Intro To Human Nutrition
Intro To Human Nutrition HNF 150
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HNF 150 Unit 1 Chapters 14 Key Terms amp Objectives Chapter 1 Food Choices 8 Human Health Basic Foods Foods that are generally considered form basis of a nutritious diet which include Milk products Meat Fish Poultry Vegetables Dried Beans amp Peas Fruits amp Grains Enriched Foods Foods which nutrients have been added If startling material is a whole basic food the result may be highly nutritious If more sugar or fat then less nutritious Functional Foods Foods that posses nutrients that lend protection against diseases Medical Foods Foods manufactured for people w medical disorders amp prescribed by a physician Natural Foods Implies wholesomeness Nutriceutical Refers to foods nutrients or dietary supplements that have medicinal effects Organic Foods Foods grown wo synthetic pesticides or fertilizers Carboncontaining Partitioned Foods Foods composed of parts of whole foods Generally over used amp provide few nutrients w many cals Processed Foods Foods subjected to milling alteration addition of additives cookie etc May or may not be nutritious Staple Foods Foods used frequentlydaily f well chosen these foods are nutritious Six Classes of Nutrients Fat Protein Carbohydrates Vitamins Water amp Minerals Italic Organic UnderlineForemost Essential Nutrients Foods that are not produced by the body Must be taken in by diet Nutrient Density Foods rich in nutrients relative to energy contents calories Five Characteristics of Optimal Diet Adequacy Variety Moderation Calorie Control amp Balance Nonnutrients Affects color amp taste of foods Have biological activity in the body Adequacy Diet that supplies all needed nutrition nutrients Moderation Understanding the intake of certain foods that should be limited for health reasons Balance Eating the correct amount of certain foods Not too much not too little amt of certain foods MyPyramid Servings Grains 6 oz Vegetables 25 cups Fruits 2 cups Milk 3 Cups amp Meats amp Beans 55 02 Scienti c Method Observe Form Hypothesis Test Hypothesis Publish in Peer Reviewed Journal Replicate finding Case Studies Studies of individuals Epidemiological Studies Studies of populations Cross Sectional Case Control Retrospective Cohort Prospective Intervention Studies Clinical Trial Researchers actively intervene in one group of the population experimental group and compare to a group that does not receive the intervention control group Laboratory Studies studies performed under tightly controlled situations Often involves animals 1 What are the FIVE components of an Optimal Diet a Adequacy Moderation Calorie Control Variety amp Balance 2 What are the 2005 Dietary Guidelines a Consume a variety of foods Control calorie intake Be physically active Increase fruits and vegetables whole grains and lowfat dairy Choose fat wisely Choose carbohydrates wisely Choose and prepare foods with less salt lfyou drink alcohol do so in moderation amp Keep food safe to eat Chapter 2 Nutrition Tools quot 39 39 8 quot quot Dietary Reference Intakes DRI Set of 4 lists of values for measuring nutrient intakes of healthy people in the USA amp Canada Include the EAR AI RDA amp UL Recommended Dietary Allowance RDA Nutrient intake goals for individuals Derived from the EAR Adequate Intakes AI Nutrient intake goals for individuals Recommended avg daily nutrient intake level based on healthy people Set when scientific data are insufficient to establish RDA Upper Intake Levels UL Highest avg daily nutrient intake level that pose no risk of toxicity to most healthy individuals Intakes above the UL could cause illness from toxicity Used for supplements Estimated Avg Requirements EAR Avg daily nutrient intake estimated to meet requirement of half of healthy individuals in particular life stage amp gender groups Facilitates research amp policy Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges AMDR Values for carbs fats amp proteins expressed as of total caloric intake Used to prevent Chronic Diseases Ingredient Labels Ordered by amt of weight used in product in DESCENDING ORDER MOST to least weight Label must have Total Fat Sat amp Trans Fat Cholesterol Sodium Total Carbs Sugar Fiber Protein Vit A amp C Calcium amp Iron Health Claim Statement concerning links between nutrients and diseases FDA Regulates Given a grade of AD E quotCalcium reduces risk of osteoporosisquot quotDietary Fat reduces risk of cancer Nutrient Claim Statement concerning products nutrient values E Low Calorie Extra Lean Fat Free Cholesterol Free Low Fat High Fiber Good Source of Light Low Sodium etc StructureFunction Claim Legal but largely unregulated claim permitted on labels of dietary supplements and conventional foods May or may have not been tested for safety quotThis statement has not been evaluated by the FDA Chapter 