the blood or urine 7 Which organ of the body is responsible for converting absorbed monosaccharides into glucose A B C D E Stomach Small Intestine Large Intestine Liver Pancreas Answer D Liver 8 TrueFalse Type 2 diabetes is caused by decreased production of insulin by pancreas Answer False 9 Which of the following is a component of the treatment for Type 1 diabetes P POEquot Receiving insulin from an external source injection Consuming high amounts of carbohydrates Strictly avoiding all sugar or sugarcontaining foods Taking large Vitamin C supplements Answer A Receiving insulin from an external source injection 10 TrueFalse Insoluble fiber is helpful to slow glucose absorption and binds with bile and carries it out of the GI system with the feces Answer False 1 A diet in carbohydraterich foods such as whole grains vegetables fruits and legumes is most likely A POEquot Low in fat Low in fiber Poor in vitamins and minerals Disease promoting Answer A Low in fat 2 Carbohydrates are found in virtually all foods EXCEPT A B C D Milk Meats Breads Vegetables Answer B Meats 3 Which foodstuff is not digested by the human digestive system but still contributes to a healthy diet A B C D Sugars Glycogen Fiber Starch Answer C Fiber 4 TrueFalse Blood glucose regulation depends on the hormones insulin and glucagon Answer True 5 What is starch A FPO A plant polysaccharide composed of fructose A plant monosaccharide composed of fructose A plant polysaccharide composed of glucose A plant monosaccharide composed of glucose A plant disaccharide composed of glucose Answer C A plant polysaccharide composed of glucose 6 Lactose is composed of A POEquot Glucose and galactose Two glucose units Fructose and galactose Water and carbon dioxide Answer A glucose and galactose Which fatty acids does the body need but cannot make in amounts sufficient to meet physiological needs A Nonessential fatty acids Essential fatty acids Saturated fatty acids Trans fatty acids FPO Monounsaturated fatty acids Answer B Essential fatty acids If a product contains 180 calories total with 5 grams of fat what percent of calories are from fat A 10 B 15 C 20 D 25 E 30 Answer D 25 Which rich source of monounsaturated fatty acids has been found to provide some protection against heart disease A Palm oil B Flaxseed oil C Safflower oil D Olive oil E Walnut oil Answer D Olive oil Which is true regarding the digestion of small chain fatty acids A They are not absorbed in our bodies B They are mostly absorbed in the mouth and stomach C They form chylomicrons in the large intestine D They travel into the bloodstream unassisted E They are converted to triglycerides in the stomach Answer D They travel into the bloodstream unassisted TF Some ground turkey and chicken products in which the skin is ground in are much hiher in fats than lean beef Answer True The disease that is characterized by accumulation of deposits within the arteries resulting in inflexibility of the vessel and potential blockage is named A Myocardial Infarction Embolus Atherosclerosis POEquot Plaque Answer C Atherosclerosis Which fatty acids elevate LDL cholesterol and thus elevate the risk of heart disease and heart attack A Essential fatty acids Monounsaturated fatty acids Trans fatty acids Omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids FPO Omega6 polyunsaturated fatty acids Answer C Trans fatty acids TF A beneficial change in blood lipids occurs when monounsaturated fatty acids are added to a diet rich in saturated fatty acids Answer False The DASH diet contains more minerals that are thought to improve vascular function and improve chronic hypertension than the typical American diet What are they A Potassium Magnesium and Calcium Iron Phosphorus and Zinc Selenium Fluoride and Iodine POEquot Sodium Chloride and Copper Answer A Potassium Magnesium and Calcium A person with hypertension can benefit from all of the following dietary and lifestyle modifications EXCEPT A Reducing sodium intake B Adding a supplement