Adv Hum Nutr Vitamins & Min
Adv Hum Nutr Vitamins & Min HNF 462
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This 40 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jace Gleason on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HNF 462 at Michigan State University taught by David Duriancik in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/207276/hnf-462-michigan-state-university in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Vitamin Digestion amp Absorption Text Pages Vitamin C 312 314 Vitamin Bl 323 324 Vitamin BZ 330 331 Vitamin BB 334 335 Pantothenic Acid 339340 Biotin 343 344 Folate 349 351 Vitamin 312 359360 Vitamin BG 364365 Objectives First exam is based on pure memorization Compare amp Contrast dietary forms and functional forms of vitamins 2 List the food sources of vitamins 3 Describe the digestion amp absorption of vitamins List inhibitors amp enhancers of vitamin absorption Discuss fortifiedenrichedwhole grains Vitamin C antioxidant Ascorbic acid 69 Dehydroascrobic acid Humans can not synthesize unlike other mammals Lack gulonolactone oxidase enzyme Sources FV mainly citrus fruits Supplements as free ascorbic acid calcium ascorbate sodium ascorbate ascorbyl palmitate Palmitate is a fatty acid Why are these used as supplements CHon ZHon I HOEH O HOCIH O HOCH O H 0 H 0 7 5e lt7 6 f7 Hcc Hcc Hcac I I 0 9 H i HO OH HO Ounpaired O O electron r acid radical add Ascorbic acid 2H r Ze39 Dehydroascorbate reductase 6856 2 S oxidized glutathione reduced glutathione Ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acid are found in ur body Vitamin C No digestion required cuz Vitamin C in food is in free unbound form Ascorbic Acid Intestinal absorption 2 different Na dependent cotransporters SVCTl and SVCTZ Sodium dependent Vitamin C transporter Some diffusion at intakes absorption through diffusion Peripheral absorption Same as intestine Dehydroascorbic Acid Absorption Facilitated diffusion competition via GLUT13 Diffusion into pld lhgmm C Bloavalla ra nges Absorption and utilization of something in ur body If you do not utilize it ur body takes it out in form of poop 16 98 normal intakes 70 95 Inhibitors FeGlucose Enhancers None Vitamin C looks like Glucose so if you have enough glucose ur body will not absorb Vitamin C Vitamin Bl Thiamin 69 TMP 69 TDPTPP Sources Pork and other meats legumes whole fortified enriched grains Supplements thiamin hydrochloride thiamin mononitrate salt Plants primarily as unphosphorylated Animals primarily as TDPTPP Functional form in our body id TPP Vitamin Bl Phosphatase digestion REMOVAL OF PHOSPHATE GROUP Absorption Free thiamin High intakes passive diffusion Low intakes active Nadependent transport ThTrl amp ThTr2 Thiamine transporter 1amp2 ThiaminHantitransporter to plasma Thiamine in H out Cellular absorption Passive diffusion amp active transport tissue dep Once absorbed in body it circulates asFree thiamin or monophosphate thiamin Vitamin Bl Liver phosphorylates free thiamin to TDPTPP Bioavailability Normally high Inhibitors Thiaminases ases is enzymes in raw fish tannic amp caffeic acids esp when present w divalent minerals Ethanol Divalent cations Iron Magnesium Enhancers None Vitamin BZ Riboflavin 69 FMN 69 FAD Flavoproteins Riboflavin is bright yellow and it is very sensitive to light and that s the reason milk containers are not c through Sources Animal products dairy Free protein bound phosphorylated FMN or FAD Supplements Digestion Protein carriers HCI and peptidases Histidine and cysteine is inefficiently utilized you will absorb it but u cant utilize it FAD to FMN