3 Body Basics Cardiovascular System Hormonal amp Nervous System FLIGHT or FIG HT stress response Nerves release neurotransmitters Glands release epinephrine and norepinephrine every organ of the body responds and metabolism speeds up Liver releases glucose from stores amp Fat cells release fat Heart races pupils of eyes widen muscles tense digestion shuts down breathing quickens blood pressure rises Digestive System Mechanical Peristaltic Wave amp Muscular Stomach amp Chemical Digestive Saliva starts in mouth Excretory Enzyme Great number of working proteins that speed up a specific chemical reaction Helps do the cell s work Requirement of Efficient Circulation Fluids Cardiovascular Fitness amp Good Nutrition Transit Times Mouth Less than a Minute Stomach 12 hours Small Intestine 78 hours amp Colon 1214 hours Excretory System Lung Liver amp Kidney Storage System Live Muscle amp Fat Cells Chapter 4 Carbohydrates Fibers 8 Diabetes Carbohydrates Consist of Carbon Oxygen amp Hydrogen Includes Simple Sugars Complex Carbs amp Glycogen Main source of Energy DRI recommends 130 grams per day Not high amounts in Meats Sugars Includes Monosaccharide s amp Disaccharides Corn Syrup World Health Org says consume less than 10 of daily calories with added sugars HNF150 Lecture Notes A Polysaccharides 3 1 starch unbranched 2 cellulose 3 glycogen III Fiber A What is the difference between Starch and Fiber The bond Fiber is only found in plants Star ch W Celiuiobe B 2 Types of Fiber 1 soluble gums mucilages pectins psylliu some hemicellulose sources are fruits legumes seeds vegetables oats oat bran rye 2 insoluble cellulose lignan some hemicellulose resistant starch sources are fruits legumes seeds vegetables brown rice wheat bran whole grains C How is ber digested it isn t by humans but a small amount by the bacteria in our GI tract D Health be ne is Differences between high ber Fiber Type Possible Health Effects and low ber diet Lowers blood cholesterol Slows glucose absorption Slows transit of food through upper Soluble GI Softens stools HNF150 Lecture Notes Soltens stools Regulates bowels Speeds transit through colon Reduces risk of diverticulosis hemorrhoids and appendicitis Insoluble E Diverticulosis condition caused by low fiber diets Ose the actual thing ase the enzyme that breaks it down II Carbohydrate Digestion Read and study pp111112 Mouth Stomach Small Intestine o Monosaccharldes me and products at mlbohydrale digestion enler me capillaries ol me Inleslinai vim In lhe llver galanose and lvudose ata convsnad lo glucose Small iniesrina Q Monosaccharides rrauel la G UW WWW O Ga ad lne liver walne pnnaiveln A Breakdown to Monosaccharides Liver decides the fate of the glucose 5 use for energy store as glycogen store as fat make nonessential amino acids dump into blood WPWNE W carbon atoms 0 Breakdown of Glucose for Energy bands glucose Scarhon compound l H 0H 0 3 crlrbnn compound v o 0 0 2calrben 2 dmxlda compound HNF150 Lecture Notes D Nutrient density of carbs E Fiber is within whole foods only DRI minimum is a min of 130 g carbohydrates 3x this is recommended V Lactose Intolerance A Overall 75 of the world s population is lactose intolerant B Solutions smaller amounts of milk aged cheese and active culture yogurt lactose free milk products OTC enzyme pills and drops fortified calcium products orange juice soy milk sardines or salmon with bones VI Recommendations A Total Carbohydrates 4565 of calories AMDR B Complex Carbohydrates 1 Dietary Guidelines Consume 3 or more ounce equivalents of whole grain products per day with the rest of the recommended grains coming from enriched or whole grain products At least half grains should be whole grains 2 Daily Values 300 grams of complex carbohydrates 60 of total calories 3 World Health Organization 5075 of total calories coming from complex carbs C Refined Sugars 1 Dietary Guidelines Little added sugars or sweeteners Water instead of sugary drinks HNF150 Lecture Notes Reduce incidence of dental caries by practicing good oral hygiene and consuming sugar and starch containing foods and beverages less frequently 2 DRIs Maximum of 25 of total calories from added sugars W World Health Organization 010 of total caloreis from re ned or added sugars D Dietary Fiber 1 Dietary Guidelines Fiber rich fruits vegetables and whole grains often 2 cups of fruit and 25 cups vegetables including legumes 9 servings variety of fruits and vegetables select from all 5 veg subgroups dark green orange legumes starchy vegetables and other several times a week 2 Daily Values 25 g of fiberday 3 World Health Organization 2740 g of berday VII Grains A Parts of a Grain Endosperm energy source B Milling of Grain C Refined vs Whole Grains Refined coarse parts are removed HNF150 Lecture Notes Enrichedfortified added nutrients to re ned foods enriched brought up to natural level forti ed