of protein shakes C Eating less red meat while consuming more fish legumes nuts seeds skimlow fat milk fruits and vegetables D Adding an exercise program as approved by a physician Answer B Adding a supplement of protein shakes l Iquot S P 5quot What is the best definition of a phospholipid A A lipid similar to a triglyceride but has a phosphoruscontaining acid in place of one of the fatty acids B A fatty acid containing one point of unsaturation C A fat that contains any number of unusual fatty acids D A lipoprotein that transports lipids from the liver to other tissues Answer A A lipid similar to a triglyceride but has a phosphoruscontaining acid in place of one of the fatty acids Which fatty acids does the body need but cannot make in amounts sufficient to meet physiological needs A Nonessential fatty acids Essential fatty acids Saturated fatty acids Trans fatty acids FPO Monounsaturated fatty acids Answer B Essential fatty acids Which of the following isare characteristics of spreadable soft tub type margarines made from polyunsaturated oils A Hydrogen is forced into the oil and some of the unsaturated fatty acids accept it B The oil becomes harder after the hydrogen is added C The margarine becomes less saturated than the original oil D A and B E B and C AnswerD A and B Which type of fatty acids can be formed as a result of food processing A Monounsaturated fatty acids Polyunsaturated fatty acids Unsaturated fatty acids Trans fatty acids FPO Saturated fatty acids AnswerE Saturated fatty acids The most heart healthy margarines are those which A List liquid oil as he first ingredient B Are the most resistant to rancidity C Have received the most hydrogenation D Are the most expensive products l Iquot S P What type of bond is formed between the amine group end of one amino acid and the acid group end of the next A Spiritual bond B Amino bond C Peptide bond D Protein bond Answer C Peptide Bond What makes each amino acid so unique A The number of nitrogen atoms B The amount of energy it contains C The amount of fat it contains D The composition of its side chain E The composition of its amine group Answer D The composition of its side chain About how many kinds of different amino acids exist in human body A 9 B 20 C 50 D 100 E 150 Answer B 20 What do Nitrogen Balance Studies compare A Nitrogen lost by excretion versus nitrogen eaten in food B Nitrogen in different foods C Nitrogen in men versus nitrogen in women D Nitrogen in adults versus nitrogen in children E Nitrogen during pregnancy Answer A Nitrogen lost by excretion versus nitrogen eaten in food During protein digestion what happens after the intestinal cells absorb amino acids A Amino acids are transported through the blood cells to all the body s cells B Amino acid strands are cleaved into polypeptides C Enzymes from the bloodstream split peptide strands into tripeptides dipeptides and amino acids D Amino acids are transported through the lymph to the liver for processing E Amino acids are transported through the blood to the liver Answer E Amino acids are transported through the blood to the liver 9 N 0 Which disease is characterized by rapid onset enlarged fatty liver edema dry and brittle hair and the possible development of skin lesions A Kwashiorkor B Marasmus C Osteoporosis D Cancer E Scurvy Answer A Kwashiokor Which fatty acid is often underrepresented in a lactoovo vegetarian diets because it is found mainly in fatty fish A Omega6 fatty acid B Saturated fatty acid C Monounsaturated fatty acid D Omega3 fatty acid E Polyunsaturated fatty acid Answer D Omega3 fatty acid TF Government funding supports Emergency Food Assistance in the US Answer True Which vitamin deficiency is the world s leading cause of blindness in young children A Vitamin A B ron C Calcium D Folic acid Answer A Vitamin A Which is NOT a way to prevent death from diarrheal disease A Safe water B C Adequate sanitation D Oral rehydration therapy ORT Increased worldwide grain production Answer B Increased