via FAD pyrophosphatase FMN to riboflavin via FMN phosphatase Phosphatases o4 humam m Haw ue www Am k M l 391 Aurcnimimimfuriia 39 L7 mm mmuusummm mamm Aw ummxmm Mgvmmm A w V1 3 YN N CH ohmicuim a quotquotquot mu Mmmwmimi mm Kanyum rmequ Ewlhumng Vitamin 32 Intestinal Absorption Active transport NaINDependent carriers Passive diffusion at high intakes 0 Cellular Absorption including enterocyteliver Always free riboflavin via riboflavin binding protein win cells converted to FMN or FAD Vitamin 32 Bioavailability 95 bioavailbility Plasma correlate with intakes of 1520mg Inhibitors Divalent metals ethanol Enhancers Animal sources Vitamin BB Niacin 69 NAD 9NADP Nicotinic acid and NicotinamideNiacinamide Physiological forms in human are NADNADP Sources Fish meat enrichedfortifiedwhole grains coffeetea Supplements as nicotinamide De novo synthesis from tryptophan in liver 3 of metabolized tryptophan is converted to niacin Discussion of maize corn Corn has low niacin and tryptophan The niacin it does have is biounavailable Tryptophan to niacin is very inefficient What is Vitamin something that our body cannot make and needs it from outside N the IeaCtIve siLa v uh 2 Reacxive Elettrons attaches site to produce NADH Nicminamide n O P O CHZ OH nicotinic acid Ribase Adenosi ne El H fol NAD nicotinamide adenine dinudectide KI P0310 NADP nicotinamide adeninedinucleotide phosphate mummy Cnvlgngu Loammg Vitamin BB 0 Digestion Complex carbohydrate conjugated Small peptide conjugated NADNADP Glycohydrolase9 Nicotinamide Phosphatases Intestinal absorption Na dependent facilitated diffusion at low Passive diffusion at high Vitamin BB Cellular absorption Most will absorb it bySimple diffusion But Kidney tubule amp RBCs require a carrier Bioavailability Nicotinamide is 1 precursor for NADNADP Hormones influence synthesis of NADNADP NADNADP is trapped in the cell Poor bioavailability esp from corn Bound to carbohydrates or peptides Pa ntothenate Pantothenate 69 Pantetheine 9CoA CoA is the functional group in our body Vitamin BS Sources Wide distribution in foods pantos everywhere Supplements as calcium pantothenate ate or ic acid or Panthenol Digestion Most food sources are CoA Phosphatases and pyrophosphatases Phosphopantetheine aWzdswunheugdyuezrmug in 1 g E active site via formation ofa thin ester 5 CO R Bmercaptoekhylamine Galan ine Pantolhen ic acid Dpa nmic acid NH1 4 H 539 o N NJH 0 707C znnn I 3 MI n O G W WW Adenosme 325 7bisphusphate Coenzyma A Pa ntothenate Intestinal Absorption High concentrations passive diffusion Low concentrations Na dep active transport SMVT Sodium dependent multi Vitamin Transporter Shared with biotin and lipoic acid Cellular Absorption Varies depending on tissue Nadep active transport Facilitated diffusion Bioavailability quot 50 Biotin Vitamin Hvitamin B7 Sources Wide distribution in foods Liver soybeans egg yolk grains Bound to lysine biocytin or other proteins Colonic bacteria Digestion Release from proteinsamino acids Biotinidase breaks the bond to free biotin from biocytin 0 HC C H 0 COOH II H2C CH7CH27CH27CH2 CH27C7NHCHZiCH27CH27CH27CH NH Biotin 2 Lysine Biocytin biotinyllysine nWadswmxhCengzgulunmg Biotin Intestinal Absorption Some biocytin can be absorbed through AA transp Hydrolyzed by biotinidase in other tissuesplasma Passive diffusion at high concentrations Na dep carrier mediated SMVT Release from enterocyte carrier mediate Na INdep Cellular Absorption SMVT MCTl SLC19A3 Biotin Bioavailability Dietary 100 Colonic synthesis poor absorption Inhibitors Avidin raw egg whites Ethanol Enhancers None 0 Biotinidase deficiency in