above natural level Whole grain milled grain including bran endosperm and germ not husk D Bread E Examples of Whole Grains Common Lesser Known Brown rice Amaranth Oatmeal Buckwheat or kasha Pearl barley Kamut Popcorn Millet Whole wheat Whole rye Wild rice Whole grain corn or cornmeal HNF150 Lecture Notes IX Diabetes A What is Diabetes A chronic disease characterized by elevated blood glucose concentrations Two types Type one juvenile onset Type two adult onset not quite adult onset only anymore B Warning Signs of Diabetes Excessive urination Excessive thirst Weight loss with nausea easy tiring weakness or irritability Cravings for food especially sweets Frequent infections of the skin gums vagina or urinary tract Vision disturbances blurred vision Pain in legs feet or fingers Slow healing of cuts or bruises Itching Drowsiness Abnormally high blood glucose Leads to Heart disease Kidney disease Blindness Amputations Death Diabetes Trends Increasing Maintaining Blood Glucose Q When a person eels bland glucose rises Hign blood glumss slimulales lne panuuas lo release insulin insulin ellmulalee ma uptake el glucose into cells and lniaua as glycogen in me um um musdas mas llle cumerst M exoes gluon lmo ial Ior slmaue E 5 Musde s Q Aslne body39s cells use glucose lagged leveleeeeiine Low bland glucose siimulalee lne panelee lo releas qlncngon lnlu m blmmsam o Giucagnn sumuleles liver cells in break down glycogen and release glucuse mm lne blood The slrsss nonuone evmevhrine and ulhar ormones also bring glucose oul cl slorage 6 Blood glucose beglne in rise HNF150 Lecture Notes X Type 1 Diabetes Juvenile Onset child s immune system attacks the cells of the pancreas that synthesize insulin beta cells A Possible causes Genetics Viral infection Other diseases Toxins Allergens Disordered immune system Infant feeding practices B Treatment regular insulin injection matching food intake and physical activity XI Type II Diabetes A Possible causes o Genetics o Body fatness abdominal fat o Lifestyle factors B Prevention 4 follow dietary guidelines for Americans maintain healthy body weight exercise don t smoke C Treatment o physical activity o may need to take insulin o may need to take oral medication 0 diet 0 adequate nutrition 0 moderate 0 small frequent concentrated sugar meals 0 low in saturated fat 0 0 high ber not too high in protein D ObesityDiabetes Cycle get lazy when you gain weight XII Postprandial hypoglycemia low blood sugar after a meal very rare HNF150 Lecture Notes A Symptoms Fatigue Weakness Dizziness Irritability Rapid heart rate Anxiety Sweating Trembling Hunger Headaches Confusion B Treatment physical activity diet XIII Fasting Hypoglycemia low blood sugar due to disease fasting insulin overdose A Symptoms Headache Mental dullness Fatigue Confusion Amnesia Seizures Unconsciousness B Treatment sugar XIV Glycemic Index not on the exam A Definitions oGlycemic effect the extent to which a food raises the blood glucose concentration and elicits an insulin response o Glycemic index measure of the glycemic effect c Glycemic load glycemic index X grams of CHO eaten divided by 00 B Effects of High Glycemic IndexGlycemic Load Foods Hlarger rise in blood glucose large production of insulin followed by a drop in blood glucose below normal C Effects of Low Glycemic IndexGlycemic Load Foods Smaller rise in blood glucose smaller production of insulin followed by a smooth return to normal blood glucose levels Glycemic index limitations 1 May be affected by other components in a meal fiber fat protein caffeine Varies among individuals affected by body size weight blood volume and metabolic rate N W Time of day for individuals High ber complex carbohydrates recommended by the Dietary Guidelines are generally low glycemic foods fruits vegetables whole grains legumes nuts HNF150 Lecture Notes XV Fasting and Low Carb Diets A What happens when we fast The brain needs glucose protein can be converted to glucose fat cannot It can be used for energy by other tissues muscle etc but needs glucose to be metabolized in a normal way Liver glycogen stores depleted muscle glycogen cant leave muscles so cant help out brain fat cannot be converted to glucose Liver converts protein from muscles to glucose for brain If it continues past 3 days or so body slowly starts to use fat for energy through ketosis brain can use ketone bodies for energy in place of glucose If it continues past 10 days body uses fat for energy through ketosis almost exclusively saves muscle tissue B What happens on a low carb diet Liver glycogen stores depleted converts protein from diet to glucose for brain if calorie deprivation expending more energy than eating body will need to use fat stores for energy No glucose is available for normal fat metabolism fat will be converted to ketone bodies C Side Effects of Ketosis Bad breath Constipation or diarrhea