worldwide grain production 1 What is a polypeptide A A strand of multiple amino acids bonded by peptide bonds B Two amino acids bound by more than one peptide bond C An amino acid with more than one nitrogen atom attached D An amino acid that has multiple side chains E A unique chemical structure attached to the backbone of an amino acid Answer A A strand of multiple amino acids bonded by peptide bonds 2 One cup of white rice and one cup of black beans eaten together is an example of A Extra supplementation B Complementary proteins C Legume therapy D Essential amino acids E Nonessential amino acids Answer B Complementary proteins 3 What are essential amino acids AA A AA that are synthesized by the liver B AA that are synthesized in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions C AA that cannot be synthesized by the body D AA that are synthesized by the stomach E AA that are synthesized by the pancreas Answer C AA that cannot by synthesized by the body 4 Where are proteins split into single amino acids dipeptides and tripeptides A Mouth B Small intestine C Large intestine D Pancreas E Colon Answer B Small Intestine 5 Which of the following is NOT something scientists measure to determine the body s daily nitrogen loses A Urine B Sweat C Feces D Hair Answer D Hair HNF150 Carbohydrates Dr Golzynski Lecture Notes Introduction to Carbohydrates I Brain I Muscles trition Facts amp im i ia iil ii mum I Sources of Carbohydrates CHO manna calmsle l g 1 lg H mm m a 3 Wuhmlam I Consist of amp smmsm I Types of CHO include 0 Simple sugars 0 Complex CHO o Glycogen I CHO are Chemist s View of Carbohydrates Vac atom has a characierlsnc number oi bonds li can lorn39l wdh other aioms l l HCC O H HH Noilne lllal lquot lhis Simple molecule of ethyl alcohol each H has one mm as IWO an each C has low Carbohydrate family Atoms and chemical bonds Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides Monosaccharides Carbohydrates L Dr Golzynski ecture Notes I Same o Differing I Glucose 0 Part of I Fructose o of the sugars I Galactose 0 Only in a fewfoods Disaccharides I Pairs of monosaccharides I Condensation I Hydrolysis Monosaccharides and Disaccharides mu IvaVI mu mam uiuau unimuuf manna m on L m M W W WWW WWW umwwm mm a on gmup 1mm one mums and The w gimme Hmlauuias Wm M H m gm a W o m m cixnhu who create a imiecuiu ui H20 he disacalmridu manage em a Polysacch a rid es m9 mum mam m we glut153 mm w H We in an m on 0 me my mom in W nuiscuie I Glycogen 0 Storage form of HNF 150 Carbohydrates Dr Golzynshi Lecture Notes 0 Starch 0 Storage form of mm 0 Fibers o Differ from starches o o Soluble flbers beneflts O o Insoluble flbers benefits I 0 Functional fibers Cellulose o Resistant starches o Phytic acid Glycowevl Starcnlamylnveulnl Slarmlamvloswl glamsa lmlls in long highly branched occasionally brmd ed chem amyiopedlnl or unhranmed chains Dietary Fibers Characteristics Sources amp Health Effects Fiber Characterfs cs Major food Sources Soluble mans more Wholegrain products barley mountable oats oat bran rye fruits apples 39 Gums and muctlages Citrus legumes seeds and us 5 vegetables also extracted and 39 Pawns used as food additives 0 Psylliunla 0 Some llemicelluloses lnsolutrlenonv1mus Brown rice fruits legumes seeds assicrmenraole vegetables cabbage carrots brus Cellulose sels sprouts wheat bran whole 39 ugnim grains also extracted and used as food additives l sylliunla 0 Resistantstarch 2 Gallbladder 2 Gallbladder 39 Many hemicelluiuses stores blle stores bile 1 v 1 Liver uses blood Liver uses blood cholesterol to cholesterol to make bus 3 Intestlne blle make bus 3 Fiber in the I Intestine bile aids dlgastlon re d It blnds to ber 3 3 gas on JV I 539 Much of the A Illlle cholesterol cholesterol In bile absorbed lulu Ihe blood Into the blood 4 4 Fiber and bile Llllla bile creted ll39l excreted A A high ber diet B A lowliner diet HNF 150 Carbohydrates Dr Golzynshi Lecture Notes Colon Health Effects of Starch and Fibers I Excessive fiber 0 Dietary