humans Biotinidase can be biotinylated at alkaline pH Folate Folate 9Various glutamate residues Methylated and hydrogenated forms Sources Folate foliage Mushrooms green vegetables legumes liver Raw gt cooked Fortified grains 1998 prevention of NTDs Supplements pteroylmonoglutamate Most stable form H N 1 8 C OH Z i 2 e w O I N4 5 CHZ II N C I N CI H OH I I CIH2 l I I CH2 I I IO I I C I I OH I I l Pteridine l PABA I Glutamic acid I I 2 NH2 4 OH6 CH3 pterin I para aminobenzoic I acid I Pteroic acid I Folate pteroylmonoglutamic acid or pteronglutamate Folate Digestion Only monoglutamate forms are absorbed Zn dependent enzyme Intestinal Absorption Folate binding proteins aka folate receptors Multiple receptors Passive diffusion at high intakes Carrierdependent secretion into serum as 5methyl THF Cellular Absorption Folate receptors amp diffusion Addition of glutamate traps folate in cells Folate Bioavailability Supplementfortified food gt85 gt food Variable Inhibitors Ethanol enzyme inhibitors in legumes Zn deficiency Enhancers folate binding protein in milk Vitamin 312 Cobalamin Adenosylcobalamin amp methylcobalamin active Humans can convert other forms into the active form Sources Animal products ONLY Microorganism derived Concern for vegetarians Supplements as Cyanohydroxocobalamin Digestion Protein carrier digestion Subsequently complex See figure 933 223 5193 52539 fun fzoufufu N 5 N mIU fu qu zou Pyloric sphincter Small intestine Intestinal cell in Heum lleal BIZ IF receptor awndmlh mm um Vitamin 312 Intestinal absorption Receptor mediated endocytosis Cellular absorption Receptor mediated endocytosis Vitamin 312 Bioavailability 11 65 Pancreatic insufficiency ZollingerEllison Syndrome increased pH Age GI problems Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine 69Pyridoxal 9Pyridoxamine Phosphorylated Pyridoxalphosphate PLP is functional form Sources Plants as pyridoxine PN PNP and PNglucoside Animal meats as Pyridoxal amp pyridoxamine PLP amp PMP Meats wholefortifiedenriched grains Supplements as pyridoxine hydrochloride Digestion Alkaline phosphatases Zndep o CHZOH H C HOHZC I OH HOHZC 0H Kl CH3 K H H Pyridoxine PN Pyridoxal PL alcohol form aldehyde form 0 H o CHIOH O c ll ll 07T07H2C OH Ol 770HZC 0H of IQ CH3 07 K CH3 H H v mmmmwg mm OH CH N 3 H Pyridoxamine PM amine form NH2 0 C39Hz 0 7 LL 0 i HZC OH 0L R I CH3 Pyridoxamine phosphate PMP Vitamin B6 Intestinal absorption Passive diffusion Some absorption of PhosphorylatedGlucoside forms at high s Cellular absorption Passive diffusion into and out of the cell Phosphorylation traps B6 inside the cell Protein binding prevents phosphatase action Vitamin B6 Bioavailability Absorption from US diet ranges 61 92 Food matrix amp processing influences High loses in heatingsterilizingcanningmilling Dep on riboflavin status amp binding proteins Why did we ever start Refining Processing for flour 0 Appearance amp Taste Shelf life Fats are contained in germ and bran Grains Whole vs Refined Brush Ennuspevm Ex xdosperm Endosperm ran Germ sarm Whole grain quotWhnequot gram I Evin i Emmy 7 I 5g 52 mm a httgdrlagakoscom9182 051911 Effects of Refining and Enrichment on Wheat Wheat Whole Refined Enriched Fiber 107g Thiamin B1 0502mg Riboflavin B2 0165mg Niacin B3 4957mg Pantothenic Acid BS 0603mg Pyridoxine B6 0407mg Folate B9 44ug Calcium 34mg Iron 36mg Magnesium 137mg Phosphorus 357mg Potassium 363mg Zinc 26mg Values are per 1009 httpwwwnausdagovfnicfoodcompsearchz Search for quotWheat Flourquot Compare quotWhite allpurpose unenriched with quotWhite allpurpose enriched bleached AND quotWhole grain 051911