Elevated uric acid gout Fatigue Foul taste in mouth Gastric pain Low blood pressure Nausea Dangerous for fetus XVI Sugar A Can sugar cause obesity Yes if sugar calories are extra Low glycemic index foods may enhance satiety B Can sugar cause type II diabetes Maybe if sugar calories are extra and lead to diabetes C Does sugar increase risk for heart disease Some evidence that sugars increase LDL bad cholesterol and triglycerides Some evidence that high GI foods increace LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and lower HDL good cholesterol D Does sugar cause behavior problems Probably not Chapter 5 Lipids No beneficial change in blood lipids occurs when monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat is added to and not substituted for a diet rich in saturated fat or trans fat The main dietary factors associated with elevated blood cholesterol are high saturated fat and trans fat intakes Verylowdensity lipoproteins VLDL transport triglycerides and other lipids from the liver to various tissues ofthe body Olestra is generally safe but when consumed in large quantities it can cause digestive distress and nutrient and phytochemical losses Lecithin is a phospholipid manufactured by the liver and also found in many foods Fish oil supplements are made from fish skins and livers which may have accumulated toxic concentrations of contaminants The vegetable oil olive oil is the richest source of monounsaturated fat Most people in this country take in mostly omega6 fatty acids from vegetable oils such as margarine frying oils and salad dressings The degree of saturation of the fatty acids in a fat affects the temperature at which the fat melts The more saturated the fatty acids the firmer the fat A point of unsaturation is a site in a molecule where the bonding is such that additional hydrogen atoms can easily attach Like the animal fats the tropical oils palm and coconut oil are highly saturated While sterols specifically cholesterol play a role in making bile an emulsifier they do not serve as an emulsifier LDL known as the quotbadquot cholesterol transport lipids from the liver to other tissues such as muscle and fat Fats are converted to other compounds such as hormones bile and vitamin D as needed Essential fatty acids are known to promote normal growth and vision Olestra formerly called sucrose polyester is a noncaloric artificial fat made from sucrose and fatty acids used for frying and cooking snacks and crackers When olive oil replaces saturated fats in the diet it many help protect against heart disease by reducing blood clotting factors Mediterranean diets are low in saturated fats due to low butter egg and red meat consumption Red meats located at the tip ofthe Mediterranean Diet Pyramid may be consumed a few times per month or somewhat more often in very small amounts The major sources of saturated fat in the US diet are fatty meats wholemilk products coconut and palm oils and products made from any of these foods Chapter 6 Proteins Growth or altered metabolism makes these ill patientsy vulnerable to harm caused by selfprescribed amino acid supplements Amino acids are wasted when the body lacks energy from other sources Vitamin B12 is found naturally only in animalderived foods such as meats milk and eggs foods that vegans do not consume For a reliable supply vegans would use vitamin B12fortified foods Vegetarian diets rich in whole grains legumes nuts fruits and vegetables provide less saturated fat Overconsumption of proteins offers no benefits and may pose health risks for the heart for weakened kidneys and for bones Strands of protein do not remain a straight chain Amino acids at different places along the strand are chemically attracted to each other and this attraction causes some segments to coil Also as spots along the coiled strands are attracted to or repelled from each other these interactions could cause the entire coils to fold forming globular structures In general amino acids from animal proteins are most easily digested and absorbed at over 90 percent followed by legumes at about 80 to 90 percent and then those from grains and other plant foods vary from 70 to 90 percent The only animal proteins consumed by lactovegetarians are dairy products Protein synthesis is determined by the DNA located in the cell nucleus Cells are specialized in synthesizing particular types of proteins Freezing does not denature proteins Enzymes on the surface ofthe small intestinal cells split dipeptides and tripeptides into single amino acids and absorb them Glucose is the body39s preferred source for energy protein helps to maintain a steady blood glucose level and serve the glucose need ofthe brain only underthe conditions of inadequate energy or carbohydrate Within a single day of restricted intakes of an essential amino acid the cells begin to conserve it by limiting