Goals 12511 Carbohydrate Digestion I Ultimate goal 0 Glucose for absorption and use Hydrolysis via enzymes Mouth 0 Amylase I Stomach o Stomach acid amp proteindigesting enzymes 0 Role of fiber slow down the process of digestion Small intestine 0 Most carbohydrate digestion o Pancreatic amylase 0 Specific disaccharide enzymes Maltase maltose 2 glucose Sucrose sucrose Lactase lactose 4 HNF 150 Carbohydrates Dr Golzynshi Lecture Notes 0 Large intestine o Fibers Carbohydrate Absorption 0 Active transport physically take the products to a place 0 Glucose o Galactose 0 Facilitated diffusion Fructose 0 Liver Conversion of fructose and galactose dig umeap lanxufmzinlminal nun l Munsatfhari gsmzend vmduns ufmrboh dmta l lnglucnse Mun mmnnmmu if m m livervlam Dnrtalvem Carbohydrate Metabolism 0 Glucose is a key player 0 Storing glucose as glycogen 0 Liver storage Condensation into glycogen Hydrolysis for release of glucose when needed 0 Muscle storage Selfisth hoards glycogen 0 Glucose for energy 0 Fuels most of body s cells Preferred source for brain nerve and developing red blood cells 0 Cellular breakdown of glucose 5 HNF 150 Carbohydrates Dr Golzynski Lecture Notes 0 Making glucose from protein 0 Amino acid conversion 0 Gluconeogenesis 0 Ketone bodies from fat fragments o Inadequate supply of carbohydrates Fat metabolism shifts Ketone body formation starvation Ketosis acidbase balance 0 Carbohydrate needs for protein sparing and prevention of ketosis 0 Using glucose to make fat Recommended Intakes of Starch amp Fibers 0 DRI for carbohydrates 0 45 to 65 of energy requirement 0 RDA for carbohydrates 0 130 grams per day 0 Fiber 0 DV 115 grams per 1000kcalories o DRI 14 grams per 1000kcalories o No UL Although NCI lt 35 gday and WHO lt 40 gday From Guidelines to Groceries 0 Grains o 1 ounce provides about 15g of carbohydrate 0 Three are key message 0 Vegetables 0 Starch content 0 Fruits 0 Milk and milk products 0 Meat and meat alternatives 0 Read food labels 0 Total carbohydrate HNF 150 Carbohydrates Dr Golzynski Lecture Notes starch fibers sugars 0 Sugars Added and natural sugars Whole Grains Parts of a Grain Milling of Grains Bran quotOuler shell protects seedK hq39e Aquot pans muled nm Graln 3 thnmms mm Munanlg Endosperm valdes energy My pmmquot arm Re ned Naunshmen 0 Grain Endosperm ls milled he Seed Evnmms mmquot Germ s Bran Muwamx 39 HNF150 Dr Golzynski Numams in bread a Cengage Lemma Kay I Whale9mm mead Unenriched We a 7 Carbohydrates Eminth Wl leE tunaa Poisenlsuo oi nuinenis HUM veplesems mnnem levels oi wholevgrain bread COMMON Whole Grains Brown rice Popcorn Whole wheat Wild rice Whole grain corn or cornmeal 1m 3 2 3 some evudence that sugars Increase LnL bad ammo and triglycerides Can sugar cause obesity es Inagal we we Law slyurm 1mm foods mav enhance many can sugar cause Type 2 Diabetes Maybe ll sugar alarms am cam and lead to mm Low lemmlc Index foods may grated against m Does sugar increase n sk for heart disease7 some evldente um lugh a foods quotmm muted cholesterol and mglycandes and luwer Hm gnodl holesmra V Lecture Notes Whole Grain WHOLE WQEAT dldfu ha i Wheat Bread mm m Irm umuiwu mummy GllSy mm min vmw m i rm r mm unsuwnunsn Nam mm mm m lEClmW lvFlFMIHFE mm Ion Facts Sgrngu m w Wham l w my Saiwr chmme 395 WWW w mum Mr Wing Maunl nu um Want1 73 Came ham Eu u cm 547 Calvva lum m H cam1m worm km W l5 s a w m lIa mm 1 5 7 mm m y a 2 mm m Yum FM l2 mm mm mm v3 939 Sodium 210m 9 sum mam r Yahl Wild l5 5 1 wavemomma ii 5 5 low Damon 11 37 NEH 2 Sean A arm in Mm mum 49 Maria 5 mm a unwunmsw wm we win imimu u r ll39 mm mm mm mm mm NF M39unssis l Wmquot W W Fquot All l39lll amml a W mm mm AV 39lu Jl mum mnw MGWUIN Imamman unurwmuss w irmm Ikmlm Oatmeal whole rolled oats steel cut oats ilj yau TRY SOMETHING NEW Amaranth Buckwheat or kasha Cracked wheat 3 02 r 81 mg 12 m lt HNF 150 Carbohydrates Dr Golzynski Lecture Notes Health Effects of Sugars 0 Pleasure in moderate amounts 0 Nutrient deficiencies 0 Energy with few other nutrients