the breakdown oftheir working proteins and by reducing the use of amino acids forfuel Because partial vegetarians consume dairy products eggs cheese and some types of flesh regularly consuming the essential amino acids presents no problem In kwashiorkor fluid leaks out ofthe blood and accumulates in the belly and legs causing edema and the victim39s belly often bulges out with a fatty liver caused by lack ofthe protein carriers that transport fat out ofthe liver Chapter 7 Vitamins Watersoluble vitamins are readily excreted in the urine while fatsoluble vitamins are not readily excreted because they tend to build up in the tissues Vitamin B12 is a watersoluble vitamin and is not affected by a diet low in fat By consuming enough folate during pregnancy a woman can reduce her child39s risk of having the devastating birth defects known as neural tube defects Vitamins E C and betacarotene are antioxidant vitamins compounds typically found in plant foods that significantly decrease the adverse effects of oxidation of living tissues Since vitamin C enhances iron absorption supplementation ofvitamin C may make iron overload likely in some people People with kidney or liver disease should never take supplements without a physician39s approval because they are susceptible to toxicities Beriberi was first observed in East Asia where the staple food rice was being polished removing its brown coat containing thiamin Vitamin D is the bestknown member of a large cast of nutrients and hormones that interact to regulate blood calcium and phosphorus levels and thereby maintain bone integrity Most of the symptoms of rickets can be attributed to the failure of bones to properly mineralize in the absence of vitamin D Vitamin B12 is present only in foods of animal origin Steak Cottage Cheese Tuna etc Vitamin B6 aids in the conversion of tryptophan to niacin Niacin deficiency is known as pellagra Not only do dietary supplements not require government approval before entering the market they are not tested by the FDA to ensure their safety and effectiveness before they are allowed on the market Not considered toxic yellowing of the skin is a harmless affect of excessive betacarotene consumption The main function ofvitamin K is to help synthesize proteins that help clot the blood Research in human beings has discredited claims that vitamin E improves athletic endurance and skill enhances sexual performance or cures sexual dysfunction in males The definitive fastfood meal a hamburger fries and cola lacks vitamin A Groups of people with high fruit and vegetable intakes which are not substituted with supplements often have low rates of cancer Niacin is the alternate name for B3 Niacin a B vitamin is not required for absorption ofvitamin B12 Rather intrinsic factor a compound made by the stomach Final Exam Study Guide 2010 This guide does not cover material since exam 3 Use this guide in addition to the weekly objectives covering concepts within the last 3 weeks of the semester 1 N P Compare and contrast different types of research studies Case epidemiological intervention laboratory Describe the parts of a research article Abstract introduction review of literature methodology results conclusions references State what types of media and resources are credible Professional health organizations NCND SNE AND AMA gov39t health agencies FDA USDA volunteer health agencies American Heart or Diabetes Assoc reputable consumer groups BBB ACSH Describe and apply the nutrition standards and recommendations who develops them who are they designed for a DRI Composed of the EAR RDA AI and UL lists of values for measuring the nutrient intakes vitamins minerals carbs fiber lipids protein water and energy of healthy people in the US and Canada developed and published by a committee of nutrition experts Pquot RDA the average daily nutrient intake level that meets the needs of 97 98 of healthy people in a particular life stage or gender group derived from the EAR Equot EAR the average daily nutrient intake estimated to meet the requirement of half of the healthy individuals in a particular life stage or gender group 0 AI the recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on intakes of healthy people in a particular stage of life or gender group and assumed to be adequate set whenever scientific data are insufficient to allow establishment of an RDA value 0 UL the highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of toxicity to almost all healthy individuals of a particular life stage and gender group n Daily Values reflect the needs of an average person someone who eats 2000 2500 calories a day ideal for allowing comparisons among food AMDR values for carbs fat and protein expressed as percentages of total daily caloric intake LD 5 Define apply compare and contrast these terms a Energy the capacity to do work measured in calories energy output basal metabolism physical activity thermic effect of food EER the DRI recc for energy intake accounting for age gender weight height and physical activity b Satiety the feeling of fullness or satisfaction that people experience after meals c Hunger the physiological need to eat influenced by empty stomach gastric contractions absence of nutrients in the small intestine digestive tract hormones ghrelin and endorphins d Appetite the physiological desire to eat a learned motivation and a positive sensation that accompanies the sight smell or thought of appealing foods e Antioxidants compounds that protect other compounds from damaging reactions involving oxygen by themselves reacting with oxygen 9 Describe food categories within My Pyramid and which food categories are lacking in amount and variety within the US population Grains vegetables fruits oils milk and meat amp beans Fruits vegetables and dairy are lacking for Americans N List nutritional concerns for vegetarian eaters Lack of iron zinc calcium vitamin B12 and vitamin D 9 List nutritional concerns for meat eaters Lack of vitamin A vitamin C folate and fiber 9 Describe how alcohol works in the body and its effects Alcohol molecules can diffuse right through the stomach walls and read the brain within a minute too much ethanol in the body can be toxic alcohol depresses the brain39s production of antidiuretic hormone water loss loss of minerals food slows the diffusion of alcohol and holds it in the stomach longer slowing its entry into the small intestine alcohol impairs functioning of the frontal lobe speech and vision centers and areas responsible for muscle control liver metabolizes alcohol with alcohol dehydrogenase and enzymes called MEOS exposure to alcohol speeds up the liver39s synthesis of fatty acids and breakdown of alcohol releases harmful chemicals that increase oxidative stress 10 Describe lactose intolerance what foods should be avoided and why Impaired ability to digest lactose due to reduced amounts of the the enzyme lactase Lactase which is made by the small intestine splits the dissacharide lactose into its component monosaccarides glucose and galactose which are then absorbed People with LI can experience nausea pain diarrhea and excessive gas on eating products with lactose 11 Describe the digestion absorption and sources of macronutrients CHO39s Carbohydrates start breaking down in the mouth The enzyme salivary amylase starts breaking up the starches reducing it into smaller glucose molecules where in the stomach it continues to be broken down further Upon entering the small intestine the pancreas releases the enzyme pancreatic amylase to help complete the hydrolysis of starch into smaller chains of glucose molecules monosaccharides which is 1 molecule of sugar The monosaccharides are absorbed into the small intestine and delivered to the liver by way of the hepatic portal vein After the liver processes the nutrients the nutrients enter into the blood stream circulating throughout the body Fats In the stomach fats are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids The digestion of fats starts in the stomach when mixed with the enzyme lipase The major part of the breakdown takes place in the small intestine In the duodenum the enzyme pancreatic lipase furthers the process by breaking the fats down from triglycerides to monoglycerides which is 1 fatty acid instead of 3 fatty acids connected to a glycerol molecule Bile is produce in the liver and secreted by the gall bladder which increases the lipids solubility breaking it down into droplets making it easier for the small intestine to absorb When foods with high lipid content enter the stomach the hormone gastric inhibitory peptide is released slowing down movement flow out of the stomach Proteins Proteins are split into linked amino acids called peptides and then into individual amino acids In the stomach the enzyme pepsin starts the breakdown of proteins into smaller units called polypeptides and peptides In the duodenum of the small intestine the pancreatic enzymes trypsin and chymotyrpsin also split proteins into polypeptides and peptides In the jejunum of the small intestine an enzyme created by the small intestine called peptidase splits the large peptides into smaller peptides and than into amino acids All of these smaller protein fragments go directly to the liver by the hepatic portal vein Once in the liver one of three things happens to the proteins 1 It converts to glucose 2 It converts to fat or 3 It is directly released into the blood as amino acids 12 Describe compare and contrast the characteristics benefits and food sources of fiber Soluble dissolve in water form gels and easily digested by bacteria found in barley legumes fruits oats and vegetables associated with lower risks of chronic diseases Insoluble do not dissolve