o Discretionary kcalories 0 Honey More energy per spoonful Healthy benefits 0 Sugar sources 0 Sugar Substitutes 0 Food and Drug Administration has reviewed scientific studies and approved as safe sugar alcohols saccharin aspartame acesulfameK sucralose 0 Do not stimulate or suppress appetite o Safer for your teeth 0 Listen to your body do what works for you Lactose Intolerance 0 Lactase activity 0 Highest immediately after birth 0 Declines with age lactase de ciency 0 Symptoms of intolerance o Bloating abdominal discomfort amp diarrhea 0 Causes of intolerance beyond age 0 Prevalence o Genetically determined Overall 75 ofworld s people are lactose intolerant 90 Asian Americans 80 Native Americans 80 African Americans 70 Mediterranean peoples 60 lnuits 50 Hispanics HNF 150 Carbohydrates Dr Golzynski Lecture Notes 25 US population lt 15 Northern Europeans Dietary changes 0 Manage dairy consumption ratherthan restriction 0 Increase consumption gradually 0 Mix with other foods 0 Spread throughout the day 0 Fermented milk products 0 individualized diets 0 Potential nutrient de ciencies o Riboflavin vitamin D and calcium Health Effects of Sugars 0 Dental caries o Bacteria ferment sugars producing acid 0 Food factors associated with tooth decay Time of food in mouth Sticky goods Frequency of sugar consumption 0 Food choices 0 Factors associated with tooth decay Health Effects of Starch and Fibers 0 Heart disease 0 Whole grains Sources whole wheat bread popcorn o Soluble fibers Sources fruits ad vegetables 0 Improving heart disease risk factors 0 Diet composition for reducing heart disease risk 3 key risk factors Smoking diet 0 Cancer 0 Dietary ber intake and colon cancer Fiber supplements 10 HNF 150 Carbohydrates Dr Golzynski Lecture Notes 0 Sources of dietary fiber phytochemicals o Preventing colon cancer diluting binding and removing bacterialfermentation 0 Weight management 0 Highfiber foods and whole grains Feeling of fullnes 0 GI health 0 Highfiber foods 0 Ample uids 0 Diabetes 0 High ber foods DIABETES MELLITUS is a chronic disease characterized by elevated blood glucose concentrations 0 Two Types TYPE 1 formerly known as Juvenile onset TYPE 2 formerly known as Adult onset Diabetes Diabetes Type 1 Juvenile Onset Type 2 Adult Onset Chlld s lmmune System attacks the cells of tne pancreas tnat Syntheslze lnsulln beta ce s Pancreas produces lnsulln arten large amounts but body cells are resls ant Pancreas may eventually stop produclng lnsulln Posslble causes cenetlcs vlral lnrectlons oxlrlS Otnerdlseases 39 V 39 Allergens 39 Dlsorderedlrnrnune a a A system lrlfarltfeedlrlg practlces I Posslhle Causes 3 enetlcs Bauyratnessanuornlnalrat Llrestyle factors Preventlun Malnlalnhealthybodywelghl Exerclse Followthe DletaryGuldellnesfarAmerlcans Treatment more Regularlnsulln lnlectlon matchlngfoodlnta e HNF 150 Carbohydrates Dr Golzynski Lecture Notes m m The Constancy of Blood Glucose O o Insulin o Glucagon amp epinephrine HNF 150 Carbohydrates Dr Golzynski Lecture Notes HYPOGLYCEMIA is a condition characterized by low blood glucose concentrations Postprandial hypoglycemia Symptoms weakness irritability anxiety trembling headaches Treatment Diet Adequate Moderate in foods may be helpful Low in Not too high in Fasting 9 Brain needs glucose Protein can be converted to glucose Fat cannot be converted to glucose Fat can be used for energy by other tissues muscle etc but needs glucose to be metabolized in normal way Liver glycogen stores depleted Muscle glycogen can t leave muscles so cant help out brain Fat cannot be converted to glucose Liver converts protein from muscle to fat for glucose Fasting 9 If fasting continues past 3 days or so 1 Body slowly startsto use FAT for energy through KETOSIS Fat is converted to ketone because no glucose Brain can use ketone for energy in place ofglucose 9 If fasting continues past 10 days or so 1 Body uses FAT for energy through KETOSIS almost exclusively 13
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'