in water do not form gels and are less readily fermented ex cellulose found in the outer layers of whole grains bran strings of celery hulls of seeds and skins of corn kernels Soluble lower blood cholesterol by binding bile slow glucose absorption slow transit of food through upper GI tract lending satiety hold moisture in stool softening them yields small fatlike molecules after fermentation that the colon can use for energy lowers the risk of heart disease and diabetes Insoluble increase fecal weight and speed fecal passage through colon provide bulk and feeling of fullness alleviate constipation lower risks of diverticulosis hemorrhoids and appendicitis and may help with weight management 13 Discuss the implications of using a low carbohydrate diet Brings about responses that are similar to fasting as CHO runs out the body breaks down fat and protein for energy and forms ketone bodies to feed the brain 14 Compare and contrast water dehydration and water intoxication including symptoms and risks Water dehydration loss of water the symptoms progress rapidly from thirst to weakness to exhaustion and delirium and end in death Water intoxication a dangerous dilution of the body39s fluids resulting from excessive ingestion of plain water Symptoms are headache muscular weakness lack of concentration poor memory and loss of appetite 15 Describe the functions of protein in the body Support growth and maintenance Build enzymes hormones and other compounds Build antibodies Maintain fluid and electrolyte balance Maintain acid base balance Blood clotting Provide energy and glucose Nitrogen disposal 16 Define essential amino acids and what happens if they are not available Amino acids that cannot be synthesized at all by the body or cannot be synthesized in amounts sufficient to meet physiological need Without these AA39s the body cannot make the proteins it needs to do its work 17 Describe the factors of nitrogen balance Positive growing child muscle builder pregnant woman Equilibrium healthy college student young retiree Negative astronaut surgery patient 18 Discuss and give examples of complementary protein meals Two or more proteins whose amino acid assortments complement eachother in such a way that the essential amino acids missing from one are supplied by the other ie rice and beans pasta and vegetables with cheese 19 Describe the functions of fats within our body Fats in the body Fats in food Stored energy Provide essential fatty acids Muscle fuel Provide a concentrated energy source Emergency fuel supply in times of illness and Carry fat soluble vitamins A D E and K diminished food intake along with some phytochemicals and assist in their absorption Protect internal organs from shock through fat pads inside the body cavity Help make food tender Insulate against temperature extremes through a fat layer under the skin Contribute to taste and smell Form major material of cell membranes Stimulate the appetite Converted to other compounds such as hormones bile and vitamin D Contribute to feelings of fullness 20 Define state characteristics and food sources of these terms a Saturated fats triglycerides in which most of the fatty acids are saturated usually more solid at room temp b Polyunsaturated fats triglycerides in which most of the fatty acids have two or more points of unsaturation ie vegetable and fish oils c Monounsaturated fat triglycerides in which most of the fatty acids have on point of unsaturation ie olive oil 0 Essential fatty acids fatty acids that the body needs but cannot make in amounts sufficient to meet physiological needs 21 Discuss the health benefits and risks of fats within our diet Essential fatty acids and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids are crucial to body functions Too much fat can lead to obesity and heart disease as well as other conditions Some fat is necessary for the functions in the above chart 22 List controllable risk factors for chronic disease Diet high in fat saturated fat andor trans fat Excessive alcohol intake Low complex carbfiber intake Low vitaminmineral intake High sugar intake N N U39l High intake of salty or pickled foods Sedentary lifestyle Smoking and tobacco use Stress Discuss how nutrition impairs immunity Don39t get the proper nutrients May be putting yourself at risk for disease if you have a high fatsaltsugar diet Discuss the disease of osteoporosis who is at risk and why what nutritional factors are important within this disease Osteoporosis reduction of bone mass of older persons in which the bones become porous and fragile Risk factors advanced age alcoholism steroid use female gender rheumatoid arthritis surgical removal of ovaries or testes thinness or weight loss white race Nutritional factors Low calcium diet and vitamin D deficiency may put someone at risk Describe the DASH diet nutrients and foods that are increased and decreased compared to the average US diet and state what conditions it helps to prevent Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension achieves lower blood pressure than restriction of sodium intake alone Increased intakes of fruits and vegetables with adequate amounts of nuts fish whole grains and low fat dairy products 26 List and compare and contrast characteristics of fat soluble and water soluble vitamins Fat Soluble A D E K Water Soluble B vitamins vitamin C Absorption Absorbed like fats first into the lymph then the blood Absorbed directly into the blood Transport and Storage Must travel with protein carriers in watery body cluids stored in the liver or fatty tissues Travel freely in watery fluids most are not stored in the body Excretion Not readily excreted tend to Readily excreted in the urine build up in the tissues Toxicity Toxicities are likely from Toxicities unlikely but supplements but occur possible with high doses from rarely from food supplements Requirements Needed in periodic doses Needed in frequent doses perhaps weeks or even perhaps 1 3 days because months because the body the body does not store most can draw on its stores of them to any extent 27 Indicate the main source of toxicity of vitamins and minerals Supplements 28 State the general functions of B vitamins Support and increase the rate of metabolism Maintain healthy skin and muscle tone Enhance immune and nervous system function Promote cell growth and division including that of the red blood cells that help prevent anemia Reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer 29 Describe the functions and food sources of the following vitamins and minerals a Vitamin C collagen synthesis antioxidant restores vitamin E to active form supports immune system boosts iron absorption red and green peppers brussel sprouts grapefruits sweet potatoes orange juice broccoli strawberries bok choy b Vitamin E antioxidant protects cell membranes regulates oxidation reactions protects polyunsaturated fatty acids safflower oil wheat germ mayonnaise canola oil sunflower seeds c Vitamin B12 part of coenzymes needed in new cell synthesis helps maintain nerve cells chicken liver sirloin steak cottage cheese lean pork roast sardines tuna fish swiss cheese d Vitamin A vision maintenance of cornea epithelial cells mucous membranes skin bone and tooth growth regulation of gene expression reproduction immunity fortified milk carrots sweet potato spinach beef liver bok choy apricots e Folate part of a coenzyme needed for new cell synthesis beef liver pinto beans asparagus avocado lentils spinach enriched cereal beets Exam 2 Review LI p I ds 39 Describe the process of digestion and absorption of triglycerides and small and large chain fatty acids 39 State the Dietary Guidelines for total fat trans and saturated fat 39 Compare and contrast the physical properties of saturated polyunsaturated rnonounsaturated and trans fatty acids fats Lipid Food Sources 0 Identify common food sources of cholesterol saturated monounsaturated polyunsaturated trans and omega 3 fatty acids 0 Which three common nuts seeds are high in Vitamin E Which 2 nuts are high in Omega 3 fatty acids Cardiovascular Disease 39 Describe the relationships between the following and risk of CVD saturated fatty acids trans fatty acids poly and monounsaturated fatty acids dietary cholesterol sugar fish oil omega 3 fatty acids fruits and vegetables soluble fiber alcohol healthy weight physical activity smoking Lipid Terms To Know 0 fatty acid saturation 0 hydrogenation partial hydrogenation 0 trans fatty acid 0 Cholesterol 0 bile 0 gallbladder 0 emulsification 0 lipoprotein Lipid Terms To Know Continued LDL HDL 0 Linolenic acid 39 CVD 0 Atherosclerosis 0 Hypertension Water 39 Describe the major roles of water 0 Identify the causes signs and symptoms of dehydration 39 Recognize the sources of water input and output 0 Recognize the differences between soft and hard water Water Terms To Know 39 Dehydration 0 Electrolytes Minerals To Know 0 Identify the main functions of each mineral in the body deficiency diseases and or symptoms of each mineral best ways to obtain each mineral from food main food sources 0 Iodine 0 Zinc 0 Fluoride 0 Calcium 0 Magnesium 0 Iron 0 Potassium 0 Sodium Minerals and the Body 39 Recognize the roles of minerals in maintaining uid electrolyte and acid base balance 0 Identify how one can prevent osteoporosis 0 Recognize factorsfoods that enhance or impair iron absorption Sodium and The DASH Diet 0 Identify the major food sources of sodium in American diet and the Dietary Guidelines for sodium 0 Recognize the components of the DASH diet What it means and its health benefits Mineral Terms To Know 0 Fluid and electrolyte balance 0 Acid base balance 39 Osteoporosis 0 Bone density 0 Peak bone mass 0 Hypertension Food Safety 0 Chapter 12